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W-09 Exercise is Medicine/Poster - Exercise is Medicine: JUNE 2, 2010 7: 30 AM - 12: 30 PM: ROOM: Hall C

Association Between Bone Density and Body Composition in Immigrant Hispanic Women: A Cross Sectional Study


Board #69 June 2 8:00 AM - 9:30 AM

Ballard, Joyce E. FACSM1; Cooper, Cheryl A.1; Holiday, David B.2

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Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2010 - Volume 42 - Issue 5 - p 264
doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000386655.31687.16
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Since 2000, most bone density studies in Hispanic women involved women already in the U.S. health-care system, who were U.S. born, able to communicate in English and relatively acculturated. Almost no bone density studies were reported in immigrant Hispanic women who were not part of any health network, were not familiar with English, and had very low acculturation rates.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between bone density and body composition (Bd Comp) variables in a cross sectional sample of immigrant Hispanic women (aged 40 to 73, mean 47.9 ± 7.0 yrs) with extremely low acculturation.

METHODS: Volunteers were 84 Hispanic women recruited from the community by a bilingual health educator. Inform consents were signed prior to testing. Body weight, standing height, three skinfolds, and body circumferences were measured according to standard procedures. Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated. Demographic information was obtained from an orally administered questionnaire. Bone density was assessed on a Hologic (Discovery C) DXA on the forearm, femur and lumbar spine. T scores were from the Hologic Hispanic database. Means (Ms) and standard deviations (SDs) were calculated on all variables. ANOVAs were used to determine differences in Bd Comp variables by age groups (40-44yrs, 45-49 yrs, 50-54 yrs and 55+ yrs), and differences in bone density variables by menopausal status. Partial correlation coefficients (affect of age removed) were used to assess relationships between Bd Comp and bone density.

RESULTS: Eighty-one (96.7%) were not born in the U.S., and 80% had less then an elementary education. Only two (2.4%) requested their interviews in English. Ms of the Bd Comp variables for selected variables were: body weight (73.9±14.1 kg), standing height (152.4±6.6), and BMI (31.8±6.8 kg/m2). One factor ANOVAs revealed no significant differences between the 4 age groups for any Bd Comp variable. BMI data for the entire group revealed: 9 were at normal weight (BMI <25), 27 overweight, (BMI 25-29), 41 obese (BMI 30-39) and 7 extremely obese (BMI>40). Ms for bone density (g/cm2) were: Total Spine L2-4, (0.995±0.11), Total Femur (0.998±0.13), and Total Distal Forearm (0.541±0.05). In the total group, 59% exhibited spinal osteopenia and 13% osteoporosis, but in the Total Femur, 89% had normal bone density. Significant partial correlations were found between Bd Comp variables (body weight, BMI, % Body fat, Fat weight, and fat free weight) and Total Femur BMD. While obesity may have been a protection of femoral bone density, it is also a risk factor for diabetes.

CONCLUSIONS: Education about the health risks of both obesity and osteoporosis should be made available to this group.

© 2010 American College of Sports Medicine