Newman's model of health as expanding consciousness provided the framework for investigation of the phenomenon of powerlessness among aging women. The study sought to identify a pattem of relationships among the impact of chronic illness, frame of temporal reference, death anxiety, hopelessness, and powerlessness. However, subjects manifested high levels of perceived situational control or powerfulness, with restricted range and variance of powerlessness scores. Thus the research questions were not answered. A profile of health pattems among active, aging women did emerge from the findings that is congruent with Newman's model of health as expanding consciousness.
© 1991 Aspen Publishers, Inc.