FRY, R. W. and A. R. MORTON. Physiological and kinanthropometric attributes of elite flatwater kayakists. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 23, No. 11, pp. 1297–1301, 1991. Physical and physiological factors accounting for the variability of performance in 500, 1000, 10,000, and 42,000 m flatwater kayaking were investigated using linear regression. Times achieved for each distance were used as the dependent variable for analysis while the independent variables were the parameters derived from the test battery. The 38 kayakists who participated were categorized as either state team members or non-selected paddlers, based on an objective selection policy. Several of the participant subjects were Australian international representatives. All selected paddlers were grouped together and Student's t-ests performed to determine which variables could distinguish between selected and nonselected paddlers. Simple regression was used to determine the strength of association of each parameter with performance time over each race distance, and multiple regression was used to generate equations for the prediction of performance times. Aerobic power and variables related to the aerobic-anaerobic transition were examined using gas analysis during an incremental workload test on a kayak ergometer. A 1-min all-out test also on a kayak ergometer was used to obtain an indication of anaerobic capacity and power. Muscular strength and fatigue were assessed using a simulated kayak stroke on a Cybex isokinetic dynamometer. Physical characteristics were determined using kinanthropometric tests. Aerobic power, anaerobic power and capacity, muscular strength, resistance to muscular fatigue, and measures of body size were significantly greater in more successful kayakists. All of the parameters measured correlated significantly with performance time over at least one of the four race distances. Regression equations developed from this test battery could account for a large percentage of the variance in performance time and may be useful for team selection, talent identification, and for identifying those factors that must be emphasized in the kayakists training program.