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Nicotine Addiction in Pregnancy: Preliminary Efficacy of a Mental Health Intervention

Peden, Ann R. ARNP-CS, DSN; Rayens, Mary Kay PhD; Hall, Lynne A. RN, DrPH; Hahn, Ellen RN, DNS; Riker, Carol RN, MSN; Ashford, Kristin ARNP, MSN; Zhang, Mei MSN, MPH, RN

Addictive Disorders & Their Treatment: December 2008 - Volume 7 - Issue 4 - p 179-189
doi: 10.1097/ADT.0b013e3181484768
Original Articles

Objectives Depression is a significant predictor of smoking during pregnancy. The primary objective of this pilot study was to obtain preliminary data on the effects of a cognitive-behavioral group and telephone intervention during and after pregnancy on women's smoking and quit rates, nicotine dependence, and mental health.

Methods A quasi-experimental, 2-group repeated measures design was used. Data were collected at baseline, 1 month after the group intervention and 2 and 4 months postpartum. The treatment group (n=11) received the intervention during and immediately after pregnancy. The control group (n=5) only responded to in-person interviews.

Results Although the groups were similar at baseline, the treatment group had fewer depressive symptoms and thoughts of hopelessness than the controls at the first postintervention interview. Cigarette use and nicotine dependence did not change significantly.

Conclusions This exploratory study supports the effectiveness of a mental health intervention in decreasing depressive symptoms and hopelessness among pregnant smokers. Improving the mental health of pregnant smokers may be an important component of smoking cessation.

College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY

Funded by a University of Kentucky Faculty Research Support Program Grant.

Reprints: Dr Ann R. Peden, ARNP-CS, DSN, College of Nursing, University of Kentucky, 760 Rose Street, Lexington, KY 40536-0232 (e-mail:

© 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.