In spite of several attempts over many years at developing a HIV vaccine based on classical strategies, none has convincingly succeeded to date. As HIV is transmitted primarily by the mucosal route, particularly through sexual intercourse, understanding antiviral immunity at mucosal sites is of major importance. An ideal vaccine should elicit HIV-specific antibodies and mucosal CD8+ cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) as a first line of defense at a very early stage of HIV infection, before the virus can disseminate into the secondary lymphoid organs in mucosal and systemic tissues. A primary focus of HIV preventive vaccine research is therefore the induction of protective immune responses in these crucial early stages of HIV infection. Numerous approaches are being studied in the field, including building upon the recent RV144 clinical trial. In this article, we will review current strategies and briefly discuss the use of adjuvants in designing HIV vaccines that induce mucosal immune responses.
aInstitut de Biologie et Chimie des Protéines – LBTI, UMR 5305 – CNRS/University of Lyon 1, Lyon, France
bGroupe Immunité des Muqueuses et Agents Pathogènes – INSERM CIE3 Vaccinologie, Faculté de Médecine, Saint-Etienne
cInternational Centre for Research in Infectiology (CIRI), INSERM U1111 – CNRS UMR5308, University of Lyon 1, Lyon
dFrench National Academy of Medicine, Paris, France.
Correspondence to Dr Stéphane Paul, GIMAP - Faculté de Médecine Jacques Lisfranc - 15 rue Ambroise Paré - 42023 Saint-Etienne, France. Tel: +334 77 42 14 67; fax: +334 77 42 14 86; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 13 February, 2014
Revised 12 April, 2014
Accepted 14 April, 2014