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Perceived Discrimination and Children's Mental Health Symptoms

Cooke, Cheryl L. PhD, MN, RN; Bowie, Bonnie H. PhD, MBA, RN; Carrère, Sybil PhD

doi: 10.1097/ANS.0000000000000047
Health Equities Part II

Perceived discrimination has been shown to be strongly associated with mental health outcomes, such as depression, anxiety, chronic stress, post traumatic stress disorder, and low self-esteem. This study (N = 88) examined the effects of perceived discrimination and its association with child mental health symptoms. African American children had a significantly stronger association between social stress and a sense of exclusion/rejection than Multiracial or European American children. Nurses need to assess and counsel families of color about their experiences with perceived discriminatory acts.

School of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Washington Bothell, Bothell (Dr Cooke); College of Nursing, Seattle University, Seattle, Washington (Dr Bowie); and Department of Psychology, California State University, San Bernardino, San Bernardino (Dr Carrère).

Correspondence: Cheryl L. Cooke, PhD, MN, RN, School of Nursing and Health Studies, University of Washington Bothell, Box 358532, Bothell, WA 98011 (

This study was funded by NIMH (MH42484); NINR (#2P30 NR04001; T32 NR07039); NICHD (P30 HD02274); and NIDA training grant (T32 DAO7257-14) NIMHD (P20MD002722).

The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article.

© 2014Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins