EDITORIAL REVIEWCytomegalovirus-vectored vaccines for HIV and other pathogensBarry, Peter A.a,b,c; Deere, Jesse D.a,b,c; Yue, Yujuanb; Chang, William W.L.a,b,c; Schmidt, Kimberli A.b; Wussow, Felixf; Chiuppesi, Flaviaf; Diamond, Don J.f; Sparger, Ellen E.d; Walter, Mark R.g; Hartigan-O’Connor, Dennis J.c,eAuthor Information aDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine bCenter for Immunology and Infectious Diseases cCalifornia National Primate Research Center dDepartment of Medicine and Epidemiology/School of Veterinary Medicine eDepartment of Microbiology and Immunology/School of Medicine, University of California Davis, Davis fDepartment of Hematology & Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation, City of Hope, Duarte, California gDepartment of Microbiology, University of Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, Alabama, USA. Correspondence to Peter A. Barry, University of California Davis, Davis, CA 95616, USA. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 10 July, 2019 Accepted 5 August, 2019 AIDS: March 1, 2020 - Volume 34 - Issue 3 - p 335-349 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002396 Buy Metrics Abstract The use of cytomegalovirus (CMV) as a vaccine vector to express antigens against multiple infectious diseases, including simian immunodeficiency virus, Ebola virus, plasmodium, and mycobacterium tuberculosis, in rhesus macaques has generated extraordinary levels of protective immunity against subsequent pathogenic challenge. Moreover, the mechanisms of immune protection have altered paradigms about viral vector-mediated immunity against ectopically expressed vaccine antigens. Further optimization of CMV-vectored vaccines, particularly as this approach moves to human clinical trials will be augmented by a more complete understanding of how CMV engenders mechanisms of immune protection. This review summarizes the particulars of the specific CMV vaccine vector that has been used to date (rhesus CMV strain 68-1) in relation to CMV natural history. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.