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CD4+ cell count, viral load, and drug resistance patterns among heterosexual breakthrough HIV infections in a study of oral preexposure prophylaxis

Chirwa, Lovemore I.a; Johnson, Jeffrey A.b; Niska, Richard W.b; Segolodi, Tebogo M.a; Henderson, Faith L.b; Rose, Charles E.b; Li, Jin-fenb; Thigpen, Michael C.b; Matlhaba, Onkabetsea; Paxton, Lynn A.b; Brooks, John T.b

doi: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000102
Clinical Science: Concise Communication

We examined CD4+ cell count and plasma viral load patterns among Botswana TDF/FTC Oral HIV Prophylaxis Trial (TDF2 study) participants who seroconverted, comparing participants assigned to receive tenofovir/emtricitabine with participants assigned to receive placebo. We also evaluated for antiretroviral drug resistance among the breakthrough HIV infections. Among nine seroconverters assigned to tenofovir/emtricitabine and 24 to placebo, there were no significant differences in their CD4+ cell count or viral load profiles over time. Of the four participants who seroconverted on-study while receiving tenofovir/emtricitabine, none became infected as a result of drug-resistant HIV; moreover, no resistance mutations emerged following seroconversion.

aCDC-BOTUSA, Gaborone, Botswana

bDivision of HIV/AIDS Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Correspondence to Jeffrey A. Johnson, Division of HIV/AIDS Prevention, CDC, Atlanta, Georgia, USA. Tel: +1 404 639 4976; fax: +1 404 639 1174; email:

Received 23 July, 2013

Revised 27 September, 2013

Accepted 27 September, 2013

© 2014 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.