To assess the frequency of orofacial outcomes in adolescents with perinatally infected HIV in treatment with antiretroviral therapy (ART).
A Brazilian institution-based retrospective study analyzing medical charts and medication dispensing data.
Medical records of 137 adolescents were reviewed. HIV viral load, CD4+ T-cell count (CD4+), ART regimen, nonadherence events, and prolonged ART discontinuation were recorded. The frequency of each outcome was determined. Associations between the most frequent outcomes and both records of undetectable viral load and CD4+ at least 500 cells/μl were carried out. Associations of lymphadenitis, Group 1 orofacial manifestations and Group 2 orofacial manifestations with records of Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) category C illness were also performed. Odds ratio (OR), confidence intervals (CI) and P values were provided.
Cervical and submandibular lymphadenitis (45.25%), dental caries (32.84%) and periodontal issues (11.67%) were the most frequent orofacial outcomes. A detectable viral load (OR = 2.61, 95% CI 1.16--5.88) and CD4+ less than 500 cells/μl (OR = 2.34, 95% CI 1.13--4.82) were associated with a greater risk of lymphadenitis. Orofacial outcomes associated with HIV were found in adolescents with longer ART discontinuation and a greater number of ART discontinuation events (P < 0.05). No association was found between records of CDC category C illness and group 1 orofacial manifestations, group 2 manifestations or lymphadenitis (P > 0.05).
Orofacial outcomes, in particular, cervical and submandibular lymphadenitis were common among the adolescents assessed. Long-term ART and long-term exposure to HIV virus may have altered the orofacial outcome profile in adolescents perinatally infected by HIV.