News & Views from the Editor-in-Chief - L. Bruce Gladden
Three articles in this month's MSSE® especially caught my attention. To begin, Snoek et al. studied the effect of a novel training program for patients with heart failure. Their protocol involved a high training frequency with a gradual increase in training time. This was combined with individual coaching of leisure time physical activities that matched individual preferences, and a gradual transition from facility to home-based training. Their prospective cohort study with 60 patients not only showed a significant improvement in peak oxygen uptake, but patients were also able to maintain these effects during follow-up after 12 months. Moreover, a strong trend toward an improved survival was found when compared with matched controls. These results are a strong argument for emphasis on exercise adherence among heart failure patients.
Next, since the formal definition in 2010 of a third monocyte subset, the intermediate monocyte, investigations have examined the changes in circulating monocyte subtypes primarily following aerobic exercise. However, the investigation by Jajtner and colleagues is the first to examine all three monocyte subsets in response to dynamic resistance exercise. They found a distinct increase in recruitment and mobilization of monocytes following a resistance exercise bout, and in particular, a selective mobilization of the intermediate monocyte. This mobilization may be linked to increased skeletal muscle damage following the exercise bout and therefore, affected by polyphenol supplementation. Accordingly, these intermediate monocytes may serve as a potential target of investigation to better understand the role of monocytes in the recovery of skeletal muscle following resistance exercise and the capacity of polyphenol supplementation to influence this recovery.
Finally, Schache et al. calculated the hip contact force (HCF) for eight participants walking and running at various steady-state speeds (walking: 1.50 ± 0.11 m·s-1 and 1.98 ± 0.03 m·s-1; running: 2.15 ± 0.18 m·s-1 and 3.47 ± 0.11 m·s-1). Both absolute and per-unit-distance (PUD) hip loads were compared across these locomotion conditions. While the peak instantaneous HCF was larger for running compared to walking, the impulse of the resultant HCF was largest for walking at 1.50 ± 0.11 m·s-1. Moreover, when the impulse of the resultant HCF was first divided by stride length (PUD impulse) and then by stride time as well (PUD force), both of these hip PUD loads were found to be smallest for running at 3.47 ± 0.11 m·s-1. Such findings could explain (at least in part) why recreational running does not appear to increase the risk of developing hip osteoarthritis in healthy people.
L. Bruce Gladden
School of Kinesiology