EDITORIAL REVIEWImmune checkpoint inhibitors in people living with HIV what about anti-HIV effects?Abbar, Baptistea; Baron, Marinea; Katlama, Christineb; Marcelin, Anne-Genevièvec; Veyri, Marianned; Autran, Brigittea; Guihot, Améliea,*; Spano, Jean-Philipped,*Author Information aDepartment of Immunology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, CIMI, UMR 1135 bDepartment of Infectious Diseases cDepartment of Virology dDepartment of Medical Oncology, Pitié Salpêtrière Hospital, AP-HP, Institut Pierre Louis d’Epidémiologie et de Santé Publique (iPLESP), INSERM, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France. Correspondence to Jean-Philippe Spano, MD, PhD, Hopital Universitaire, Pitie Salpetriere, F-75013 Paris, France. Tel: +33 1 42 16 04 72; fax: +33 1 42 16 04 69; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 13 June, 2019 Revised 6 September, 2019 Accepted 15 September, 2019 AIDS: February 1, 2020 - Volume 34 - Issue 2 - p 167–175 doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000002397 Buy Metrics Abstract Immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICPi) have shown major therapeutic successes when used in various cancers. In the HIV field a double benefit of such ICPi should result from their dual ability to restore in-vitro HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell functions and to enhance HIV production from reservoir cells, thus fulfilling the goals of the ‘shock and kill’ concept proposed as an HIV cure therapeutic strategy. We conducted a systematic review to identify studies reporting the tolerance profile of ICPi and their effects on HIV plasma loads (pVL), CD4+ cell count, HIV reservoirs (cell-associated HIV-DNA) and/or HIV-specific CD8+ T cells in PLWH. Thirty-one articles were included for a total 176 participants. Twelve percent of the participants experienced severe adverse events and 49% nonsevere adverse events. pVL remained stable in 91.9% participant, showed increases in 5.8% participant, and decreases in 2.3%. CD4+ cell count remained stable in 60.7% participants, showed increases in 24.6%, and decreases in 14.7%. Regarding ICPi effects on HIV-DNA and HIV-specific immunity, we identified three distinct profiles: profile I, transient pVL increases followed by a boost in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells concomitant to a decrease in HIV-DNA, reported in one participant. Profile II: increase in HIV-specific CD8+ T cells without changes in pVL or HIV-DNA, reported in three participants. III: no effect, reported in five participants. In conclusion, the clinical, virological and immunological safety profiles of ICPi reported in about 200 PLWH appear to be favorable but there are still modest results in terms of HIV cure strategy. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.