Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are characterized by the presence of chronic or recurrent symptoms that are felt to originate from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which cannot be attributed to an identifiable structural or biochemical cause. Food is associated with symptom onset or exacerbation in a significant proportion of FGID patients. Despite this, the role of food in the pathogenesis of the FGIDs has remained poorly understood. For this reason, diet has largely played an adjunctive rather than a primary role in the management of FGID patients. In recent years, there has been a rapid expansion in our understanding of the role of food in GI function and sensation and how food relates to GI symptoms in FGID patients. In a series of evidence-based manuscripts produced by the Rome Foundation Working Group on the role of food in FGIDs, comprehensive reviews of the physiological changes associated with nutrient intake, and the respective roles of carbohydrates, fiber, protein, and fats are provided. The series concludes with a manuscript that provides guidance on proper clinical trial design when considering the role of food in FGIDs.