Both tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/emtricitabine demonstrate excellent efficacy and safety overall, but concerns remain over specific changes in markers of bone and renal function. Lower plasma tenofovir concentrations are seen with TAF and in unboosted regimens. We assess TAF vs. TDF safety with and without booster coformulation.
A previous systematic review was updated with recent clinical trials. TAF vs. TDF efficacy and safety were compared in boosted and unboosted subgroups. Efficacy was measured by viral suppression. Key safety endpoints included all adverse events, serious adverse events, Grades 3–4 adverse events and adverse event discontinuation. Further specific renal and bone markers were also assessed.
A total of 14 clinical trials comparing TDF and TAF regimens were identified. A significant difference (P = 0.0004) in efficacy was shown in the boosted subgroup in favour of TAF, but no difference was seen in the unboosted subgroup. There were no significant differences between TAF and TDF for any of the key safety endpoints analysed. No differences were seen for the bone markers analysed. No difference was found for renal tubular events. There was a difference in risk for discontinuation due to renal adverse events when boosted (P = 0.03), but none when unboosted.
Across all main safety endpoints, no differences between TAF and TDF are seen. Boosted TDF regimens were associated with lesser comparative efficacy than boosted TAF and a higher risk of renal event discontinuation. However, modern antiretroviral regimens are more commonly unboosted. This study finds no difference in efficacy or safety in unboosted TAF vs. TDF.