Diabetes mellitus is a major comorbidity in people with HIV (PWH). Hyperglycemia below diabetic range defines prediabetes (prediabetes mellitus). We compared the progression from prediabetes mellitus to diabetes mellitus in PWH and people without HIV (PWOH).
Fasting glucose was measured semiannually in the MACS since 1999. Men with prediabetes mellitus (fasting glucose between 100 and 125 mg/dl, confirmed within a year by fasting glucose in the prediabetes mellitus range or HbA1c between 5.7 and 6.4%) were included. The first visit with prediabetes mellitus was the baseline visit. Incident diabetes mellitus was defined as fasting glucose at least 126 mg/dl, confirmed at a subsequent visit, or self-reported diabetes mellitus, or use of anti-diabetes mellitus medication. We used binomial transition models to compare the progression from prediabetes mellitus to diabetes mellitus by HIV serostatus, adjusted for age, number of previous prediabetes mellitus to diabetes mellitus transitions, ethnicity, BMI, family history of diabetes mellitus, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection.
Between 1999 and 2019, 1584 men (793 PWH; 791 PWOH) with prediabetes mellitus were included. At baseline, PWH were younger (48 vs. 51 years, P < 0.01), had lower BMI (26 vs. 27), were more frequently nonwhite (47 vs. 30%), and HCV-infected as per last measure (8 vs. 4%) than PWOH (all P < 0.01). Over a median 12-year follow-up, 23% of participants developed diabetes mellitus. In adjusted analyses, the risk for incident diabetes mellitus was 40% (95% CI: 0--80%) higher among PWH than PWOH (P = 0.04).
Among men with prediabetes mellitus, PWH had an increased risk of incident diabetes mellitus adjusted for competing risk factors, warranting the evaluation of diabetes mellitus prevention strategies.