Research letter: PDF OnlyHigh levels of resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors in newly-diagnosed antiretroviral treatment naive children in sub-Saharan AfricaInzaule, Seth C.a; Jordan, Michael R.b; Bello, Georgec; Wadonda-Kabondo, Nellied; Mounerou, Saloue; Mbulli, Innocent A.f; Akanmu, Sulaimon A.g; Vubil, Adolfoh; Hunt, Gilliani; Kaleebu, Pontianoj; Mthethwa-Hleza, Simangelek; Dzangare, Janetl; Njukeng, Patrickf; Penazzato, Martinaa; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinkem; Eshleman, Susan H.n; Bertagnolio, Silviaa for the Infant HIV Drug Resistance Survey TeamAuthor Information aHIV/Hepatitis/STI Department, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland bTufts University School of Medicine, Boston, USA cMinistry of Health, Lilongwe, Malawi dCenters for Disease Control & Prevention, Lilongwe, Malawi eFaculty of Health Sciences, Molecular Biology Laboratory, University of Lomé, Lomé, Togo fGlobal Health Systems Solutions, Douala, Cameroon gDepartment of Haematology and Blood Transfusion, Lagos University Teaching Hospital, and College of Medicine of the University of Lagos, Lagos, Nigeria hInstituto Nacional de Saúde, Maputo, Mozambique; iNational Institute for Communicable Diseases, Johannesburg, South Africa; jUganda Virus Research Institute, Entebbe, Uganda; kMinistry of Health Eswatini, Mbabane, Eswatini; lMinistry of Health and Child Care, Harare, Zimbabwe; mAmsterdam Institute for Global Health and Development, and Department of Global Health, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands nJohns Hopkins University. School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland, USA. Correspondence to Silvia Bertagnolio, Avenue Appia 20, Department of HIV, Hepatitis, and STI, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. Tel: +41 79 7288078; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 17 January, 2020 Revised 30 March, 2020 Accepted 7 April, 2020 AIDS: May 20, 2020 - Volume Publish Ahead of Print - Issue - doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002580 Buy PAP Metrics Abstract Exposure of infants to antiretroviral drugs for prevention of mother-to-child transmission can induce resistance to nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs). Data from nine national surveys of pretreatment drug resistance in children newly diagnosed with HIV show high levels of resistance to NRTIs included in first-line antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens (dual abacavir-lamivudine/emtricitabine resistance). Additional research is needed to determine the impact of NRTI resistance on treatment response and optimize infant ART. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.