Smoking is a well-known factor in the negative health outcomes worldwide. This study aims to determine the smoking prevalence and relapse in women in the postpartum period based on the meta-analysis method.
The steps provided by Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) were followed. According to keywords extracted by authors, 3 sources were searched until April 2020. To analyze the prevalence of smoking and relapse, the size of the sample and the event were calculated for eligible studies, and then the prevalence was calculated. Heterogeneity for all analyses and subgroups was investigated.
Forty articles were eligible for evaluation of the prevalence of smoking and smoking relapse in the postpartum period. The pooled prevalence of smoking/smoking relapse was 30%, with a confidence interval (CI) of 26%-34% and I2=99.5%. The prevalence of smoking was 19% (CI=15%-22%, I2=98.86%) and the prevalence of smoking relapse was 46% (CI=39%-54%, I2=98.86%). The prevalence of 6-month postpartum smoking/smoking relapse was 29% (CI=23%-34%, I2=99.42%). The prevalence of smoking/smoking relapse between 6 and 18 months was 31% (CI=24%-39%, I2=99.51%).
Due to the role of smoking in disease and predisposing individuals to various diseases, and the prevalence of smoking and relapse in the postpartum period, it is necessary to develop prevention and awareness programs in this respect.