Neonatal sepsis is a leading cause of morbidity and early-life mortality worldwide, and previous data have reported the highest neonatal mortality rate in Pakistan.
The present study aimed to decipher the prevalence of group B Streptococcus (GBS)–associated sepsis, coinfections, and antibiotic susceptibility of isolated microbes in neonates.
Blood samples of 100 cases of neonatal sepsis were subcultured on blood agar, GBS agar, and MacConkey agar for isolation of GBS and suspected microbes.
Of 100 neonatal blood samples, 85 blood samples were culture-positive, including mixed culture growth (n = 18), 25 samples as early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) and 60 as late-onset neonatal sepsis (LONS). Staphylococcus aureus showed high percent positivity (31.4%), followed by Candida sp (16.5%), GBS (14.1%), Klebsiella (14.1%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (11.8%), Pseudomonas (9.4%), Acinetobacter (9.4%), Esherichia coli (8.2%), and Enterococcus (5.9%). GBS was isolated more frequently from EONS than from LONS with 50% coinfections. Mode of delivery, gender, and respiratory distress in neonates were significantly associated with culture-positive sepsis. GBS isolates were highly (91.7%) susceptible to vancomycin, cefotaxime, and chloramphenicol, followed by penicillin (83.3%), ampicillin, and tetracycline (75%). GBS isolates were resistant to erythromycin, clindamycin, ciprofloxacin, and linezolid.
Implications for Practice:
Our findings evidenced GBS-associated risk factors and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of neonatal sepsis, which will help clinicians in management, control, and treatment of neonatal sepsis.
Implications for Research:
The epidemiological evidence of GBS-associated neonatal sepsis, demographic characteristics, risk factor data analysis, and drug resistance pattern has disease prevention implications in neonates in low-income countries including Pakistan.