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Undisclosed antiretroviral drug use in Botswana

implication for national estimates

Moyo, Sikhulilea,b; Gaseitsiwe, Simania,b; Powis, Kathleen M.a,b,c; Pretorius Holme, Mollya,b; Mohammed, Terencea; Zahralban-Steele, Melissab; Yankinde, Etienne K.a; Maphorisa, Comforta; Abrams, Williame; Lebelonyane, Refeletswef; Manyake, Kutloa; Sekoto, Tumalanoa; Mmalane, Mompatia; Gaolathe, Tendania; Wirth, Kathleen E.b; Makhema, Josepha; Lockman, Shahina,b,d; Clarke, Williamg; Essex, Maxa,b; Novitsky, Vlada,b

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000001862
Research Letters

Among 3596 HIV-positive participants enrolled in the Botswana Combination Prevention Project who self-reported no prior antiretroviral (ARV) therapy use and were tested for viral load (n = 951; 27% of all participants), 136 (14%) had HIV-1 RNA less than 400 copies/ml. ARV drugs were detected in 52 (39%) of 134 participants tested. Adjusting for undisclosed ARV use increased the overall estimate of virally suppressed individuals on ARV therapy by 1.4% from 70.2 to 71.6%.

aBotswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana

bHarvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health

cMassachusetts General Hospital

dBrigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts, USA

eCDC Botswana

fBotswana Ministry of Health and Wellness, Gaborone, Botswana

gJohns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, USA.

Correspondence to Sikhulile Moyo, MSc, MPH, PhD, Botswana-Harvard AIDS Institute Partnership, Gaborone, Botswana. Tel: +267 3902671; fax: +267 3901284; e-mail:,

Received 3 February, 2018

Revised 19 April, 2018

Accepted 27 April, 2018

Copyright © 2018 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc.