Original ArticlesThe Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit Parental Stress Model Refinement Using Directed Content AnalysisLisanti, Amy Jo PhD, RN, CCNS, CCRN-K; Golfenshtein, Nadya PhD, RN; Medoff-Cooper, Barbara PhD, RN, FAANAuthor Information University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia (Drs Lisanti, Golfenshtein, and Medoff-Cooper); and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (Drs Lisanti and Medoff-Cooper). Correspondence: Amy Jo Lisanti, PhD, RN, CCNS, CCRN-K, University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, 418 Curie Blvd, Philadelphia, PA 19104 ([email protected]). This study received a grant from the Cardiac Center at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia.The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Advances in Nursing Science: October/December 2017 - Volume 40 - Issue 4 - p 319-336 doi: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000184 Buy Metrics Abstract This descriptive, qualitative study used directed content analysis to explore and clarify specific foci of parental stress for mothers of infants with complex congenital heart disease in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU). The PCICU Parental Stress Model was used as the guiding theoretical framework. Three focus groups were conducted with 14 mothers of infants who were being cared for in a PCICU at a large mid-Atlantic children's hospital. Data provided themes to support and refine the PCICU Parental Stress Model that can be used to guide practice, education, and future research in this unique population and setting. © 2017 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.