Psychological comorbidities are associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), but little is known about their cumulative effect on its prognosis. We examined this issue in a longitudinal 12-month follow-up study.
We collected complete demographic, symptom, and psychological comorbidity data (anxiety, depression, somatic symptom disorder, perceived stress, and gastrointestinal symptom-specific anxiety) at baseline from 807 adults who met Rome IV criteria for IBS. At 12 months, we collected data regarding IBS symptom severity and impact, consultation behavior, and treatments commenced from 452 individuals successfully followed up. We examined the cumulative effects of psychological comorbidities at baseline on subsequent IBS disease behavior.
At baseline, among the 807 participants, 177 (21.9%) had 1, 139 (17.2%) 2, 103 (12.8%) 3, 89 (11.0%) 4, and 54 (6.7%) 5 psychological comorbidities. IBS symptom severity at baseline increased significantly with the number of psychological comorbidities (72.2% of those with 5 psychological comorbidities reported severe symptoms, vs 29.1% of those with none, P < 0.001). Among 452 (56.0%) participants followed up at 12 months, those with a higher number of psychological comorbidities at baseline were significantly more likely to have seen a gastroenterologist (33.3% of those with 5 psychological comorbidities, vs 21.4% of those with none, P = 0.001), cycle through more treatments (P < 0.0001), to report more severe IBS symptoms (66.7% with 5, vs 24.4% with none, P < 0.001) and continuous abdominal pain (22.1% with none, vs 61.9% with 5, P < 0.001), and to report that symptoms impacted on daily activities ≥50% of the time (90.5% with 5, vs 41.2% with none, P < 0.001).
The prognosis of individuals with Rome IV–defined IBS worsens according to incremental increases in psychological comorbidity. This has important clinical and research implications.