The Middle-Range Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms: An Update : Advances in Nursing Science

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Middle-Range Nursing Theory

The Middle-Range Theory of Unpleasant Symptoms: An Update

Lenz, Elizabeth R. PhD, RN, FAAN; Pugh, Linda C. PhD, RNC; Milligan, Renee A. PhD, RNC; Gift, Audrey PhD, RN, FAAN; Suppe, Frederick PhD

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Advances in Nursing Science 19(3):p 14-27, March 1997.


A detailed description of the newly revised and updated theory of unpleasant symptoms is provided.Revisions have resulted in a more accurate representation of the complexity and interactive nature of the symptom experience. Example are provided to demonstrate the implications of the revised theory for measurement and research, and its application in practice. A detailed exemplar describes how it guided the design of a multifaceted intervention to encourage successful breastfeeding.

Copyright © 1997 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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