A gastrostomy is generally performed in patients who are unable to maintain volitional intake of food. We compared outcomes of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) and interventional radiologist–guided gastrostomy (IRG) using an integrated nationwide database.
Using the VA Informatics and Computing Infrastructure database, patients who underwent PEG or IRG from 2011 through 2021 were selected using Current Procedural Terminology and International Classification of Diseases codes. The primary outcome was the comparative incidence of adverse events between PEG and IRG. Secondary outcomes included all-cause mortality. Comorbidities were identified using International Classification of Diseases codes, and adjusted odds ratio (OR) for adverse events were calculated using multivariate logistic regression analysis.
A total of 23,566 (70.7 ± 10.2 years) patients underwent PEG and 9,715 (69.6 ± 9.7 years) underwent IRG. Selected frequent indications for PEG vs IRG were as follows: stroke, 6.8% vs 5.3%, P < 0.01; aspiration pneumonia, 10.9% vs 6.8%, P < 0.001; feeding difficulties, 9.8% vs 6.3%, P < 0.01; and upper aerodigestive tract malignancies 58.8% vs 79.8%, P < 0.01. Across all subtypes of malignancies of the head and neck and foregut, the proportion of patients undergoing IRG was greater than those undergoing PEG (P < 0.001). The all-cause 30-day mortality and overall incidence of adverse events were significantly lower for PEG compared with those for IRG (PEG vs IRG): all-cause 30-day mortality, 9.35% vs 10.3% (OR 0.80; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74–0.87; P < 0.01); perforation of the colon, 0.12% vs 0.24% (OR 0.50; 95% CI 0.29–0.86; P = 0.04); peritonitis, 1.9% vs 2.7% (OR 0.68; 95% CI 0.58–0.79; P < 0.01); and hemorrhage 1.6% vs 1% (OR 1.47; 95% CI 1.18–1.83; P < 0.01).
In a large nationwide database of more than 33,000 gastrostomy procedures, PEG was associated with a lower incidence of adverse outcomes and the 30-day mortality than IRG.