Loey Dietz syndrome (LDS) is an autosomal dominant disorder caused by a mutation in TGFBR1- or TGFBR2. LDS is characterized by distinctive facies, tortuous arteries and aortic aneurysms predisposition to eosinophilic allergic disorders including eosinophilic esophagitis and gastritis, and other systemic findings including inflammatory bowel disease. Patients with vascular Ehlers Danlos Syndrome (vEDS) have deficiency in type III collagen and have similar vascular laxity and concomitant GI manifestations. This connective tissue vulnerability contributes to increased post-operative wound dehiscence and development of hernias. Our aim was to summarize abdominal wall and GI tract manifestations in these two rare vascular disorders at a tertiary referral center.
Data were collected via Advanced Cohort Explorer (ACE) application at Mayo Clinic. A chart review was undertaken on patients with a confirmed diagnosis of vEDS or LDS seen at Mayo Clinic in Rochester from 1994 to 2018. Diagnoses were confirmed by genetic testing and/or clinical review through the specialized medical genetics clinic. Information was extracted on vascular complications of disease, prevalence of abdominal hernias, and gastrointestinal symptoms. The study was reviewed and exempted by the Mayo Clinic IRB.
We identified and reviewed records of 50 vEDS and 13 LDS patients; data are summarized in Tables 1 and 2. Patients were similar in age at diagnosis and gender distribution. Hernias were present in similar proportions of patients with vEDS and LDS, although ventral hernias were more frequent and the hernias were more likely to be post-operative in vEDS than in LDS. LDS patients had more aneurysms (58% vEDS vs. 76.9% LDS, P = 0.02) with higher proportion requiring arterial repair (32.7% vEDS vs. 69.2% LDS, P = 0.03). Co-morbidities more prevalent in LDS than vEDS were autonomic dysfunction, psychopathology and allergy. We did not note increase in symptoms suggestive of eosinophilic esophagitis/gastritis in the LDS patients. GI symptoms were prevalent in both disorders and largely similar, except for diarrhea and constipation which were both significantly more prevalent in LDS patients.
While vEDS and LDS are both connective tissue disorders with propensity for GI symptoms, abdominal hernias and aneurysm formation, the risk of arterial rupture and co-morbidity of autonomic dysfunction, psychopathology and allergy are greater in LDS than vEDS.