Original ArticlesA Middle-Range Theory of Self-Care of Chronic IllnessRiegel, Barbara DNSc, RN, FAAN, FAHA; Jaarsma, Tiny PhD, RN, FAAN, FAHA, NFESC; Strömberg, Anna PhD, RN, FAAN, NFESCAuthor Information University of Pennsylvania School of Nursing, Philadelphia (Dr Riegel); Division of Nursing Science, Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, Linköping University, Department of Cardiology UHL, County Council of Östergötland, Linköping, Sweden (Drs Riegel and Strömberg); and Department of Social- and Welfare Studies, Norrköping, Sweden (Dr Jaarsma). Correspondence: Barbara Riegel, DNSc, RN, FAAN, FAHA, School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, 418 Curie Boulevard, Philadelphia, PA 19104 ([email protected]). The authors thank Afaf Meleis, PhD, RN, FAAN, and the doctoral students at the University of Pennsylvania for review of a prior draft of the manuscript. The authors also thank their faculty colleagues from Linköping University who reviewed, critiqued, and discussed an early draft of this theory. The authors have disclosed that they have no significant relationships with, or financial interest in, any commercial companies pertaining to this article. Advances in Nursing Science: July/September 2012 - Volume 35 - Issue 3 - p 194-204 doi: 10.1097/ANS.0b013e318261b1ba Buy Metrics Abstract Nearly 50% of adults have one or more chronic illnesses. Self-care is considered essential in the management of chronic illness, but the elements of self-care in this context have not been specified in a middle-range theory. This article describes a middle-range theory of self-care that addresses the process of maintaining health with health promoting practices within the context of the management required of a chronic illness. The key concepts include self-care maintenance, self-care monitoring, and self-care management. Assumptions and propositions of the theory are specified. Factors influencing self-care including experience, skill, motivation, culture, confidence, habits, function, cognition, support from others, and access to care are described. Copyright © 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.