EDITORIALDo Sex Hormones Underlie Sex Differences in Cancer Incidence? Testing the Intuitive in Esophageal AdenocarcinomaPetrick, Jessica L. PhD, MPH1; Cook, Michael B. PhD2Author Information 1Slone Epidemiology Center, Boston University, Boston, Massachusetts, USA; 2Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics, National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, Maryland, USA. Correspondence: Michael B. Cook, PhD. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received November 14, 2019 Accepted December 05, 2019 Online date: January 8, 2020 The American Journal of Gastroenterology: February 2020 - Volume 115 - Issue 2 - p 211-213 doi: 10.14309/ajg.0000000000000511 Buy Metrics Abstract Esophageal adenocarcinoma (EA) incidence is 4–8 times higher in men compared with women, yet this imbalance cannot be explained by known risk factors. This issue of The American Journal of Gastroenterology features results from only the second prospective study to assess whether prediagnostic sex steroid hormones underlie sex differences in EA. Xie et al. report that higher concentrations of testosterone and luteinizing hormone were associated with decreased EA risk. While contrary to the long-standing hypothesis that testosterone increases EA risk, these important results lay a foundation for additional studies to further elucidate this intuitive, intriguing, and evolving hypothesis. © The American College of Gastroenterology 2020. All Rights Reserved.