The main aim of the present meta-analysis was to examine the modifying effect of the number of sprint repetitions in an SIT session on the increase in V˙O2max after training. Using data from 34 training studies and 418 participants, we demonstrate that the improvement in V˙O2max with SIT is not attenuated with fewer sprint repetitions, and possibly even enhanced. Considering the low physical activity levels in the general population (25), and the fact that lack of time is consistently identified as one of the main perceived barriers to becoming and remaining physically active (39,41,71), this finding has implications for the design of practical SIT interventions for improving general health. SIT protocols have the potential to be the most time-efficient interventions that are associated with improvements in key health markers, but because of the need for recovery intervals after sprints, this potential can only truly be achieved if the number of sprint repetitions is low. Therefore, our observation that reducing the number of sprint repetitions will not attenuate the increase in V˙O2max associated with SIT, and in fact may possibly improve the effect, is an important novel finding.
Based predominantly on the results of studies investigating the dose–response relationship between regular aerobic exercise and improvements in health markers, it has generally been accepted that at a given exercise intensity, a greater volume of exercise training (in terms of training duration and frequency) is associated with greater improvements in V˙O2max (20). For example, in a clinical trial comparing low- or high-intensity aerobic training protocols with matched energy expenditure (Studies of a Targeted Risk Reduction Intervention through Defined Exercise I), the magnitude of change in V˙O2max was greater in the group exercising at a higher intensity (15). Although the volume of exercise used in HIIT and SIT protocols is generally reduced compared with aerobic exercise programs (11,47,63), the principle of a dose–response relationship has not been challenged in these studies directly; it is the interaction between training volume and intensity that is used to justify the lower volume. Thus, HIIT and SIT studies investigating the effects of protocols with a lower intensity or a shorter sprint duration tend to increase the number of sprint repetitions (45,69). Apart from two studies demonstrating that reducing sprint duration from 30 s to either 15 s (74) or 10 s (31) does not attenuate the improvement in V˙O2max with SIT, there have been no HIIT or SIT studies that have specifically investigated the dose–response relationship between volume of high-intensity exercise and the health outcomes. Our meta-analysis provides the first evidence that at “all-out” supramaximal exercise intensities the generally accepted positive association between volume of training and magnitude of training adaptations does not hold true. Thus, research into the health benefits of SIT should increase the focus on protocols with fewer sprints.
Because of the relatively low number of studies examining the effects of SIT protocols with fewer than six sprint repetitions, the present meta-analysis was not powerful enough to make conclusions on the optimal number of all-out sprint repetitions. Only two studies have investigated the effects of an SIT protocol incorporating just two sprints (50,52). As one of these used the largest sample size of all the studies included in the review (n = 34 ), the mean 10% increase in V˙O2max observed with this protocol (termed reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training [REHIT]) appears to be robust. The greatest improvement in absolute V˙O2max (17%) was reported by Gillen et al. (22), who modified the original REHIT protocol to include a third sprint. However, the total duration of this intervention was 12 wk, whereas at an intermediate measurement point after 6 wk, the increase in V˙O2max was 12%, very similar to the 10% and 14% improvements observed with the original REHIT protocol (50,52). Although future studies should determine whether the magnitude of the response for V˙O2max is different between SIT protocols incorporating two to four sprints, the data presented in the present manuscript suggest that this difference will be small. If this is indeed the case, then several considerations support the use of the smallest number of sprints; that is, the two sprints used in the REHIT protocol. First, including a warm-up, recovery, and cooldown, this protocol has the potential to be the most time-efficient protocol. Furthermore, a drawback of the use of SIT as a public health intervention is the potential for high associated perceived exertion and negative affective responses (8,21). In this light, it is important to point out that the number of sprint repetitions has been shown to negatively affect both of these parameters (19,44). Therefore, effective SIT protocols with fewer sprint repetitions will likely offer the best chance of sedentary target populations taking up and adhering to an SIT intervention for improving health (18). With this in mind, the available evidence suggests that two sprints can be recommended as effective at improving the important health marker of V˙O2max. It could be argued that considering the apparent linear association between the number of sprint repetitions and the improvement in V˙O2max (Fig. 4A), a single sprint could be expected to produce similar improvements with a lower time commitment. However, we have recently performed the first study to investigate the effects of a single supramaximal sprint on V˙O2max and observed no significant increase compared with a no-exercise control condition in response to 4 wk of training with a sample size of n = 15 (67). Further studies are required to confirm whether supramaximal sprints only improve V˙O2max if they are repeated. Furthermore, in light of the fact that the majority of studies that have studied the effects of SIT protocols incorporating two or three sprint repetitions have used 20-s sprints rather than the more commonly used 30-s sprints (22,23,50,52), further studies are required to investigate the shortest sprint duration that can be used without attenuating the adaptations to V˙O2max.
Our present analysis does not provide an explanation for the possibly negative effect of reducing the maximal number of sprint repetitions on improvements in V˙O2max, but a discussion of possible mechanisms is warranted. The main limiting factor of V˙O2max is generally assumed to be maximal cardiac output, possibly through increased blood volume (7,55). To date, no studies have examined the effect of SIT on blood volume, but there is evidence in favor (17,74) and against (36) increases in blood volume in response to HIIT. Similarly, there is evidence in favor (3) and against (47) increased maximal cardiac output with SIT, with the latter finding suggesting that the adaptations to SIT for V˙O2max may be peripheral in origin. Indeed, several authors have proposed that improvements in V˙O2max with SIT are caused by improved skeletal muscle oxygen extraction because of increased mitochondrial density (22,36,57,65,77). Although it remains unclear whether the improvement in V˙O2max with SIT is due to central or peripheral adaptations, we propose that both increased blood volume and increased mitochondrial density could plausibly be explained by the rapid glycogen depletion associated with supramaximal exercise (51). First, maximal rates of glycogenolysis in the initial 15 s of a supramaximal sprint (58) are associated with the accumulation of metabolic derivatives, resulting in a hypertonic intramyocellular environment, influx of water, and a transient ~15%–20% drop in plasma volume within a time span of just a few minutes (51). This severe disturbance of circulatory homeostasis could be a stimulus for the body to increase blood volume in response to repeated SIT sessions. Second, glycogenolysis is associated with the release and activation of glycogen-bound 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (59), which through downstream signaling pathways involving peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (a proposed master regulator of aerobic adaptations) could be a mechanism leading to increased mitochondrial density (30). Glycogen breakdown during repeated supramaximal sprints has been shown to be completely attenuated by the time of the third sprint (58), and it is therefore plausible, for both of these speculated mechanisms, that performing just two repeated supramaximal sprints is sufficient to “saturate” (i.e., maximally activate) the adaptive response. In other words, if either increased blood volume or mitochondrial density underpins the changes in V˙O2max with SIT, and if rapid glycogen breakdown regulates those adaptations, then no additional improvements would be expected if more than 2–3 sprints are performed in a training session.
Apart from this hypothesis, it is also possible that increasing the number of sprint repetitions will result in “pacing” strategies that affect the “all-out” nature of the sprints (e.g., reduction of peak and mean power output in initial sprints), or that accumulated fatigue may reduce the effectiveness of later sprints. Furthermore, the fact that increasing the number of sprint repetitions does not enhance the improvement in V˙O2max with SIT provides strong evidence against a role for the magnitude of the acute effects of supramaximal sprints on oxygen transfer, energy turnover, or total energy use, as part of the stimulus for improving V˙O2max with SIT, because for each of these factors the stimulus should be greater with more sprint repetitions.
Several limitations to the present meta-analysis should be noted. First, to be of use as a practical intervention for preventing and/or treating inactivity-related chronic disease, SIT interventions should also be effective at improving for example insulin sensitivity and glycemic control, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, and body composition. Therefore, one limitation is that only V˙O2max was included as an outcome measure in the present analysis. However, insufficient data for a meta-analysis are available for the effects of SIT on blood pressure (14,23,76), blood lipid profile (4,76), and body composition (69,76), but the effect of SIT on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control has received more attention (4,22,23,50,52,60,76). However, the methods used to assess the effects of SIT on these parameters have varied, with different studies using oral glucose tolerance tests (4,50,52,76), intravenous glucose tolerance tests (22), euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamps (60), or continuous glucose monitoring (23). This means that a meta-analysis of the effects of the number of sprint repetitions in an SIT protocol on insulin sensitivity and glycemic control is also currently not feasible. Nonetheless, the improvements in insulin sensitivity and glycemic control observed to date with SIT protocols incorporating two (50) or three sprints (22,23) are encouraging.
Second, because of the number of available SIT studies, the power of our meta-analysis is insufficient to conclude with certainty that the modifying effect of the number of sprint repetitions is negative; i.e., it remains possible that in reality performing more sprints will result in the same improvements in V˙O2max (a chance of approximately 1 in 3). However, this is not of major importance to the significance of our findings: even “no effect” of the number of sprint repetitions would lead to the logical conclusion that performing SIT protocols with more than 2 or 3 sprints is unnecessary for improving V˙O2max in sedentary individuals. On the basis of the present analysis, the chance that in reality the effect of performing more sprints is positive was calculated as 0.0%.
A final limitation of our meta-analysis is that only SIT interventions using all-out intensities were included. Optimizing time-efficient interventions aimed at improving general health requires consideration of various parameters, and exercise intensity is undoubtedly one of the key parameters affecting the effectiveness of HIIT and SIT protocols. However, because of the large range of intensities used in SIT and HIIT protocols (~80%–350% of V˙O2max), we felt it was important to attempt to “control” for this variable in the present analysis by including only studies that used “all-out” cycling exercise. Nonetheless, there is a clear need for studies examining the effect of the number of sprint repetitions at lower exercise intensities; for example, in HIIT studies.
In conclusion, in the present meta-analysis, we demonstrate that SIT is possibly more effective at improving V˙O2max if fewer sprint repetitions are performed in a training session. Considering the proclaimed aim of SIT to provide a time-efficient alternative/adjunct to high-volume moderate-intensity aerobic exercise, this finding has important implications for the design of practical SIT interventions. We put forward that SIT research should move away from further characterizing the commonly used 4–7 × 30-s Wingate protocol and toward establishing acceptable and effective protocols. This will require more studies to examine the modifying effects of a range of training parameters (including number of sprint repetitions, sprint duration, sprint intensity, and training frequency) on adaptations to key health markers, as well as exercise enjoyment and acceptability, perceived exertion, and the potential to cause negative affective responses.
The authors thank Professor Will Hopkins for helpful advice during the preparation of the manuscript. No sources of funding were used to assist in the preparation of this review. The authors have no conflicts of interest to declare. The results of the study are presented clearly, honestly, and without fabrication, falsification, or inappropriate data manipulation. The results of the present study do not constitute endorsement by the American College of Sports Medicine.
1. Allemeier CA, Fry AC, Johnson P, Hikida RS, Hagerman FC, Staron RS. Effects of sprint cycle training on human skeletal muscle. J Appl Physiol (1985)
2. Astorino TA, Allen RP, Roberson DW, et al. Adaptations to high-intensity training are independent of gender. Eur J Appl Physiol
3. Astorino TA, Edmunds RM, Clark A, et al. High-intensity interval training increases cardiac output and V˙O2max
. Med Sci Sports Exerc
4. Babraj JA, Vollaard NB, Keast C, Guppy FM, Cottrell G, Timmons JA. Extremely short duration high intensity interval training substantially improves insulin action in young healthy males. BMC Endocr Disord
5. Bailey SJ, Wilkerson DP, Dimenna FJ, Jones AM. Influence of repeated sprint training on pulmonary O2
uptake and muscle deoxygenation kinetics in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985)
6. Barnett C, Carey M, Proietto J, Cerin E, Febbraio MA, Jenkins D. Muscle metabolism during sprint exercise in man: influence of sprint training. J Sci Med Sport
7. Bassett DR Jr, Howley ET. Limiting factors for maximum oxygen uptake and determinants of endurance performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc
8. Bayati M, Farzad B, Gharakhanlou R, Agha-Alinejad H. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces performance and metabolic adaptations that resemble ‘all-out’ sprint interval training
. J Sports Sci Med
9. Blair SN, Kohl HW 3rd, Barlow CE, Paffenbarger RS Jr, Gibbons LW, Macera CA. Changes in physical fitness and all-cause mortality. A prospective study of healthy and unhealthy men. JAMA
10. Burgomaster KA, Heigenhauser GJ, Gibala MJ. Effect of short-term sprint interval training
on human skeletal muscle carbohydrate metabolism during exercise and time-trial performance. J Appl Physiol (1985)
11. Burgomaster KA, Howarth KR, Phillips SM, et al. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans. J Physiol
12. Burgomaster KA, Hughes SC, Heigenhauser GJ, Bradwell SN, Gibala MJ. Six sessions of sprint interval training
increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985)
13. Cochran AJ, Percival ME, Tricarico S, et al. Intermittent and continuous high-intensity exercise training induce similar acute but different chronic muscle adaptations. Exp Physiol
14. Cocks M, Shaw CS, Shepherd SO, et al. Sprint interval and endurance training are equally effective in increasing muscle microvascular density and eNOS content in sedentary males. J Physiol
15. Duscha BD, Slentz CA, Johnson JL, et al. Effects of exercise training amount and intensity on peak oxygen consumption in middle-age men and women at risk for cardiovascular disease. Chest
16. Ekelund U, Ward HA, Norat T, et al. Physical activity and all-cause mortality across levels of overall and abdominal adiposity in European men and women: the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study (EPIC). Am J Clin Nutr
17. Esfandiari S, Sasson Z, Goodman JM. Short-term high-intensity interval and continuous moderate-intensity training improve maximal aerobic power and diastolic filling during exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol
18. Foster C, Farland CV, Guidotti F, et al. The effects of high intensity interval training vs steady state training on aerobic and anaerobic capacity. J Sports Sci Med
19. Frazão DT, de Farias Junior LF, Dantas TC, et al. Feeling of pleasure to high-intensity interval exercise is dependent of the number of work bouts and physical activity status. PLoS One
20. Garber CE, Blissmer B, Deschenes MR, et al. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory, musculoskeletal, and neuromotor fitness in apparently healthy adults: guidance for prescribing exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc
21. Gillen JB, Gibala MJ. Is high-intensity interval training a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve health and fitness? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
22. Gillen JB, Martin BJ, MacInnis MJ, Skelly LE, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. Twelve weeks of sprint interval training
improves indices of cardiometabolic health similar to traditional endurance training despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PLoS One
23. Gillen JB, Percival ME, Skelly LE, et al. Three minutes of all-out intermittent exercise per week increases skeletal muscle oxidative capacity and improves cardiometabolic health. PLoS One
24. Gist NH, Fedewa MV, Dishman RK, Cureton KJ. Sprint interval training
effects on aerobic capacity
: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Sports Med
25. Hallal PC, Andersen LB, Bull FC, et al. Global physical activity levels: surveillance progress, pitfalls, and prospects. Lancet
26. Hardcastle SJ, Ray H, Beale L, Hagger MS. Why sprint interval training
is inappropriate for a largely sedentary population. Front Psychol
27. Harmer AR, McKenna MJ, Sutton JR, et al. Skeletal muscle metabolic and ionic adaptations during intense exercise following sprint training in humans. J Appl Physiol (1985)
28. Harmer AR, Ruell PA, McKenna MJ, et al. Effects of sprint training on extrarenal potassium regulation with intense exercise in Type 1 diabetes. J Appl Physiol (1985)
29. Harris E, Rakobowchuk M, Birch KM. Sprint interval and sprint continuous training increases circulating CD34+ cells and cardio-respiratory fitness in young healthy women. PLoS One
. 2014;9(9): e108720.
30. Hawley JA. Molecular responses to strength and endurance training: are they incompatible? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
31. Hazell TJ, Macpherson RE, Gravelle BM, Lemon PW. 10 or 30-s sprint interval training
bouts enhance both aerobic and anaerobic performance. Eur J Appl Physiol
32. Hellsten-Westing Y, Balsom PD, Norman B, Sjodin B. The effect of high-intensity training on purine metabolism in man. Acta Physiol Scand
33. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J. Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science. Med Sci Sports Exerc
34. Hunter DJ, Reddy KS. Noncommunicable diseases. N Engl J Med
35. Ijichi T, Hasegawa Y, Morishima T, Kurihara T, Hamaoka T, Goto K. Effect of sprint training: training once daily versus twice every second day. Eur J Sport Sci
36. Jacobs RA, Fluck D, Bonne TC, et al. Improvements in exercise performance with high-intensity interval training coincide with an increase in skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function. J Appl Physiol (1985)
37. Katz A, Sharp RL, King DS, Costill DL, Fink WJ, et al. Effect of high intensity interval training on 2,3-diphosphoglycerate at rest and after maximal exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol
38. Keteyian SJ, Brawner CA, Savage PD, et al. Peak aerobic capacity
predicts prognosis in patients with coronary heart disease. Am Heart J
39. Kimm SY, Glynn NW, McMahon RP, Voorhees CC, Striegel-Moore RH, Daniels SR. Self-perceived barriers to activity participation among sedentary adolescent girls. Med Sci Sports Exer
40. Kiviniemi AM, Tulppo MP, Eskelinen JJ, et al. Autonomic function predicts fitness response to short-term high-intensity interval training. Int J Sports Med
41. Korkiakangas EE, Alahuhta MA, Laitinen JH. Barriers to regular exercise among adults at high risk or diagnosed with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review
. Health Promot Int
42. Larsen RG, Befroy DE, Kent-Braun JA. High-intensity interval training increases in vivo oxidative capacity with no effect on P(i) → ATP rate in resting human muscle. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol
43. Lee DC, Sui X, Artero EG, et al. Long-term effects of changes in cardiorespiratory fitness
and body mass index on all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality in men: the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study. Circulation
44. Little JP, Gillen JB, Percival ME, et al. Low-volume high-intensity interval training reduces hyperglycemia and increases muscle mitochondrial capacity in patients with type 2 diabetes. J Appl Physiol (1985)
45. Little JP, Safdar A, Wilkin GP, Tarnopolsky MA, Gibala MJ. A practical model of low-volume high-intensity interval training induces mitochondrial biogenesis in human skeletal muscle: potential mechanisms. J Physiol
. 2010;588(Pt 6):1011–22.
46. MacDougall JD, Hicks AL, MacDonald JR, McKelvie RS, Green HJ, Smith KM. Muscle performance and enzymatic adaptations to sprint interval training
. J Appl Physiol (1985)
47. Macpherson RE, Hazell TJ, Olver TD, Paterson DH, Lemon PW. Run sprint interval training
improves aerobic performance but not maximal cardiac output. Med Sci Sports Exerc
48. McGarr GW, Hartley GL, Cheung SS. Neither short-term sprint nor endurance training enhances thermal response to exercise in a hot environment. J Occup Environ Hyg
49. McKenna MJ, Heigenhauser GJ, McKelvie RS, Obminski G, MacDougall JD, Jones NL. Enhanced pulmonary and active skeletal muscle gas exchange during intense exercise after sprint training in men. J Physiol
. 1997;501(Pt 3):703–16.
50. Metcalfe RS, Babraj JA, Fawkner SG, Vollaard NB. Towards the minimal amount of exercise for improving metabolic health: beneficial effects of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training. Eur J Appl Physiol
51. Metcalfe RS, Koumanov F, Ruffino JS, et al. Physiological and molecular responses to an acute bout of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT). Eur J Appl Physiol
52. Metcalfe RS, Tardif N, Thompson D, Vollaard NBJ. Health benefits of reduced-exertion high-intensity interval training (REHIT) are not different between sedentary men and women. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab
53. Milanovic Z, Sporis G, Weston M. Effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIT) and continuous endurance training for V˙O2max
improvements: a systematic review
and meta-analysis of controlled trials. Sports Med
54. Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, Group P. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. BMJ
55. Montero D, Diaz-Canestro C, Lundby C. Endurance training and VO2max
: role of maximal cardiac output and oxygen extraction. Med Sci Sports Exerc
56. Myers J, Prakash M, Froelicher V, Do D, Partington S, Atwood JE. Exercise capacity and mortality among men referred for exercise testing. N Engl J Med
57. Nalcakan GR. The effects of sprint interval vs. continuous endurance training on physiological and metabolic adaptations in young healthy adults. J Hum Kinet
58. Parolin ML, Chesley A, Matsos MP, Spriet LL, Jones NL, Heigenhauser GJ. Regulation of skeletal muscle glycogen phosphorylase and PDH during maximal intermittent exercise. Am J Physiol
. 1999;277(5 Pt 1):E890–900.
59. Philp A, Hargreaves M, Baar K. More than a store: regulatory roles for glycogen in skeletal muscle adaptation to exercise. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab
60. Richards JC, Johnson TK, Kuzma JN, et al. Short-term sprint interval training
increases insulin sensitivity in healthy adults but does not affect the thermogenic response to beta-adrenergic stimulation. J Physiol
. 2010;588(Pt 15):2961–72.
61. Richardson AJ, Gibson OR. Simulated hypoxia does not further improve aerobic capacity
during sprint interval training
. J Sports Med Phys Fitness
62. Scalzo RL, Peltonen GL, Binns SE, et al. Greater muscle protein synthesis and mitochondrial biogenesis in males compared with females during sprint interval training
. FASEB J
63. Shepherd SO, Cocks M, Tipton KD, et al. Sprint interval and traditional endurance training increase net intramuscular triglyceride breakdown and expression of perilipin 2 and 5. J Physiol
64. Skleryk JR, Karagounis LG, Hawley JA, Sharman MJ, Laursen PB, Watson G. Two weeks of reduced-volume sprint interval or traditional exercise training does not improve metabolic functioning in sedentary obese men. Diabetes Obes Metab
65. Sloth M, Sloth D, Overgaard K, Dalgas U. Effects of sprint interval training
and aerobic exercise performance: a systematic review
and meta-analysis. Scand J Med Sci Sports
66. Smith TB, Hopkins WG. Variability and predictability of finals times of elite rowers. Med Sci Sports Exerc
67. Songsorn P, Lambeth-Mansell A, Mair JL, et al. Exercise training comprising of single 20-s cycle sprints does not provide a sufficient stimulus for improving maximal aerobic capacity
in sedentary individuals. Eur J Appl Physiol
68. Stathis CG, Febbraio MA, Carey MF, Snow RJ. Influence of sprint training on human skeletal muscle purine nucleotide metabolism. J Appl Physiol (1985)
69. Trapp EG, Chisholm DJ, Freund J, Boutcher SH. The effects of high-intensity intermittent exercise training on fat loss and fasting insulin levels of young women. Int J Obes (Lond)
70. Trilk JL, Singhal A, Bigelman KA, Cureton KJ. Effect of sprint interval training
on circulatory function during exercise in sedentary, overweight/obese women. Eur J Appl Physiol
71. Trost SG, Owen N, Bauman AE, Sallis JF, Brown W. Correlates of adults' participation in physical activity: review and update. Med Sci Sports Exerc
72. Vandenbogaerde TJ, Hopkins WG. Effects of acute carbohydrate supplementation on endurance performance: a meta-analysis. Sports Med
73. Viechtbauer W. Conducting meta-analyses in R with the metafor package. J Stat Soft
74. Warburton DE, Haykowsky MJ, Quinney HA, et al. Blood volume expansion and cardiorespiratory function: effects of training modality. Med Sci Sports Exerc
75. Weston M, Taylor KL, Batterham AM, Hopkins WG. Effects of low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) on fitness in adults: a meta-analysis of controlled and non-controlled trials. Sports Med
76. Whyte LJ, Gill JM, Cathcart AJ. Effect of 2 weeks of sprint interval training
on health-related outcomes in sedentary overweight/obese men. Metabolism
77. Zelt JG, Hankinson PB, Foster WS, et al. Reducing the volume of sprint interval training
does not diminish maximal and submaximal performance gains in healthy men. Eur J Appl Physiol