Secondary Logo

Journal Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Factor Structure and Psychometric Properties of the Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool—Bottle-Feeding (NeoEAT—Bottle-Feeding)

Pados, Britt Frisk PhD, RN, NNP-BC; Thoyre, Suzanne M. PhD, RN, FAAN; Estrem, Hayley H. PhD, RN; Park, Jinhee PhD, RN; McComish, Cara PhD, CCC-SLP

Section Editor(s): Dowling, Donna PhD, RN; ; Thibeau, Shelley PhD, RNC-NIC;

doi: 10.1097/ANC.0000000000000494
Original Research

Background: Feeding difficulties are common in infancy. There are currently no valid and reliable parent-report measures to assess bottle-feeding in infants younger than 7 months. The Neonatal Eating Assessment Tool (NeoEAT)—Bottle-feeding has been developed and content validated.

Purpose: To determine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding.

Methods: Parents of bottle-feeding infants younger than 7 months were invited to participate. Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine factor structure. Internal consistency reliability was tested using Cronbach α. Test-retest reliability was tested between scores on the NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding completed 2 weeks apart. Construct validity was tested using correlations between the NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding, the Infant Gastroesophageal Reflux Questionnaire—Revised (I-GERQ-R), and the Infant Gastrointestinal Symptoms Questionnaire (IGSQ). Known-groups validation was tested by comparing scores between healthy infants and infants with feeding problems.

Results: A total of 441 parents participated. Exploratory factor analysis revealed a 64-item scale with 5 factors. Internal consistency reliability (α= .92) and test-retest reliability (r = 0.90; P < .001) were both excellent. The NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding had construct validity with the I-GERQ-R (r = 0.74; P < .001) and IGSQ (r = 0.64; P < .001). Healthy infants scored lower on the NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding than infants with feeding problems (P < .001), supporting known-groups validity.

Implications for Practice: The NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding is an available assessment tool for clinical practice.

Implications for Research: The NeoEAT—Bottle-feeding is a valid and reliable measure that can now be used in feeding research.

Video Abstract Available at

Boston College William F. Connell School of Nursing, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts (Drs Pados and Park); The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing (Dr Thoyre); University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Center for Developmental Sciences (Dr Estrem); and University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Medicine, Department of Allied Health Sciences, Division of Speech and Hearing Sciences (Dr McComish).

Correspondence: Britt Frisk Pados, PhD, RN, NNP-BC, Boston College William F. Connell School of Nursing, Maloney Hall 268, 140 Commonwealth Ave, Chestnut Hill, MA 02467 (

This study was conducted at The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing.

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citation appears in the printed text and is provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

© 2018 by The National Association of Neonatal Nurses