Secondary Logo

Share this article on:

Extremely low hepatitis C prevalence among HIV co-infected individuals in four countries in sub-Saharan Africa

Loarec, Annea; Carnimeo, Valentinaa; Molfino, Lucasb; Kizito, Walterc; Muyindike, Winnied; Andrieux-Meyer, Isabellee; Balkan, Sunaf; Nzomukunda, Yvonnec; Mwanga-Amumpaire, Julieta,g; Ousley, Janetf; Bygrave, Helenh; Maman, Davida

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002070
Research Letter

A multicentric, retrospective case-series analysis (facility-based) in five sites across Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, and Uganda screened HIV-positive adults for hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibodies using Oraquick rapid testing and viral confirmation (in three sites). The results reveal a substantially lower prevalence than previously reported for these countries, suggesting that targeted integration of HCV screening in African HIV programs may be more impactful than routine screening.

aEpicentre, Paris, France

bMédecins Sans Frontières, Geneva, Switzerland

cMédecins Sans Frontières, Brussels, Belgium

dMbarara Hospital, Ministry of Health ISS Clinic, Uganda

eDrugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, Geneva, Switzerland

fMédecins Sans Frontières, Paris, France

gMbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda

hMédecins Sans Frontières, Southern Africa Medical Unit, South-Africa.

Correspondence to Anne Loarec, MD, MSc, MSF-Epicentre, 8 rue Saint Sabin, 7511 Paris, France. E-mail: Anne.LOAREC@epicentre.msf.org

Received 12 June, 2018

Accepted 14 September, 2018

This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0

Prior research on hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in sub-Saharan Africa is limited and methodologically inconsistent, often characterized by poor categorization of individuals from high-risk groups, lack of virological confirmation of active disease, and bias from environmental factors (e.g. reduced case detection specificity from Schistosoma) [1–4]. Furthermore, reported HCV co-infection prevalence is highly variable in Africa, ranging from 3.3% in southern regions to 42.3% in the north.

We conducted a retrospective case-series analysis in health facilities and hospitals in five African countries with varied HIV prevalence settings, the largest observational analysis of HIV/HCV co-infection in Africa to date.

Patients were selected from five Médecins Sans Frontières facilities in four countries with varying HIV prevalence: Mbarara, Uganda (7.9% adult HIV prevalence); Maputo, Mozambique (16.9%); Chiradzulu, Malawi (17.0%), Kibera, Kenya (an impoverished quarter of Nairobi) (12.6%), and rural Homa Bay County, Kenya (27.1%) [5–9]. Patients were eligible if they were at least 18 years old, infected with HIV, and screened for HCV between January 2014 and December 2016. HIV patients with long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure and with uncomplicated, advanced stages of HIV disease were included. People-who-use-drugs (PWUD) were included at one site (Mozambique).

HCV screening procedures were similar across sites. HCV care was integrated into routine care for HIV differently depending on the site: during patients’ initial diagnosis or during follow-up counseling sessions (Uganda) or upon initiation of ART care or during annual HIV viral load testing (Kenya: Kibera). At two sites, HCV screening was already integrated into preexisting procedures for observational studies exploring the disease of long-term ART recipients (Malawi) and hospitalized inpatients (Kenya: Homa Bay) [10]. For each site, procedures were adapted for the local context and according to national policies, conducted in collaboration with the National Ministry of Health.

Preliminary serological screening of whole blood samples was conducted at all sites using the OraQuick HCV rapid qualitative test (OraSure Technologies, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA), a WHO prequalified immunoglobulin G HCV antibody immunoassay [sensitivity = 100% (95% CI: 97.8–100.0), specificity = 99.4% (95% CI: 97.3–99.8)] [11]. Antibody-positive patients were further confirmed for replicative infection using two different real-time PCR (RT-PCR) viral load measures: PCR Roche COBASAmpliprep/COBASTaqMan (Mozambique and Uganda) and Abbott m2000 (Kenya: Kibera). Patients with confirmed active infection received baseline clinical assessments and viral genotyping from accredited laboratories using either dried blood spot cards (Uganda) or frozen plasma (Kenya and Mozambique). Upon confirmation of a positive result, all patients were offered standard treatment with Direct Acting Antivirals (DAA).

Study databases used RedCap v.5.7.3 software (Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennesee, USA) in Malawi, Kenya: Homa Bay, and Mozambique; EpiData v.3.1 (Odense, Denmark) in Uganda; and Microsoft Excel in Kenya: Kibera. Analysis occurred in STATA v.13 (College Station, Texas, USA). Upper and lower confidence bounds were calculated using an open source sample size calculator (University of California, San Fransisco, California, USA) [12]. All studies were Ethics Review Boards-approved, sought consent, and applied data protection practices for participants.

In total, 15 336 HIV patients were screened for HCV antibodies, and 0.4% tested positive (Table 1). HCV antibody prevalence among those screened was higher in Mozambique (30/2600; 1.15%, 95% CI: 0.81–1.64) compared with Malawi (2/385; 0.5%, 95% CI: 0.14–1.87), Uganda (18/7500, 0.24%, 95% CI: 0.15–0.38), and Kenya (Kibera: 10/4500; 0.22%, 95% CI: 0.12–0.41; Homa Bay: 1/351; 0.28%, 95% CI: 0.05–1.59). In Mozambique, many patients were PWUD; among the screened PWUD, 79% presented HCV-positive antibody.

Table 1

Table 1

Active HCV infection confirmed by HCV viral replication (Kenya: Kibera; Mozambique; Uganda), was low: 0.04% (n = 2/4500; 0.01–0.17), 1% (n = 26/2600; 95% CI: 0.68–1.46), and 0.07% (n = 5/7500; 0.03–0.16). Characteristics of individuals with confirmed replicative viral HCV infection (e.g. genotype, viral load, treatment, and demographics) are shown in Table 1.

HCV-antibody and PCR-positivity prevalence measured in our study were substantially lower than pooled estimates from other studies conducted in the same five countries [1], neighboring African countries, and other low-resource contexts [13–15]. This may be explained by a number of differences unique to our study: patient characteristics (e.g. exclusively HIV-infected patients, PWUD); differences in screening strategies; or variation in the performance of serological rapid diagnostic tests (e.g. Oraquick was the only WHO-prequalified rapid diagnostic test (RDT) at the time of study, it has not been widely tested in field situations in African settings or in HIV-infected populations [16,17]).

There was some variation between our sample sites. The Mozambican PWUD sub-group observed the highest levels of antibody-prevalence and viral confirmation, confirming that even when prevalence is low, PWUD are especially susceptible to HCV infection and may require targeted screening. In Uganda, viral genotyping revealed exclusively Type 4 HCV, diverging from previous evidence finding only Type 1 in the country [1,18]. Linked with choice of regimen, the difference is important, whereas research on this issue is evolving and few data are available overall. In addition, sex differences between sites (high proportion of women in Ugandan HCV-confirmed patients, high proportion of men in Mozambican HCV-confirmed patients) were likely because of gendered risk behaviors, such as injection drug use.

There were some limitations in this study. Except for the Mozambican PWUD, these patients may not have had HCV risk factors. Database limitations prevented analysis of a potential cohort effect when individuals had already died. Information on co-infection with HCV and Schistosomiasis was unavailable, though prior literature has suggested causes of a high HCV false positivity screening percentage in these moderate-to-high Schistosoma-prevalent countries. Statistical variance (’false-positive paradox’) may have led to more false-positive results compared with true positives when low incidence rates were lower than false-positive rates [3,19,20].

In summary, our results not only demonstrate the feasibility of large-scale HCV screening during HIV care using simplified rapid testing, but also confirm that HCV does not seem to be the public health burden in the sites investigated that it is in other regions, particularly among people living with HIV. Future HCV screening strategies in the region should consider these findings when determining policy (MSF has already replaced systematic HCV screening for HIV-positive patients at study sites with a risk factor and symptomatic screening algorithm, prioritizing PWUD). Policy changes will be more efficient if they also increase access to testing and treatment.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Acknowledgements

We would like to acknowledge the communities and patients involved in this analysis, as well as collaborating Ministries of Health and other partners in the five sites.

This study was made possible by a grant from UNITAID (N° SPHQ14-LOA-217) and MSF funding.

Funding: This study was funded through a grant from UNITAID.

Back to Top | Article Outline

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interests.

Back to Top | Article Outline

References

1. Azevedo TC, Zwahlen M, Rauch A, Egger M, Wandeler G. Hepatitis C in HIV-infected individuals: a systematic review and meta-analysis of estimated prevalence in Africa. J Int AIDS Soc 2016; 19:20711.
2. Lauer GM, Kim AY. Spontaneous resolution of chronic hepatitis C virus infection: are we missing something?. Clin Infect Dis 2006; 42:953–954.
3. Helal TE, Danial MF, Ahmed HF. The relationship between hepatitis C virus and schistosomiasis: histopathologic evaluation of liver biopsy specimens. Hum Pathol 1998; 29:743–749.
4. Rao VB, Johari N, du Cros P, Messina J, Ford N, Cooke GS. Hepatitis C seroprevalence and HIV co-infection in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Infect Dis 2015; 15:819–824.
5. Maman D, Chilima B, Masiku C, Ayouba A, Masson S, Szumilin E, et al. Closer to 90-90-90. The cascade of care after 10 years of ART scale-up in rural Malawi: a population study. J Int AIDS Soc 2016; 19:20673.
6. Madise NJ, Ziraba AK, Inungu J, Khamadi SA, Ezeh A, Zulu EM, et al. Are slum dwellers at heightened risk of HIV infection than other urban residents? Evidence from population-based HIV prevalence surveys in Kenya. Health Place 2012; 18:1144–1152.
7. Edwards JK, Bygrave H, Van den Bergh R, Kizito W, Cheti E, Kosgei RJ, et al. HIV with noncommunicable diseases in primary care in Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya: characteristics and outcomes 2010-2013. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 2015; 109:440–446.
8. UNAIDS. HIV/AIDS Country Factsheet Kenya 2016. 2018.
9. Statistics UBo. Demographic and health survey. In. Rockville, Maryland, USA; 2016.
10. Ousley J, Niyibizi AA, Wanjala S, Vandenbulcke A, Kirubi B, Omwoyo W, et al. High proportions of patients with advanced hiv are antiretroviral therapy experienced: hospitalization outcomes from 2 Sub-Saharan African sites. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 66 (Suppl 2):S126–S131.
11. WHO. Prequalification of in vitro diagnostics: Oraquick HCV Rapid Antibody Test Kit Public Report. Geneva: WHO; 2017.
12. UCSF. Sample size calculator. In: Sample size calculator for designing clinical research; 2018.
13. Muriuki BM, Gicheru MM, Wachira D, Nyamache AK, Khamadi SA. Prevalence of hepatitis B and C viral co-infections among HIV-1 infected individuals in Nairobi, Kenya. BMC Res Notes 2013; 6:363.
14. Harania RS, Karuru J, Nelson M, Stebbing J. HIV, hepatitis B and hepatitis C coinfection in Kenya. AIDS 2008; 22:1221–1222.
15. Nyirenda M, Beadsworth MB, Stephany P, Hart CA, Hart IJ, Munthali C, et al. Prevalence of infection with hepatitis B and C virus and coinfection with HIV in medical inpatients in Malawi. J Infect 2008; 57:72–77.
16. Shivkumar S, Peeling R, Jafari Y, Joseph L, Pant Pai N. Accuracy of rapid and point-of-care screening tests for hepatitis C: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2012; 157:558–566.
17. Seremba E, Ocama P, Opio CK, Kagimu M, Thomas DL, Yuan HJ, et al. Poor performance of hepatitis C antibody tests in hospital patients in Uganda. J Med Virol 2010; 82:1371–1378.
18. Messina JP, Humphreys I, Flaxman A, Brown A, Cooke GS, Pybus OG, Barnes E. Global distribution and prevalence of hepatitis C virus genotypes. Hepatology 2015; 61:77–87.
19. Nerrienet E, Pouillot R, Lachenal G, Njouom R, Mfoupouendoun J, Bilong C, et al. Hepatitis C virus infection in Cameroon: a cohort-effect. J Med Virol 2005; 76:208–214.
20. Mullis CE, Laeyendecker O, Reynolds SJ, Ocama P, Quinn J, Boaz I, et al. High frequency of false-positive hepatitis C virus enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in Rakai, Uganda. Clin Infect Dis 2013; 57:1747–1750.
Copyright © 2019 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.