Coding, Constant Comparisons, and Core Categories: A Worked Example for Novice Constructivist Grounded Theorists : Advances in Nursing Science

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Coding, Constant Comparisons, and Core Categories

A Worked Example for Novice Constructivist Grounded Theorists

Giles, Tracey M. PhD, MNg, MACN, GradCertHDN, RN; de Lacey, Sheryl PhD, MA, BAppSc, RN; Muir-Cochrane, Eimear PhD, FACMHN, MNS, BSc (Hons) RN, Grad Dip Adult Ed

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Advances in Nursing Science 39(1):p E29-E44, January/March 2016. | DOI: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000109

Grounded theory method has been described extensively in the literature. Yet, the varying processes portrayed can be confusing for novice grounded theorists. This article provides a worked example of the data analysis phase of a constructivist grounded theory study that examined family presence during resuscitation in acute health care settings. Core grounded theory methods are exemplified, including initial and focused coding, constant comparative analysis, memo writing, theoretical sampling, and theoretical saturation. The article traces the construction of the core category “Conditional Permission” from initial and focused codes, subcategories, and properties, through to its position in the final substantive grounded theory.

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