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The Tangled Relation Between Tobacco and Substance Abuse in Egyptian Male Patients

Haroun El-Rasheed, Amany, MSc, MD; Zaki, Nivert, MSc, MD; Elhabiby, Mahmoud, MSc, MD; Zakaria, Rana, MSc; Elkholy, Hussien, MSc, MD, MRCpsych

Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment: December 2018 - Volume 17 - Issue 4 - p 155–160
doi: 10.1097/ADT.0000000000000132
Original Articles

Objectives: Despite the high prevalence of smoking among patients with substance abuse problems, and the known health risks of smoking, smoking cessation is not usually addressed during treatment programs. However, patients with substance use disorder may exhibit more motivation to quit tobacco than expected.

Patients and Methods: The study included smokers divided into a case group of 100 substance use disorder male patients and a control group of 50 sociodemographically matched subjects. Both groups were assessed and compared with regard to severity of nicotine dependence and motivation to quit smoking.

Results: The 2 groups showed no significant differences with regard to severity of nicotine dependence. However, the cases group has significantly higher scores on “self-control” and “immediate reinforcement” as motivations to quit.

Conclusions: Patients with substance use disorder are more inclined to quit smoking than expected, motivated mainly by their desire for self-control and their susceptibility to immediate reinforcement. They become also less affected by social pressure to quit because of the high number of previous hospital admissions, suggesting that therapists should focus on empowering their self-control.

Institute of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Reprints: Hussien Elkholy, MSc, MD, MRCpsych, Institute of Psychiatry, Neurology and Psychiatry Department, Faculty of Medicine, Ain Shams University Hospitals (Eldemerdash), El Abassia, Cairo, Egypt, P.O. Box 22, Dair El Malak, Cairo 11657, Egypt (e-mail:

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