REVIEW: CLINICAL AND SYSTEMATIC REVIEWSPrevalence of, and Risk Factors for, Chronic Idiopathic Constipation in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-analysisSuares, Nicole C MBChB1; Ford, Alexander C MBChB, MD, MRCP1,2Author Information 1Leeds Gastroenterology Institute, Leeds General Infirmary, Leeds, UK 2Leeds Institute of Molecular Medicine, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK Correspondence: Alexander C. Ford, MBChB, MD, MRCP, Leeds Gastroenterology Institute, Leeds General Infirmary, D Floor, Clarendon Wing, Great George Street, Leeds LS1 3EX, UK. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org If you wish to receive credit for this activity, please refer to the Web site:http://www.acg.gi.org/acgjournalcme/. Article Title: Prevalence of, and Risk Factors for, Chronic Idiopathic Constipation in the Community: Systematic Review and Meta-analysis published online 24 May 2011 Received 8 March 2011; accepted 19 April 2011 American Journal of Gastroenterology: September 2011 - Volume 106 - Issue 9 - p 1582-1591 doi: 10.1038/ajg.2011.164 Buy Take the CME Test Metrics Abstract OBJECTIVES: Chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC) is a common functional gastrointestinal disorder in the community, yet no previous systematic review and meta-analysis has estimated the global prevalence, or potential risk factors for the condition. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and EMBASE Classic were searched (up to December 2010) to identify population-based studies reporting the prevalence of CIC in adults (≥15 years), according to self-report, questionnaire, or specific symptom-based criteria. The prevalence of CIC was extracted for all studies, and according to country, age, gender, socioeconomic status, and presence or absence of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) where reported. Pooled prevalence overall, and according to study location and certain other characteristics, as well as odds ratios (ORs), with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. RESULTS: Of the 100 papers evaluated, 45 reported the prevalence of CIC in 41 separate study populations, containing 261,040 subjects. Pooled prevalence of CIC in all studies was 14% (95% CI: 12–17%). The prevalence of CIC was lower in South East Asian studies, and in studies using the Rome II or III criteria. The prevalence of CIC was higher in women (OR: 2.22; 95% CI: 1.87–2.62), and increased with age and lower socioeconomic status. The prevalence was markedly higher in subjects who also reported IBS (OR: 7.98; 95% CI: 4.58–13.92), suggesting common pathogenic mechanisms. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled prevalence of CIC in the community was 14%, and of similar magnitude in most geographical regions. Rates were higher in women, older individuals, and those of lower socioeconomic status. Presence of IBS was strongly associated with CIC. © The American College of Gastroenterology 2011. All Rights Reserved.