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Expert Nurses' Perceptions of the Relevance of Carper's Patterns of Knowing to Junior Nurses

Terry, Louise, PhD, SFHEA, LLB(Hons), FIBMS; Carr, Graham, MSc, RNT, RN; Curzio, Joan, PhD, RN

doi: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000142
Original Articles

This study explored with expert nurses in the UK how nursing wisdom can be developed in new and junior nurses. Carper's patterns of knowing and Benner's novice-to-expert continuum formed the theoretical framework. Employing a constructionist research methodology with participant engagement in co-construction of findings, data were collected via 2 separate cycles comprising 4 consecutive sessions followed by a nationally advertised miniconference. Empirical, ethical, personal, and esthetic knowing was considered evident in junior nurses. Junior nurses in the UK seem to lack a previously unrecognized domain of organizational knowing without which they cannot overcome hegemonic barriers to the successful development of nursing praxis.

School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, London, England.

Correspondence: Louise Terry, PhD, SFHEA, LLB(Hons), FIBMS, School of Health and Social Care, London South Bank University, 101 Borough Rd, London SE1 0AA, England (

We thank the General Nursing Council for England and Wales Trust for financially supporting this study and the Steering Committee that helped guide us. We are also very grateful to the anonymous reviewers for their supportive comments.

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

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