HIV and malaria overlap geographically, but the full impact of different antiretrovirals on malaria remains poorly understood. We examined the antimalarial activity of the HIV protease inhibitors lopinavir and saquinavir and the non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor nevirapine on Plasmodium falciparum liver stages. Our results demonstrate that the HIV PI lopinavir inhibits liver stage parasites at clinically relevant concentrations, that is, at drug levels achieved in HIV-infected patients on standard dosing regimens. Because drugs that inhibit liver stages target parasites when they are present in lower numbers, these results might have implications for eradication efforts.
aNIH/NIAID/Laboratory of Malaria Immunology and Vaccinology, Rockville
bDepartment of Cellular Immunology, Walter Reed Army Institute of Research, Malaria Vaccine Branch, Silver Spring
cPharmacy Department, NIH Clinical Center, Clinical Pharmacokinetics Research Laboratory, Bethesda
dDepartment of Molecular Microbiology and Immunology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, , Baltimore, Maryland
eDepartment of Pediatrics, Division of Infectious Disease and Immunology, New York University School of Medicine, New York, USA.
Correspondence to Charlotte V. Hobbs, NIH/NIAID, Rockville, MD 20852, USA. Tel: +1 347 306 0150; fax: +1 253 399 0150; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 30 November, 2012
Revised 4 April, 2013
Accepted 11 April, 2013