To evaluate the effect on anthropometric, metabolic and adipose tissue parameters of switching ART-controlled persons living with HIV (PLWH) from a protease inhibitor regimen to raltegravir/maraviroc.
Sub-study of the ANRS157 ROCnRAL study with the investigation of subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SCAT) biopsy at inclusion and study end.
We performed lipoaspiration of paired SCAT samples, histology on fresh/fixed samples and examined the transcriptomic profile analyzed using Illumina microarrays after RNA extraction. Statistical analyses used the Wilcoxon-paired test.
The patients (n = 8) were mainly male (7/8), aged (mean ± standard error of the mean) 54.9 ± 1.2 years, BMI 26.1 ± 1.2 kg/m2, CD4+ 699 ± 56 cells/mm3, all viral load (VL) <50 copies/ml. After a follow-up of 6 ± 0.5 months, all PLWH remained with VL <50 copies/ml. BMI, trunk and limb fat amounts were unchanged yet systemic insulin resistance increased. Adipose tissue histology was unchanged except for borderline increased adipocyte diameter (P = 0.1). Among the 16 094 RNA transcripts, 458 genes were up-regulated and 244 were down-regulated. Analyses of the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes and Gene Ontology databases, evaluating modifications in the main functional pathways, revealed that genes related to immune recognition/function were less expressed as were genes encoding T-cell receptor and receptor signaling pathways. The gene expression profiles indicated decreased inflammation but genes involved in adipogenesis and insulin resistance were overexpressed.
After 6 months of raltegravir/maraviroc, adipogenesis-related gene profile was enhanced in SCAT, in agreement with a tendency for increased adipocyte size. Enhanced SCAT insulin resistance-related profile was concordant with higher systemic insulin resistance. However, the immune activation/inflammation profile was globally lowered. We propose that raltegravir/maraviroc might favor SCAT gain but reduce inflammation/immune activation.