Whilst reporting improved renal and bone safety profiles, studies have noted changes in lipid profiles among people living with HIV (PLWH) receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) switching away from tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) to tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). We aimed to characterize changes in lipids observed after switching to TAF-containing ART in a real-world setting.
A prospective study on PLWH enrolled in the UCD-ID Cohort study who switched to TAF-containing ART. Routine laboratory data [including lipids (total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglycerides], ART history and use of lipid-lowering therapy (LLT) were analysed preswitch and postswitch to TAF. Dyslipidaemia was classified according to the National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Panel III (NCEP-ATP III). Change in lipid parameters and change in the proportion of subjects with dyslipidaemia postswitch was assessed using the paired t-test and the Stuart--Maxwell test, respectively.
Of 775 PLWH enrolled in the cohort, 238 switched to TAF containing ART, of whom 194 had both preswitch and postswitch lipids measured a median (IQR) 24 (14–41) weeks postswitch to TAF. TC, LDL, HDL, triglycerides and TC : HDL ratio significantly increased postswitch [mean change (SE) mmol/l; +0.37 (0.06), P < 0.001; +0.25 (0.06), P < 0.001; +0.05 (0.02), P = 0.003, +0.13 (0.07), P = 0.02, and +0.16 (0.08), P = 0.013) respectively]. There were significant increases in the proportions of PLWH with more severe dyslipidaemia postswitch across TC and LDL (both P < 0.001).
These data suggest clinically relevant, worsening lipid profiles postswitch to TAF, with a larger proportion of PLWH exceeding recommended lipid thresholds postswitch. How these changes will impact on cardiovascular risk or need for LLT remains to be determined.