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F-26 Free Communication/Poster - Drugs, Supplements and Ergogenic Aids

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 5S - p 561–571
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000433744.38498.be
Abstract
Free

May 31, 2013, 1:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Room: Hall C

2387 Board #88 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect of Sodium Bicarbonate Supplementation on 2000m Rowing Performance

Craig Sale1, Roger Harris2, Dan Martin1, Perry Smith1, Ben Macklin1, Kirsty Elliott-Sale1, Ruth M. Hobson1. 1Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, United Kingdom. 2Junipa Ltd, Newmarket, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

The ability to buffer H+ could be vital to exercise performance as high concentrations of H+ contribute to the development of fatigue. The ability of sodium bicarbonate to improve rowing capacity and performance has previously been investigated, however results remain equivocal and such studies use small numbers of participants.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate supplementation on 2000m rowing ergometer performance.

METHODS: Twenty trained male rowers (age 23±4y; height 1.85±0.08m; mass 82.5±8.9kg; 2000m personal best time 409±16s) completed two 2000m rowing ergometer tests as fast as possible, separated by 48h. Participants were supplemented prior to exercise with 0.3g·kg-1BM of sodium bicarbonate (SB), or a placebo (maltodextrin; PLA). The doses were administered as 0.2g·kg-1BM four hours before the trial and 0.1g·kg-1BM two hours before the trial in an effort to prevent gastrointestinal distress. Trials were conducted using a double blinded, randomised, counterbalanced cross over study design. Time to complete the 2000m and time taken for each 500m were recorded and blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH and base excess were determined pre-exercise, immediately post-exercise and 5 minutes post-exercise. Performance data were analysed using paired t-tests and magnitude based inferences (MBI), while haematological data were analysed using a repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: With SB the 2000m test was completed 1.2±4.1s faster (PLA 412.0±15.1s, SB 410.7±14.9s; P=0.095; MBI: likely beneficial). Furthermore, SB was 0.5±1.2s faster than PLA in the third 500m (P=0.035; MBI: likely beneficial) and 1.1±1.7s faster in the fourth 500m (P=0.004; MBI: very likely beneficial). One participant experienced severe gastrointestinal distress on the SB trial but was still able to perform the test, improving performance, although this could be due to the removal of the blinding. Blood lactate, bicarbonate, pH and base excess were all significantly different between SB and PLA. Bicarbonate, pH and base excess fell and lactate rose from pre-exercise to post-exercise.

CONCLUSIONS: Sodium bicarbonate supplementation is likely to be beneficial to the performance of those competing in 2000m rowing events, particularly in the second half of the event.

2388 Board #89 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Interaction of Quercetin Supplementation and Exercise on Mouse Hindlimb Muscle Function

Mary Pat Meaney, Lynn Cialdella-Kam, R. Andrew Shanely, Amy Knab, David C. Nieman, FACSM. Appalachian State University, Kannapolis, NC.

Supported by M.P. Meaney: Salary; Quercegen Pharma.

Quercetin (Q), epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and chronic aerobic exercise are associated with improved endurance performance and capacity. However, it is unclear whether the combination of these treatments can have a synergistic effect on athletic performance in untrained individuals.

PURPOSE: To determine whether Q and/or EGCG supplementation during chronic aerobic exercise improves mouse hindlimb muscle function more than Q, EGCG or aerobic exercise alone.

METHODS: 8-wk-old C57BL/6J mice were fed chow with or without Q (25 mg/kg body weight/d) and/or EGCG (5 mg/kg body weight/d) for 8 d. Half of the mice ran on a motor-driven treadmill (20 m/min, 60 min/d) for 7 d followed by 1 d of rest. Subsequently, mice in all groups underwent in vivo muscle function testing. Briefly, each mouse was secured to a 1300A – Intact Muscle/Whole Mouse Test System (Aurora Scientific, Inc.; Aurora, ON) and platinum electrodes were inserted into the gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus complex. Dynamic Muscle Control Software v5.300 (DMC; Aurora Scientific, Inc.) was used to administer one twitch, one tetanic contraction (i.e., 500 ms of stimulation at 160 Hz) and a submaximal fatiguing stimulus (i.e., 500 ms of stimulation at 30 Hz every 4 sec for 30 min) to the right hindlimb. Responses were recorded with DMC and analyzed with Dynamic Muscle Analysis Software v5.012 (Aurora Scientific, Inc.). Comparisons were made by two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Tukey’s HSD was used for post-hoc analyses.

RESULTS: Hindlimb twitch properties (i.e., time to peak tension, peak torque, half relaxation time) were not affected by any of the interventions. Maximum tetanic torque was greater in mice that ran and consumed the Q+EGCG diet than in sedentary mice that consumed the control diet (66.8 ± 3.4 N/g wet weight vs. 53.4 ± 2.5 N/g wet weight; P<0.05). Submaximal hindlimb force output following the fatiguing stimulus was greater in mice that ran while consuming the Q+EGCG diet than in those which remained sedentary while consuming the Q+EGCG diet (57.8 ± 2.6% of initial vs. 34.0 ± 7.6% of initial; P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Exercise training in combination with 8 d of supplementation with Q+EGCG was associated with improvements in muscle function (i.e., maximum tetanic torque, fatigue resistance) relative to sedentary mice.

Supported by Quercegen Pharma.

2389 Board #90 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect of Short-term Thyroxine Supplementation on Substrate Utilization during Exercise

Melissa L. Lupo1, Darcy L. Johannsen1, Neil M. Johannsen2, Jose E. Galgani3, Eric Ravussin1. 1Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA. 2Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 3Faculty of Medicine Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile. (Sponsor: Conrad P. Earnest., FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Thyroid hormone replacement therapy is used to treat thyroidal and non-thyroidal conditions and has well-known effects on resting metabolism. We previously reported on the effect of thyroxine (T4) supplementation on energy expenditure during an incremental exercise test. However, the effect of acute T4 supplementation on substrate utilization in euthyroid men is unknown.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of 3 days of T4 supplementation on substrate utilization during an incremental exercise test.

METHODS: Nine healthy men (mean±SD; age = 25.4±4.6 y; BMI = 23.7±1.9 kg/m2) with normal plasma triodothyronine (T3), T4, and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels participated in incremental exercise tests before and after 3 days of T4 supplementation (100 μg b.i.d). Each exercise test consisted of five 6-min intervals at 0, 35, 70, 105, and 140 Watts on a cycle ergometer separated by 6 min of rest. Substrate utilization (carbohydrate and fat oxidation rates) were measured using indirect calorimetry. Maximal fat oxidation rate (MFO) and the incremental work rate corresponding to MFO were compared before and after T4 supplementation.RESULTS: Thyroxine and free T4 increased (7.1±1.0 vs. 9.9±0.7 μg/dL and 1.18±0.14 vs. 1.55±0.14 ng/dL; respectively; P<0.001 for both) and TSH decreased (1.84±1.01 and 0.91±0.34 μU/mL; P=0.013) after supplementation. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA revealed no effect of T4 supplementation on carbohydrate oxidation (P=0.37) or fat oxidation (P=0.11) rates. Likewise, total carbohydrate oxidation (P=0.49) and fat oxidation (P=0.36) were unchanged with T4 supplementation. However, MFO was reduced by approximately 11% (0.22±0.09 and 0.20±0.09 g/min; P=0.055) and the incremental work rate at MFO tended to be lower (42.8±42.1 and 31.1±36.9 Watts; P=0.08) after supplementation.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study suggest that despite the lack of significant incremental differences in fat oxidation rates, T4 supplementation may reduce individual maximal fat oxidation rates and the workload required to elicit MFO.

Supported by NIH P01AG22064 and NORC Center Grant 2P30DK072476

2390 Board #91 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effects Of Adding Flavanols To A “Light” Carbohydrate-Protein Beverage On Recovery And Performance After Concurrent Exercise

Daniel A. Judelson, FACSM1, Nicole E. Moyen1, Andrea M. Du Bois1, Debra L. Miller2, Amy G. Preston2. 1California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA. 2Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition, Hershey, PA.

Supported by D.A. Judelson: Contracted Research - Including Principle Investigator; The Hershey Company.

Previous research indicates that supplementing carbohydrate (C), protein (P), or flavanols (F) before and after exercise decreases muscle damage, reduces soreness, and/or enhances subsequent exercise performance. Little research has evaluated the recovery potential of ingesting all three ingredients simultaneously, particularly in low doses or with females.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of adding cocoa-based F to a CP beverage on recovery from and subsequent performance of concurrent (combined resistance and endurance) exercise.

METHODS: Twenty healthy, recreationally-trained females (age = 23 ± 2 y, mass = 58.9 ± 6.2 kg, height = 164.2 ± 7.3 cm) completed three experimental trials, each composed of two concurrent exercise bouts performed on consecutive days. The first bout entailed standardized exercise volume and intensity; during the second bout, participants self-selected exercise intensity to match a preset perceived exertion. Immediately following the first bout, subjects consumed 325 mL of a non-caloric placebo (PLA), CP (140 kcal), or CPF (140 kcal) beverage. Myoglobin (Mb), creatine kinase (CK), and subjective soreness (SS) were assessed before the first bout, between bouts, and immediately prior to the second bout; vertical jump and peak isometric force were collected immediately prior to the second exercise bout.

RESULTS: No significant differences existed among trials in Mb, CK, or SS. Similarly, no significant differences existed among trials in vertical jump (PLA = 25.6 ± 0.9 cm, CP = 25.4 ± 1.1 cm, CPF = 25.6 ± 1.0 cm), peak isometric force (PLA = 867.2 ± 27.3 N, CP = 890.5 ± 32.9 N, CPF = 880.2 ± 29.7 N), total mass lifted during the self-selected resistance exercise (PLA = 4453.5 ± 238.0 kg, CP = 4552.6 ± 239.4 kg, CPF = 4488.0 ± 235.1 kg), or total work completed during the self-selected endurance exercise (PLA = 162.7 ± 7.4 kJ, CP = 169.6 ± 7.2 kJ, CPF = 165.9 ± 7.5 kJ).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest 140 kcal combinations of CP and CPF fail to mitigate muscle damage, attenuate soreness, improve subsequent maximal performance, and enhance self-selected submaximal exercise intensity after concurrent exercise in recreationally-trained females. We hypothesize the beverages’ low energy content best explains the lack of ergogenic benefits.

The Hershey Center for Health and Nutrition funded this research.

2391 Board #92 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Play On: The Impact Of Inhaled Salbutamol On Soccer Performance In Males And Females

John W. Dickinson1, Neil Chester2, Jie Hu2, Barry Drust2, Mike Loosemore3, Greg Whyte, FACSM2. 1University of Kent, Chatham Maritime, United Kingdom. 2Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 3English Institute of Sport, London, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

To date, there are no published studies examining the impact of inhaled short acting β2-agonists on soccer performance. Given the global importance of soccer it is imperative that the performance impact of inhaled short acting β2-agonists be examined to justify their position on the WADA list of prohibited substances.

PURPOSE: To investigate the ergogenic effect of inhaling 800 μg and 1600 μg of Salbutamol versus placebo in male and female soccer players.

METHODS: Seven male (mean+SD; age 23.1+3.9 years; weight 72.9+4.3 kg; height 177+4.7 cm) and six female (21.3+1.4 years; 63.9+5.8 kg; height 162.3+4.7 cm) non-asthmatic soccer players provided consent. On three separate occasions players were required to complete a 52 minute soccer specific running protocol followed by twelve 17.5 m sprints. Fifteen minutes prior to the initiation of each run players inhaled one of the following treatments: placebo (PLA), 800 μg inhaled salbutamol (SAL800) or 1600 μg inhaled salbutamol (SAL1600). During the repeated sprints time, power, velocity, blood lactate and peak HR were recorded. Average sprint time, peak power, peak velocity, peak HR and peak blood lactate between treatments was analysed by repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: Average sprint time, maximum power, maximum velocity, peak HR and peak blood lactate during the 17.5 m sprints were not significantly different between treatments in male and female players (table 1).

Table 1

Table 1

CONCLUSION: There was no improvement in performance following the inhalation of up to 1600 μg of salbutamol in non-asthmatic soccer players. This would suggest that the current WADA list of banned substances, which allows athletes to inhale up to 1600 μg is sufficient given the findings from this and previous studies.

2392 Board #93 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Impact Of Ethnicity, Gender And Dehydration On The Urinary Excretion Of Inhaled Salbutamol

Neil Chester1, John Dickinson2, Jie Hu1, Mike Loosemore3, Greg Whyte, FACSM1. 1Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 2University of Kent, Canterbury, United Kingdom. 3University College London, London, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol concern has been raised that inhalation of 1600 μg (WADA daily upper limit) in a single episode may result in urine concentrations close to the WADA threshold of 1000 ng.ml-1 and, therefore, result in an adverse analytical finding (AAF). Furthermore, loss of body fluid as a result of dehydration may have a profound effect on urine concentration of inhaled short acting β2-agonist. WADA impose global regulations and yet little is known of the impact of ethnicity on the pharmacokinetics of inhaled short acting β2-agonist and their subsequent appearance in the urine.

PURPOSE: To examine the impact of dehydration, gender and ethnicity following the inhalation of salbutamol at intermediate and high doses on urinary concentrations in relation to the threshold as stipulated on the 2012 WADA Prohibited List.

METHODS: Seventeen male and 15 female athletes (9 Caucasian males, 9 Caucasian Females, 2 Afro-Caribbean males, 2 Afro-Caribbean females, 6 Asian males and 4 Asian females) were recruited for this study. Participants were required to exercise in a hot, controlled environment (35oC, 40% relative humidity) at a self-selected pace until a target body mass loss (2% or 5%) was achieved following the inhalation of 800μg or 1600μg of Salbutamol. A post-exercise urine sample was collected and salbutamol concentration was determined using LC-MS.

RESULTS: Relative dehydration (2% or 5%) was shown to have a significant effect on urine drug concentration following inhalation of 800μg (188.35+146.62 vs 363.92+284.84 ng.ml-1, p < 0.01) but not 1600μg (1055.37+981.03 vs 1059.81+709.33 ng.ml-1, p > 0.05) of salbutamol. Whilst there were no differences according to gender or ethnic origin a large inter-individual variation existed indicating that urine drug concentrations above the current WADA limit (1000 ng.ml-1) and decision limit (1200 ng.ml-1) were possible following inhalation of 1600 μg of salbutamol.

CONCLUSIONS: A body mass loss greater than 2% concomitant to the acute inhalation of 1600 μg of Salbutamol may result in a urine concentration above the current WADA threshold and decision limit leading to an AAF independent of gender or ethnic origin.

Supported by the WADA Research Grant Program.

2393 Board #94 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Usage of Triamcinolone Acetonide for Tendon Injection in Athletes

Tesng Yi-Chun1, Chen Ting-Ting1, Huang Tai-Yuan2, Chang-Chien Guo-Ping3, Lin Su-Fan3, Hsu Mei-Chich4. 1National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 2Yuan’s General Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 3Cheng Shiu University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. 4Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Kuo, C.H., FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

According to the 2012 Prohibited List World Anti-Doping Code, triamcinolone acetonide (TA) is classified as S9 glucocorticoids prohibited in-competition when administered by oral, intravenous, intramuscular or rectal routes. Although other common administration routes such as intra-articular injection and tendon injection are not prohibited in accordance with the relevant regulations, whether these routes of administration would cause positive results is still unclear. Furthermore, to avoid the unnecessary confirmation (and reporting) of many analytically positive samples not corresponding to a doping offence, the metabolic situation and available doses of TA are worth investigating.

PURPOSE:This study examined the triamcinolone acetonide/ triamcinolone concentration in the urine through a single intra-articular injection or a single tendon injection of TA.

METHODS: This study was carried out on 7 patients suffering from sports injuries or joint pains. TA was administered locally (intra-articular injection doses varied from 20 to 80 mg; tendon injection doses varied from 12 mg to 40 mg). Samplers were extracted by solid-phase extraction column after hydrolysis. The elution solvents were collected and dried. The dried residue was reconstituted and assayed by LC-MS/MS in a positive ionization mode using electrospray ionization and multiple reactions monitoring as the acquisition mode.

RESULTS: This study provided the excretion evidence for TA following the local injection of the TA. In the assayed samples (14 samples), two urine samples were found that their concentrations of TA in urine were over the MRPL (30 ng/mL). One was 33.1 ng/mL which was collected after 2 hours following a single dose (40 mg of TA) of tendon injection, and the other was 43.4 ng/mL which was collected after 5 hours following a lower dose (12 mg of TA) of tendon injection.

CONCLUSIONS: Intra-articular injection and tendon injection of TA seems to be allowed to use for the athletes. Our results found that the urine concentration of TA in patients who received a single tendon injection could exceed 30 ng/mL. It will cause a positive test result to violate the WADA rules, even though the administration of tendon injection is legal. Therefore, we suggested that athletes should be aware when using tendon injection of TA in-competition period.

2394 Board #95 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

A Pre-exercise Dose Of Melatonin Can Alter Substrate Use During Exercise

Arnold G. Nelson, FACSM1, Greggory R. Davis1, Tyler M. Farney1, Ryan W. Miskowiec1, Cardyl P. Trionfante1, Joke Kokkonen2. 1Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 2Brigham Young University- Hawaii, Laie, HI.

(No relationships reported)

Data concerning exogenous melatonin’s influence on fuel utilization during rest in humans have been equivocal, showing melatonin to either increase glucose removal, or decrease glucose usage. In addition, changes in substrate use with exogenous melatonin, during exercise have not been reported.

PURPOSE: This study compared substrate utilization during a 30 min graded exercise while on either 6 mg melatonin (M) or placebo (P, 50 mg methylcellulose). Method: Participants (12 women, 12 men, college students 19-26 years) performed stages 1-5 of the Naughton graded exercise protocol for 30 min (6 min stages). Each exercise was performed 4 times (2x melatonin, 2x placebo) at the same time of day with one week separating each exercise. During each exercise expired gases were continually monitored with a MOXUS metabolic system and VO2 (ml/min) and RER outputted every 30s. Total, carbohydrate (CHO), and fat energy expenditures (kJ per ml O2) were obtained from the RER using the formulae of Lusk, and the energy derived (kJ/min) was calculated by multiplying VO2 and the respective energy expenditures. Then, the total, CHO, and fat energies consumed during the 30 min exercise were determined by calculating the area under the kJ/min: time curve using the trapezoid rule. The final data for the two similar trials were averaged and a paired-T test was used for statistical comparison.

RESULTS: Average (± standard deviation) CHO kJ for M (627 ± 284) was significantly (p < 0.004) greater than P (504 ± 228), and accounted for a significantly greater contribution of total kJ consumed (M = 68% ±15 vs. P = 61% ± 18). On the other hand, both average total kJ (M = 875 ± 305, P = 801 ± 252) and fat kJ (M = 276 ± 121, P = 325 ± 143) were not statistically different (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Ingestion of melatonin 30 min prior to an aerobic exercise increases the amount of CHO used during that exercise.

2395 Board #96 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Exogenous Supplementation of Melatonin Does Not Affect 20 Mile Cycling Time Trial Performance

Kyle Brandenberger. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: While some studies suggest that melatonin may improve athletic performance in hot humid environments due to its precooling effect, melatonin is consumed as a sleep aid due to its depressive effects on the central nervous system leading to the question of whether melatonin is a viable aid to performance. This study was conducted to determine whether taking a 5 mg supplement of melatonin affected performance of a laboratory simulated 20 mile cycling time trial.

METHODS: Subjects (n = 8; VO2 max = 61.3 ± 5.9 ml/kg/min), performed three 20 mile time trials separated by a minimum of 7 days each on an electronically braked cycle ergometer. During the final two trials subjects received either a placebo or a 5 mg melatonin supplement 15 min prior to exercise in a double blind crossover design. Variables were measured at five mile intervals.

RESULTS: Mean 20 mile time trial completion times for the melatonin (63.73 ± 5.72 min) and placebo (63.78 ± 6.38 min) trials were not different (P = 0.921). Mean time trial power output for the melatonin (198.1 ± 40.6 watts) and placebo (199.1 ± 45.5 watts) trials were not different (P = 0.854). Rectal temperature was not significantly affected compared with placebo (P = 0.505).

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that a 5 mg melatonin supplement administered 15 min prior to exercise does not measurably impact performance of a 20 mile time trial. Any impact of melatonin on cycling performance may occur at a larger dose or at a different consumption time relative to the onset of exercise.

2396 Board #97 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Ibuprofen And Acetaminophen Have Trivial Effects On Core Temperature And Performance During High Intensity Cycling

Jubil L. Young1, Julie Ronnebaum1, Dan Chambers1, Nolan C. Wright1, Jon L. Dyck1, David Strom2, Joseph P. Weir, FACSM3. 1Des Moines University, Des Moines, IA. 2Marian University, Indianapolis, IN. 3University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine the physiological and performance effects of Ibuprofen (IB), acetaminophen (AC), or placebo (PL) to high intensity cycling. It was hypothesized that the analgesic and anti-pyretic effects of IB and AC would attenuate the increase in heart rate and core temperature, and increase performance.

METHODS: Six experienced cyclists were administered either 1000 mg of acetaminophen (AC), 400 mg of ibuprofen (IB), or placebo (PL) followed by 60 minutes of fixed pace (FP) cycling at 60% of the power output that elicited maximum VO2. After a 5 min rest, subjects performed a 10 mile simulated time trial (TT). During these tests the following variables were assessed: heart rate, core temperature using ingestible core temperature sensors, rating of perceived exertion on 6-20 Borg scale, pain on a 0-10 visual analog scale, arterial oxygen saturation, and gas exchange variables. Subjects were provided 200 ml of water during scheduled water breaks during each cycling phase. The data were analyzed with single factor repeated measures ANOVAs and omega squared (ω2) for effect size.

RESULTS: There were no statistically significant differences between the conditions for any of the dependent variables, and all effect sizes were trivial in size. For brevity, we report only the results for time trial performance, core temperature, and heart rate. For time trial performance, PL = 1726 + 181 seconds, AC = 1712+81 s, IB = 1801+231 s (ω2=.005). Similar results were found for maximum heart rate (Fixed Pace: PL = 165+18 bpm, AC=164 + 19, IB = 160+21, ω2 = .03; Time Trial: PL = 178+15 bpm, AC = 180+12, IB = 176+16, ω2=.03), and core temperature (Fixed Pace: PL = 37.4+1.2 C, SC = 37.5+1.0, IB = 38.2+1.6, ω2 ∼ 0.0 ; Time Trial: PL = 37.6+1.3C, AC = 37.8+1.0, IB = 38.4+2, , ω2 ∼ 0.0).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study indicate that there are only trivial effects of the common, over the counter, anti-pyretic/analgesics, acetaminophen and ibuprofen, on performance and physiological measurements during prolonged cycling. While the sample size of this study is small, the vanishingly small ω2 values suggest that the drugs do not affect endurance performance, core temperature, or heart rate.

2397 Board #98 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Dhea-s Associates With Training Adaptation Among Elderlies

Mu-Tsung Chen1, Cheng-Hsiu Lai2, Shih-Wei Chou3, Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM2. 1Shin-Chien University, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Chung Gung Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Kuo, Chia-Hua, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the association between salivary dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) and the degree of adaptation to exercise training in insulin sensitivity for aged females.

METHODS: Sixteen women, aged above 80 years old, were divided into 2 groups according to their baseline DHEA-S levels: Lower Halves (N = 8) and Upper Halves (N = 8), and participated in a 4-month exercise intervention trial. Insulin response with an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), cholesterol, blood pressure (BP), motor performance, and DHEA-S were determined at baseline and 4 months after the training program.

RESULTS: Glucose tolerance and body mass index (BMI) remained unchanged with training for both groups. Insulin, fasted cholesterol, diastolic blood pressure, reaction time, and locomotive function were significantly lowered by training only in the Upper Halves group. Changes in the area under curve of insulin (IAUC) were negatively correlated with the baseline DHEA-S level (R= - 0.60, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The new finding of the study is that female elderly with low DHEA-S level tends to be poor responders to exercise-training adaptations.

2398 Board #99 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Role of DHEA on Sex Hormone Response After a Single Bout Exercise in Young and Middle Aged Men

Yu-Shiuan Chen1, Chiu- Chou Chen1, Chung-Yu Chen1, Chien-Wen Hou1, Yi-Hung Liao2, Te-Chih Liu1, Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM1. 1Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry,Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: DHEA is the precursor of testosterone, but this steroid is declined with advancing aging. The study examined the effects of single dose oral DHEA and acute high intensity exercise on blood steroid sex hormones in young and middle aged men.

METHODS: Five young (21.4 ± 0.3 years) and six middle-aged (48.3 ± 2.5 years) male volunteers supplemented with single dose 50 mg DHEA twelve hours prior to a single bout of 120-sec cycling ergometer exercise challenge at 100% VO2peak . Blood DHEA-S, lactate, testosterone, free testosterone and cortisol levels were measured before and after exercise challenge.

RESULTS: The exercise significantly elevated lactate from ∼0.65 to ∼12 mM at 120 sec following exercise for both young and middle-aged subjects. However, both total and free testosterone levels were not significantly changed after exercise. Single dose DHEA significantly increased free testosterone levels and DHEA-S was increased 3 folds in middle-aged subjects. Luteinizing hormone (LH) levels in middle-aged subjects were significantly greater than young subjects. Despites DHEA supplementation, slightly elevates free testosterone level but LH level was unaffected. Exercise has no significant effect on LH levels.

CONCLUSIONS: Single bout cycling did not increase testosterone,despite lactate levels increased by ∼ 18 following exercise. Additionally, we found elevated LH level in middle-aged subjects, probably due to aging effect and exercise challeng reduced free testosterone level.

2399 Board #100 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Influence Of Increased Renal Flow Rate On Urinary Concentration Ratio Of Testosterone To Epitestosterone

Phillip Watson1, Samuel Tam2, David Cowan2, Ronald J. Maughan, FACSM1. 1Loughborough University, Leicestershire, United Kingdom. 2King’s College London, London, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Most testing of athletes for abuse of prohibited substances relies on the measurement of these substances or their diagnostic metabolites in urine. The ingestion of large volumes of fluid may result in an under-estimation of excreted doping substances due to the production of dilute urine. With this in mind, the aim of this project was to examine changes in the time-course of excretion of diagnostic markers for prohibited substances in response to an acute fluid load.

METHODS: 10 male and 10 female healthy volunteers completed this study. The study took place over four consecutive days, with subjects maintaining a constant diet and exercise regimen. On days 1 and 4, subjects were free-living. On days 2 and 3, subjects visited the laboratory in the morning for a period of four hours. On day 2, volunteers ingested 200 ml every hour over the morning to maintain urine flow. On Day 3, participants ingested an additional 2 litres of water over a two hour period. All urine passed during the study was collected, with the volume of each urine void measured and an individual aliquot taken. Steroid profiles were determined using GC/MS. In accordance with WADA regulations, all steroid concentrations were adjusted for the specific gravity of the urine sample.

RESULTS: Cumulative urine output was greater on day 3 (4393 ± 881 mL) than during days 1 (2195 ± 753 mL), 2 (2746 ± 765 mL) and 4 (1937 ± 595 mL; P < 0.001). Compared to day 1, the ingestion of an additional 2 litres of water on day 3 resulted in a 43% lower mean testosterone (P = 0.001) and 34% lower epitestosterone (P = 0.025) concentrations. Consequently there was a significant reduction in the urinary concentration ratio of testosterone to epitestosterone (P = 0.028).

CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that ingestion of a large bolus of fluid alters excretion profile of testosterone and epistestosterone to varying degrees. Since this urinary concentration ratio is monitored by anti-doping agencies to detect use of exogenous steroids, these findings highlight a need to further consider hydration status when interpreting the outcome of doping tests.

2400 Board #101 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Advantages and Disadvantages of Prohormone Supplementation in Resistance Trained Males

Jorge Granados1, Trevor Gillum2, Matthew Kuennen1. 1West Texas A&M University, Canyon, TX. 2California Baptist University, Riverside, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Prohormone supplementation has often been used in conjunction with resistance training (RT) to “expedite” strength gains; however, research on the efficacy and side effects of these supplements is scarce.

PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of prohormone supplementation in changing muscle mass, body fat, muscular strength, liver/kidney function, and psychological variables in a sample of college males.

METHODS: 16 males (23±1yrs; 13.1±1.5%BF; 5.3±1.0yrs RT experience) underwent a randomized double-blind placebo controlled protocol where they received either 330 mg/d 3-hydroxy-5alpha-androst-1-en-17-one (PROHORMONE; n=9) or 330 mg/d sugar (PLACEBO; n=7) while completing a 4 week (16 session) structured RT program. Body composition (BF%: hydrodensitometry), strength (1 repetition maximum on bench/squat/deadlift), cardiometabolic function (blood panels), and psychological factors (anger: State/Trait Anger Expression Inventory/ anxiety: Hospital Anxiety & Depression Scale/ fatigue: Fatigue Impact Scale/ mood: Profile of Mood States) were assessed at the beginning and end of the supplementation period. A 2-factor [Time*Condition] repeated measures ANOVA was used to discern differences between groups.

RESULTS: Increases in lean mass (4.7±0.9 VS. 0.5±0.6 kg; p=0.013) and strength (73.2±5.8 VS. 31.4.1± 8.6 kg; p=0.008) were greater in PROHORMONE than PLACEBO. However, creatinine (1.06±0.03 to 1.27±0.04 mg/dl; p=0.033), serum glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (24.8±0.9 to 41.4±6.3 IU/L; p=0.008), LDL-C/HDL-C (2.2±0.2 to 4.8±0.6; p=0.008), and Cholesterol/HDL-C (3.6±0.3 to 6.4±0.6; p=0.003) increased and HDL-C (46.1±3.5 to 27.3±1.3 mg/dl; p=0.018) decreased from pre-posttest in PROHORMONE; these variables were unchanged in PLACEBO. Psychological factors did not change from pre-posttest in either group.

CONCLUSION: Our preliminary data indicate prohormone supplementation expedites resistance training gains, but these gains come at a clear cost to participant’s cardiometabolic health. We are currently analyzing plasma cytokine concentrations (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interleukin 10) to provide further information on this issue.

2401 Board #102 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Astragalus Membranaceus Supplement Increased the Concentration of IGF-1 for Damaging Muscle in Human

Tzu-Shao Yeh1, Mei-Chich Hsu2, Jen-Fang Liu1. 1Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

In our previous study, we found that Astragalus membranaceus extract (AM) promoted hypertrophy in cultured skeletal myotubes through activating the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway as IGF-1.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of AM supplement following experimentally induced muscle damage by eccentric exercise on IGF-1 level and muscle oxygenation.

METHODS: In a randomized, cross-over design, nine healthy male volunteers were subjected to exercise-induced muscle damage. The effects of AM or placebo (PL) supplement on blood IL-6 and IGF-1 concentrations, muscle oxygenation (temporal changes of HHb, HbO2 concentrations, and TSI percentage), self-reported delayed-onset muscle soreness (by VAS score), and muscle strength (1RM) of leg extension were determined. Blood samples were taken before, immediately after exercise, and at 2 hr, 1, 2, 3 and 7 days post exercise.

RESULTS: IL-6 concentrations at 2 hr, and 2, 3, and 7 day after eccentric exercise of leg extension in the AM treatment (0.56 ± 0.07, 0.16 ± 0.05, 0.21 ± 0.04, and 0.25 ± 0.03 pg/ml) were significantly lower than those in the PL treatment (0.64 ± 0.07, 0.22 ± 0.03, 0.32 ± 0.03, and 0.56 ± 0.05 pg/ml) (all p<0.05). IGF-1 concentrations at 2 hr and 1 day after eccentric exercise of leg extension in AM treatment (263.55 ± 21.9 and 226.31 ± 17.77 pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in the PL treatment (226.49 ± 16.14 and 199.75 ± 12.9 pg/ml) (both p<0.05). Moreover, there was a difference between the overall responses of HHb, HbO2, and TSI for75% leg extension exercise in the AM and PL groups subjects after 7 days following the eccentric exercise of leg extension, with HHb the curves being 26.1% higher in the AM treatments, with HbO2 the curves being 11.56% lower in the AM treatments, and with TSI the curves being 30.83% higher in AM treatments. According to the IL-6 level, AM supplementation can reduce muscle damage induced inflammation after the eccentric exercise. We also found that AM can increase the concentration of IGF-1 on human, this is key regulator and specific function in muscle to reconstructed the damaging muscle.

CONCLUSIONS: AM promotes the muscle protein synthesis during the regeneration process following experimentally induced muscle damage.

Supported by NSC 99-2410-H-179-006-MY2, Taiwan.

2402 Board #103 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Effects Of The Rhodiola Crenulata And Crodyceps Sinensis On Recovery Following Exhausting Exercise

Chia-En Yang1, Chung-Yu Chen1, Yi-Hung Liao2, Chien-Wen Hou1, Sun-Chin Yang3, Chien-Te Ho4, Chia-Hua Kuo1. 1Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Science, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Shih Hsin University, Taipei, Taiwan. 4Tatung University, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: We investigated the effects of Rhodiola Crenulata with Crodyceps Sinensis(RC) on exercise performance and recovery following exhausting exercise.

METHODS: Forty rats were divided into four Groups, including Group I: exercise plus placebo (Control, n=10), Group II: exercise plus 124 mg/kg RC (n=10), Group III: exercise plus 248 mg/kg RC (n=10), Group IV: exercise plus 744 mg/kg RC (n=10). The rats were treated with varied doses of RC for 10 consecutive days. To determine the exercise duration and post-exercise recovery, the rats were subjected to perform treadmill running until exhausted. The serum levels of testosterone, growth hormone (GH) and malondialdehyde were measured as the indicators for exercise fatigue.

RESULTS: The muscular endurance of the Group IV (744mg/kg dosage) exhibited greater recovery capacity compared with the Control Group. During post-exercise recovery, the concentration of growth hormone in the Groups with 124, 248, and 744 mg/ kg dosage was increased by 6, 10 and 5 folds above control levels, respectively. No differences in the serum levels of testosterone and malondialdehyde were observed during pre-ex, post-ex, and post-exercise recovery.

CONCLUSIONS: Consecutive seven-days treatment of Rhodiola Crenulata with Crodyceps Sinensis elevated serum growth hormone levels. The muscular endurance recovery after the single exhausting exercise was improved after chronic treatment of RC probably due to the greater growth hormone secretion.

2403 Board #104 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect Of Rhodiola Crenulata Plus Crodyceps Sinensis Supplementation On Muscle And Brain Oxygenation Levels Following Short-term Altitude Training

Chien-Te Ho1, Ching-Hung Lin2, Chih-Ling Su3, Chiu-Chou Chen4, Lu-Ling Cheng4, Chung-Yu Chen4. 1Tatung Institute of Commerce and Technology, Chiayi City, Taiwan. 2Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan. 3Taiwan Shou Fu University, Tainan, Taiwan. 4Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study was aimed to determine the effects of Rhodiola crenulata plus Crodyceps sinensis (RC) supplementation and altitude training on muscle and brain oxygenations.

METHODS: Healthy male young subjects (n=14, aged 18-22 years) were voluntarily participated in this 2-week altitude (2200 m) acclimatization study, and subjects were evenly divided into two groups with match of their maximal oxygen consumption: placebo (n=7) and RC supplemented (n= 7) groups. 2000 mg of RC (Rhodiola rosea 1400 mg plus Cordyceps sinensis 600 mg) or placebo (starch) was orally given each day since two weeks before the altitude training until the end of the study. At baseline (2 week before altitude training) and 1 day after altitude training, brain and muscle oxygenations were measured by near infrared spectroscopy under resting state.

RESULTS: Baseline total hemoglobin levels was increased in muscle, while decreased in brain after 2-week altitude training. RC supplementation significantly attenuated the drop in total hemoglobin and oxy-hemoglobin contents in brain. The percentage of muscle oxygen saturation was significantly elevated by altitude training in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the study suggest 1) chronic altitude training increases muscle hemoglobin distribution, but decreases brain hemoglobin distribution; 2) RC supplementation attenuates the decreases in brain hemoglobin distribution after 2-week altitude training.

2404 Board #105 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Rhodiola Crenulata And Cordyceps Sinensis Based Supplementation Enhance The Aerobic Exercise Performance After 2-week Altitude Training

Chung-Yu Chen1, Ching-Hung Lin2, Yi-Hung Liao3, Ta-Cheng Hung4, Chien-Wen Hou1, Chiu-Chou Chen1, Lu-Ling Cheng1. 1Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2Yuan Ze University, Chung-Li, Taiwan. 3National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. 4Shih-Chien University, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: We examined the effect of a novel supplement consisting of RR and CS on aerobic exercise capacity during altitude training. The alterations of autonomic nervous system, circulatory hormonal and haematological profiles were investigated.

METHODS: we examined the effect of a novel supplement consisting of RR and CS on aerobic exercise capacity during altitude training. The alterations of autonomic nervous system, circulatory hormonal and haematological profiles were investigated.

RESULTS: After 4 weeks training, running time to exhaustion and parasympathetic activity were higher in RC group (P<.05). Red blood cell, hematocrit and hemoglobin levels were elevated in both groups to a comparable extent after the altitude training (P<.05), whereas the erythropoietin level in RC group was lower than P group (P<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Provision of RC supplementation during altitude training exhibits a greater training benefit in improving aerobic performance. This beneficial effect of RC supplement might further improve systemic coping capacity during altitude training thorough better sustaining parasympathetic activity and increasing mitochondrial functions.

2405 Board #106 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Mouth Rinsing During Exercise in The Ramadan Fast State Improves Endurance Performance

Ahmad M. Che Muhamed, Dr. Universiti Sains Malaysia, Penang, Malaysia.

(No relationships reported)

During Ramadan, fasted Muslims do not eat or drink (i.e., total abstinence from food and fluids) from pre-dawn until dusk. High-intensity endurance performance has been shown to be adversely affected during Ramadan fasting. Interestingly, repeated mouth rinse (without ingesting) with carbohydrate electrolyte (CHO-E) solution has been shown to improve endurance performance.

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the effects of mouth-rinsing with CHO-E on endurance performance in the acute Ramadan fasted state.

METHODS: After familiarization, nine young trained male cyclists (mean SD: age 161 y; body mass 58.72.1 kg; VO2peak 3.50.4 l.min-1) performed three experimental exercise trials: 1) 6% CHO-E mouth rinse, 2) placebo (PC) (artificial sweetener with matched color and taste), and 3) no-rinse (NR) trial, in random order. All sessions were conducted during the last 12 days of Ramadan at the same time of day (∼12-14h post-prandial sahur meal, i.e., last main meal before commencement of the day’s fast), in 320C and 75%rh environment. Endurance performance consisted of 30 min pre-loading cycle at 65% VO2peak followed with 10 km time trial (TT10km). During exercise, cyclist mouth rinsed 25 ml of the given solution for 5 s and expectorated the same volume, at rest, 5, 15, 25 min of the pre-loading cycle and just prior to the start of the TT10km.

RESULTS: Time to complete TT10km was significantly faster in the CHO-E and PC trials compared to NR trial (12.91.6 and 12.61.7 vs. 16.81.6 min, respectively; p=0.002). There were significant differences between trials in heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion. There were no significant differences between trials in rectal temperature, oxygen uptake and blood glucose.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to examine a specific strategy to counter the adverse effect of Ramadan fasting on exercise. The results showed that mouth rinsing either with CHO-E or placebo (water) enhances endurance performance in the Ramadan fasted state.

2406 Board #107 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Anti-Fatigue and Antioxidant Properties of Antrodia Camphorata Supplementation after Exhaustive Exercise

City C. Hsieh1, Chieh-Chung Liu2, Chun-Hong Lin2, Nean-Been Kan2, Wei-Hsiang Chang1. 1Hsinchu university of education, Hsinchu, Taiwan. 2Yuanpei University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Antrodia Camphoratan (AC) has been reported to possess antioxidant properties, inhibit lipid peroxidation, and to scavenge free radicals. However, there is scanty information pertinent to the anti-fatigue and antioxidant effects of AC supplementation following exhaustive exercise. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of AC supplementation on anti-fatigue and antioxidant capacity after exhaustive exercise.

METHODS: Fifteen subjects (22.5±1.2 years, 174±7.1 cm, 72.3±8.4 kg) were recruited for this study. A double-blind crossover design was used. All subjects accepted four kinds of treatments: (1) placebo with no exercise, PR (2) placebo with exercise, PE (3) AC supplementation with no exercise, AR (4) AC supplementation with exercise, AE. The amount of AC supplementation was 20 mg per kg body weight per day for 7 days. The exhaustive exercise consisted of running on a treadmill based on individuals’ 80% VO2 max until exhaustion. 15cc blood samples were intravenously collected from the subjects before exhaustive exercise, as well as 0, 30, 60, 120 minutes, and 24, 48, and 72 hours after exhaustive exercise. The following anti-fatigue biomarkers were measured: creatine kinase (CK), lactate, amino acid. Oxidative indexes: malondialdehyde (MDA). Antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx).

RESULTS: This study showed that exhaustive exercise resulted in a significant increase (p< .05) in plasma lactate, CK, and amino acid concentrations. CK concentration in AE group was significantly lower (p< .05) than those in PE group at 72 hours after exhaustive exercise. Meanwhile, amino acid concentration in AE group was also significantly lower (p< .05) than those in PE group at 24 hours after exhaustive exercise. Moreover, exhaustive exercise resulted in significant increase (p< .05) of MDA and decreases (p< .05) of SOD. However, MDA level in AE group was significantly lower (p< .05) than those in PE group at 24 hours after exhaustive exercise. Meanwhile, SOD activity in AE group was significantly increase (p< .05) than those in PE group at 24 hours after exhaustive exercise.

CONCLUSION: This study indicates that AC could be an effective anti-fatigue and antioxidant supplement if taken after exhaustive exercise.

2407 Board #108 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect of Dammarance Oligo-Sapogenin Supplementation on Oxidative Stress Markers after Exhaustive Exercise

Yu-Ru Kuan1, Tsung-Hsien Lu1, Yi-Hung Liao2, Chung-Yu Chen1, Chien-Wen Hou1, Mallikarjuna Korivi1, Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM1. 1Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Prolonged exercise apparently increased oxidative stress. The purpose of present study is to determine the effect of Dammarance oligo-sapogenin (DS) supplementation on oxidative stress in the brain after exhaustive exercise.

METHODS: One hundred Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups, Placebo, DS (0.1 mg/kg b.w.), DS20 (20 mg/kg b.w.), DS60 (60 mg/kg b.w.), and DS120 (120 mg/kg b.w.). Respective doses of DS were orally administered for 10 weeks. In the end of treatment, each group performed exhaustive swimming exercise, and cerebral cortex were collected immediately to analyze oxidative stress markers.

RESULTS: Lipid peroxidation marker Malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly increased and Glutathione (GSH) level was decreased after exhaustive exercise (p<0.05). However, MDA levels was not significantly increased in DS60 group after exercise. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) activity was increased in DS120 group, while significant decrease after exercise (p<0.05). In addition, Glutathione Peroxidase (GSH-PX) activity was significantly decreased after exercise, and this decrease was not observed in DS treated groups (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested that DS may be beneficial to attenuate oxidative stress in brain during exhaustive exercise.

2408 Board #109 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Protective Effect of Fasudil on Hepatocyte Apoptosis And Fibrosis in A Rat Model of Endurance Exercise Training

Lin Wan-Teng1, Chin-Cheng Hsieh2. 1Department of Hospitality Management,Tunghai University,, TAICHUNG CITY, Taiwan. 2Yuan Pei University, Hsin Chu, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Evidences suggest that high-intensity endurance exercise increases oxidative stress induced by a large amount of reactive oxygen species, and these oxidative stress caused by exercise is thought to reduce athletic performance,. A protective effect of Rho-kinase inhibitor on various organ injuries is gaining attention. Regarding liver injury.However, the effect and mechanisms behind the hepatic protection for fasudil on endurance exercise training are unclear.

PURPOSE: This study aims to investigate the effects fasudil administration on liver apoptosis and fibrosis induced by endurance exercise training.

METHODS: Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing (180-200g) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n=8 in each) (1) control group (C) (2) endurance exercise training group (EET); (3) endurance exercise training with GSH treatment (FAS-EET). EET and FAS-EET groups will perform 60 min of treadmill running for 5 days/week for 12 weeks. Liver function parameters (such as activities of serum AST and ALT levels), histopathological and expressions of Cytochrome C, Bax, Bcl-2, Caspase 9, cleaved Caspase 3 and cleaved PARP in liver apoptosis and fibrosis molecular mechanisms are detected

RESULTS: The results show that FAS-EET significantly reduces the elevated activities of AST and ALT than in group EET (P < 0.05) ,apoptosis and fibrosis index: Cytochrome C, Bax, Caspase 9, cleaved Caspase 3 and cleaved PARP were significantly lower in C and FAS-EET than in EET group (P < 0.05) ; apoptosis protective protein Bcl-2 is significantly higher than EET group (P< 0.05). Also, MMP 2 and MMP 9 were significantly lower in C and FAS-EET than in EET group (P < 0.05) fibrosis.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on the present finding, it is suggested fasudil treatment can attenuate endurance exercise training caused apoptosis and fibrosis in the liver.

Supported by NSC99-2815-C-029-014-H

2409 Board #110 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Influence of Different Doses of Novel Ginsenosides on Angiogenesis Markers in Exercised Rat Skeletal Muscle

Ssu-Chia Lai1, Chia-Chen Yang1, Yi-Hung Liao2, Chung-Yu Chen1, Chien-Wen Hou1, Mallikarjuna Korivi1, Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM1. 1Laboratory of Exercise Biochemistry, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Panax ginseng contains variety of ginsenosides that are responsible for the pharmacological actions. Dammarance Oligo-Sapogenins (DS) are a class of ginsenosides exclusively extracted from P. ginseng. This study aimed to explore the angiogenesis properties of DS in rat skeletal muscle after a single bout of exhaustive exercise.

METHODS: Eighty Sprague-Dawley rats were equally assigned into four groups, including placebo, DS20, DS60 and DS120. Three different doses of DS (20, 60 and 120 mg/kg body weight) was orally administered to assigned rats for 10-week. After the last treatment, same number of rats (n=10) from each group performed an exhaustive exercise in a water-pool. The muscle tissue was excised immediately after exhaustive exercise to determine the gene and protein expressions of angiogenesis profile. Plantaris capillary density was also measured by Hematoxylin and Eosin stain (HE stain) in non-exercise group.

RESULTS: We found, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA expressions were significantly (p<.05) increased in plantaris after exhaustive exercise in placebo group. However, the mRNA expression of PGC-1α in DS20, DS60 and DS120 groups exhibited the decline trend compared to placebo group after exercise. Moreover, PGC-1α protein expression was significantly (p<.05) decreased in both of DS60 and DS120 groups. VEGF protein level was significantly (p<.05) reduced in DS60 group after exhaustive exercise. No difference in muscle capillary density was noticed with ten weeks DS supplementation.

CONCLUSIONS: This study concludes that Dammarance Oligo-Sapogenin supplementation could attenuate the elevated PGC-1α and VEGF protein expression after single-bout of exhaustive exercise, suggesting the coping capacity against exercise induced stress.

2410 Board #111 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Effect of ginsenoside Rb1 Supplement on post-exercise Trained Recovery Capacity in Young Male

Wei-Hsiang Chang1, City C. Hsieh2, Chieh-Chung Liu3, Chun-Hong Lin3, Ming-Sung Tsai4, Ying-Lan Tsai5, Yu Fan6. 1National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu, Taiwan. 2National Hsinchu University of Education, Hsinchu City, Taiwan. 3Yuanpei University, Hsinchu City, Taiwan. 4Minghsin University of Science and Technology, Hsinchu, Taiwan. 5National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan. 6Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan. (Sponsor: chia-hua kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE:The current investigation is to determine the effect of oral ginsenoside Rb1 supplementation on post-exercise recovery capacity in healthy young male.

METHODS: Twelve male college students (20.5±0.3 years) were balanced with body mass index (22.1±0.4 kg/m2) and divided into two groups: R (Rb1, N=6) and C (Control, N =6). Subjects were performed a single bout of exercise at high intensity training program with given either Rb1 (1 ng/ kg) or placebo following 7 days recovery. HOMA was performed before and after training program, and blood cortisol level were measured for evaluating recovery status.

RESULTS: The HOMA value was not different in both Rb1 and Control groups. As assessed by levels of stress, the plasma cortisol response were elevated significantly after intensive exercise for both groups to a similar level (R: 147±22 vs. C: 146±22%, P<.05). Lower plasma cortisol was observed in the Rb1 supplemented group on day 1(76.4±10.3%, P<.05), day 3(83.1±13.8%, P<.05) and day 5(99.7±11.4%, P<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that Ginsenoside Rb1 supplement may enhance recovery from single bout intensive exercise-induced body stress. Future research must concentrate on testing varying standardized levels of ginsenosides with subjects of different age groups, and effect of anti-stress before and during intensive exercise.

2411 Board #112 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Creatine Supplementation Attenuates Pulmonary and Systemic Effects of Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

Rodolfo P. Vieira1, Francine M. Almeida2, Rogerio Pazetti2, Manoel C. Oliveira-Junior1, Ana Paula Ligeiro-Oliveira1, Milton A. Martins2, Marisa Dolhnikoff2. 1Nove de Julho University, São Paulo, Brazil. 2University of Sao Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Ischemia and reperfusion (IR) injury is common in surgical events, i.e. in cases of lung transplantation and may result in acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Besides the pulmonary effects of IR-induced ARDS, systemic acute and severe inflammatory responses also follow IR injury, accounting for significant morbidity and mortality. Creatine (Cr) in its most common form, creatine monohydrated is a dietary supplement that presents important beneficial effects in experimental models of heart and brain IR. In addition, Cr improves the capacity to generate ATP reducing cell damage. However, the effects of Cr in pulmonary IR never was investigated.

METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats were divided into groups: Sham-operated, Creatine+Sham, Ischemia/Reperfusion, Creatine+Ischemia/Reperfusion. We investigated the effects of 5 days of oral Cr supplementation prior to left pulmonary artery ischemia (90 minutes) and reperfusion (120 minutes).

RESULTS: Cr inhibited the IR-induced increases in exhaled nitric oxide (NOex) (p<0.05), total cells and neutrophils number in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and also in systemic circulation (p<0.05), the levels of IL-1beta (p<0.05), beyond the increase of tissue damping (Gtis) and tissue elastance (Htis) after ischemia and reperfusion (p<0.05). Cr also inhibited pulmonary edema formation (total proteins in BALF p<0.05; histological alveolar edema index p<0.05) and neutrophils accumulation in the lung tissue (p<0.05). As part of possible mechanism involved in these beneficial effects of Cr, we observed an increased expression of IGF-1 (p<0.05), a reduced expression of caspase 3 (p<0.05), as well reduced expression of tool like receptor (TLR) 4 and increased expression of TLR7 in lung tissue (p<0.05), beyond decreased expression of caspase 3 (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Cr supplementation presents pulmonary and systemic protective effects in acute lung injury induced by ischemia and reperfusion in rats and these beneficial effects seems to have the involvement of improved energy pool restorage, increased IGF-1 expression, as well as the involvement of TLRs, which were modulated by Cr supplementation.

2412 Board #113 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Creatine Supplementation Decreases Lactate Response Following Acute Ingestion of a Beverage Containing Fructose or Glucose

Eric E. Noreen, Hannah N. Garman, Dina Abdurahman, Josef Brandauer. Gettysburg College, Gettysburg, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Hepatic fructose metabolism is poorly regulated. As a result, hepatic ATP is rapidly depleted and lactate production is increased when a large quantity of dietary fructose is metabolized.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of supplemental creatine on lactate concentration and blood pressure following acute fructose ingestion.

METHODS: A total of 7 men and 3 women (34.6 ± 9.6 y, 83.4 ± 22.0 kg; mean ± SD) participated in this study. All testing was performed in the morning following an overnight fast. Subjects ingested either 80 g of glucose in 300 mL of water (G) or 50 g of fructose and 30 g of glucose in 300 mL of water (FG). Whole blood lactate and glucose, heart rate and blood pressure were measured at baseline and post ingestion every 15 min for 60 min. Subjects returned the following morning to repeat the tests using the opposite drink. Subjects then supplemented with creatine for 2 wks (0.3 g Cr/kg for wk 1, 0.08 g Cr/kg for wk 2), after which all tests were repeated. Data were analyzed using a repeated measures ANOVA on log transformed data. Area Under the Curve (AUC) was calculated using the trapezoidal method.

RESULTS: Body weight increased significantly following 2 wks of creatine supplementation (+0.9 ± 1.5 kg; p=0.045). Lactate AUC was significantly higher at all time points for FG versus G (FG pre=141.6 ± 22.8 mmol/L for 60 min, FG post=130.0 ± 30.3 mmol/L for 60 min; G pre=74.9 ± 15.6 mmol/L for 60 min, G post=68.3 ± 20.8 mmol/L for 60 min; p=0.001). Creatine treatment significantly decreased lactate AUC for both FG and G (p=0.035). AUC for glucose, heart rate, or blood pressure did not differ significantly between FG and G, or change significantly following creatine supplementation.

CONCLUSION: Lactate response is greater following ingestion of FG versus G. However, two weeks of creatine supplementation significantly decreases lactate response to ingestion of beverages containing either FG or G.

2413 Board #114 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Body Composition Responses to Resistance Training and Creatine Supplementation in Older Women

Renata S B Januario1, Leandro R. Altimari2, Aline M. Gerage2, Matheus A. Do Nascimento2, Fabio L C Pina2, Edilson S. Cyrino2. 1North University of Parana, Londrina, Brazil. 2Londrina State University, Londrina, Brazil. (Sponsor: Laura Guidetti, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The aging process is accompanied by a number of physiological adaptations, and is associated with the highest prevalence of functional implications. The main body composition changes reported in the literature includes the increase in body fat deposits, mainly the visceral fat, followed by a progressive reduction on fat-free mass and, especially, a decrease of skeletal muscle mass and bone mineral density. Both resistance training and creatine supplementations have been suggested as attractive non-pharmacological strategies to attenuate loss of bone and skeletal muscle mass, especially in older women.

PURPOSE: To analyze the effects of resistance training and/or creatine supplementation on body composition in older women.

METHODS: Forty-five older women (> 60 years) were submitted to a 12-wk randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, and randomly assigned to four groups: resistance training (3 times/week, 8 exercises, 2 sets of 10-15 RM) combined with creatine supplementation (CRT) (n = 11) or placebo (PLT) (n = 11), and control combined with creatine (CRC) (n = 11) or placebo (PLC) (n = 12). Creatine supplementation or placebo (maltodextrin) was consumed at 5 g/day. Body composition was assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry and bioelectrical impedance analysis.

RESULTS: No significant interaction was observed for energy and macronutrients intake among groups during supplementation period (P > 0.05). A significant time by supplementation interaction (P < 0.05) was found for body mass and total body water, with greater increases for creatine groups. No significant main effect or interaction was found for relative and absolute fat mass (P > 0.05). A significant time by group interaction (P < 0.05) was identified for fat-free mass with greater gains for CRT (0.9 kg, P < 0.05). A significant time by group interaction (P < 0.05) was observed for skeletal muscle mass with greater gains for resistance training groups (CRT = 0.6 kg vs. PLT = 0.3 kg).

CONCLUSIONS: Twelve weeks of creatine supplementation may maximize fat-free mass and skeletal muscle mass gains from a resistance training program in older women.

2414 Board #115 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Improving Cardiovascular Performance and Decreasing Perceived Exertion with a Lactate Supplement

David J. Kean1, Corey Peacock2, Brandon Pollack3, Keith Burns3, Gabriel Sanders4, Ellen Glickman, FACSM3. 1University of Louisiana-Monroe, Monroe, LA. 2Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale-Davie, FL. 3Kent State University, Kent, OH. 4Northern Kentucky University, Highland Heights, KY.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this present investigation was to determine the effect of a supplement containing Calcium Lactate, Magnesium Lactate Dihydrate and Zinc Oxide (SUPP) versus a placebo (PLA) on physiological performance and muscle recovery.

METHODS: Twelve male volunteers (23.7±2.1 yr) underwent a double blind repeated measure exercise protocol while ingesting a single dosage of either a SUPP or a PLA on two separate trials. We used experimental testing to investigate the differences in maximum aerobic capacity (VO2 MAX) utilizing a Parvo metabolic and Lode cycle ergometer, creatine kinase levels (cK), perceived exertion index (PEI), and blood flow (BF) via ultrasound Doppler, (General Electric Medical Systems and Milwaukee, WI).

RESULTS: Paired samples T-Tests demonstrated a significant improvement in VO2 and PEI following SUPP when compared to PLA (p ≤ 0.05). Analysis of variance demonstrated a main effect for time (p ≤ 0.05) as BF increased during the exercise protocol but did not differ between treatments. cK was not significantly different between conditions (p ≥ 0.05), however change scores demonstrated less muscle damage following SUPP.

CONCLUSION: From these data, it appears that the SUPP resulted in increased performance and decrease in perceived difficulty of exercise when compared to PLA.

2415 Board #116 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Deep Ocean Minerals Influence the Skeletal Muscle Oxygenation Following Acute Intensity Exercise

Yu-Hsun Tsai1, Kun-Fu Liao1, Yi-Hung Liao2, Chien-Wen Hou1, Chung-Yu Chen1, Li-Chen Lee3, Chia-Hua Kuo1. 1Laboratory of exercise Biochemistry, Department of Sports Science, Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taipei University of Nursing and Health Sciences, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Shih Hsin University, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Elevated oxygen consumption due to high intensity exercise may induce muscle damage. Minerals play an important role on energy metabolism in the cell. In the present study we investigated the effects of deep ocean water supplementation on muscle oxygen consumption.

METHODS: Ten excellent badminton athletes were recruited for this double-blind crossover study. After a bout of high intensity exercise, we measured the body weight to determine the level of dehydration. The subjects were supplied with deep ocean mineral water or placebo immediately after exercise. The amount of mineral water or placebo provided to subjects was 1.5 times of their dehydration weight. Muscle oxygen saturation and oxygen consumption were measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) at resting and 2-h after minerals water supplementation.

RESULTS: We found that muscle total hemoglobin was significantly decreased and oxygen consumption was notably increased after high intensity exercise. While muscle oxygen consumption was declined 2-h after high intensity exercise in mineral water supplemented group.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that deep ocean mineral water supplementation may suppress the high intensity exercise-induced elevated muscle oxygen consumption in young athletes.

2416 Board #117 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Betaine Supplementation Improves Body Composition And Homocysteine Thiolactone In Strength Trained Men

Jason M. Cholewa1, Vincent J. Paolone, FACSM2, Richard Wood2, Tracey Matthews2. 1University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. 2Springfield College, Springfield, MA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks of betaine supplementation on strength, body composition, and homocysteine thiolactone (HCTL) in experienced strength trained men.

METHODS: Twenty-three subjects were matched for training experience (4.8 + 2.3 years) and body fat percentage (BF%: 16.9 + 8.0%), randomly assigned to either a placebo (PL; n = 12) or betaine group (BET; n = 11; 2.5 g/day), and completed a 6 week periodized training program consisting of 3 two-week micro-cycles. Bench press and back squat training volumes were recorded and changes in training volume were assessed at each micro-cycle. Fasting urine was collected at baseline (BL), weeks 2, 4 and 6, and assayed for HCTL. Subjects were tested prior to and following 6 weeks of treatment. Arm and thigh cross sectional area (CSA) was estimated as described by Moratani and DeVries (1979). Body density was estimated via skin fold calipers and used to estimate BF%, fat mass (FM), and lean body mass (LBM). Performance was assessed via vertical jump (VJ), bench press 1 RM (BP), and back squat 1 RM (BS).

RESULTS: A significant (p < .05) interaction effect for HCTL was found: weeks 2 and 4 were greater than BL in PL; however, HCTL did not significantly increase in BET. Arm CSA increased significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL; however, there were no differences in thigh CSA for either group. Body composition (BF%, FM, LBM) improved significantly (p < .05) in BET but not PL. Back squat training volume increased significantly (p < .05); however, there was no interaction between group and time . Bench press training volume was significantly (p < .05) improved for BET compared to PL. No differences were found in performance variables (VJ, BP, BS) between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Six weeks of betaine supplementation improved body composition, arm size, bench press work capacity, and HCTL, but not strength or power in resistance trained men.

2417 Board #118 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect Of Pre-exercise Bcaa Supplement With Or Without Carbohydrates On Performance In Competitive Cyclists

Amy Jo Riggs, Alaine Mills, Jim McMillian, Stephen Rossi, Barry Joyner. Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Carbohydrate (CHO) in combination with protein as a pre-exercise supplement has been investigated in recent research. While research first focused more on CHO + protein supplements in resistance training, attention has recently turned to the potential benefits in other anaerobic sports as well as endurance sports. In particular, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) have been investigated on exercise performance because of their potential to delay central fatigue. Past research has shown protein and carbohydrate supplements positively influence performance, but the majority of the studies conducted on these pre-exercise supplements involved a glycogen depletion and resting period prior to the supplementation.

PURPOSE: To determine whether ingestion of BCAA’s, with or without CHO, prior to exercise, will improve performance or perceived exertion in competitive cyclists that have not undergone glycogen depletion.

METHODS: Six competitive collegiate cyclists (n=6) from a Southeastern University were recruited and VO2 max was determined prior to experimental trials. On trial days, subjects were asked to report to the lab in a fasted state. In a randomized, double-blind, crossover design, subjects received one of three treatments prior to exercise: 1) BCAA’s; 2).CHO + BCAA’s and 3) placebo. Ten minutes following ingestion, subjects performed a cycle time to exhaustion at 80% of their VO2 max, during which heart rate was recorded continuously and ratings of perceived exertion were measured every three minutes. A washout period of one week was used between each trial.

RESULTS: Results revealed that cycling time to exhaustion was not significantly different between trials (p > 0.05). Average ratings of perceived exertion were also not significantly different between trials (p = 0.052).

CONCLUSION: The results of this particular study suggest that the ingestion of BCAA’s, with or without CHO, prior to high-intensity exercise does not improve performance or perceived performance.

2418 Board #119 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Effects of Garlic Supplementation on the Fibrinolytic Response to Exercise

Christopher J. Womack, FACSM, David J. Lawton, Leslie C. Redmond, Trent A. Hargens, Mikel K. Todd, FACSM. James Madison University, Harrisonburg, VA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to examine the effects of acute garlic supplementation on the fibrinolytic response to exercise.

METHODS: 18 healthy trained males (20.9 ± 2.2 years, 178 ± 7.7 cm, 75.5 ± 9.6 kg, 59.8 ± 6.7 ml kg-1 min-1) performed two graded treadmill tests to volitional exhaustion. Participants were randomly assigned to ingest either 900 mg of powdered garlic (GT) or a placebo (PT) three hours before the exercise session in a double-blind fashion. Participants repeated the protocol with the other treatment after a 14-day washout period. Blood samples were taken at rest, within two minutes post-exercise, and one hour post-exercise. Platelet poor plasma was obtained from the samples and used to assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) activity, tPA antigen, and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) activity. Paired t-tests and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used to assess changes in descriptive and fibrinolytic variables.

RESULTS: A significant difference was found between the two treatment conditions for VO2max [PT = 59.8 ± 6.7 ml kg-1 min-1, GT = 61.4 ± 6.6 ml kg-1 min-1]. There was no main effect for treatment and no treatment × time interaction for any of the fibrinolytic variables examined. Both tPA activity [pre-exercise (PT = 0.74 ± 0.08 IU ml-1, GT = 0.76 ± 0.07 IU ml-1); post-exercise (PT = 19.5 ± 2.8 IU ml-1, GT = 19.8 ± 3.3 IU ml-1)] and tPA antigen [pre-exercise (PT = 3.6 ± 0.46 ng ml-1, GT = 4.8 ± 1.0 ng ml-1); post-exercise (PT = 15.4 ± 1.8 ng ml-1, GT = 20.0 ± 3.1 ng ml-1)] significantly (P < 0.05) increased during exercise. PAI-1 significantly (p < 0.05) decreased from pre-exercise [PT = 0.63 ± 0.10 ng ml-1, GT = 0.92 ± 0.22 ng ml-1] to post-exercise [PT = 0.16 ± 0.05 ng ml-1, GT = 0.32 ± 0.13 ng ml-1] in both conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: Acute garlic supplementation does not alter fibrinolytic potential or the fibrinolytic response to exercise in young healthy trained males. Acute garlic supplementation does, however, cause a small but statistically significant increase in VO2max. It remains unclear if this increase in VO2max is of functional importance.

2419 Board #120 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect of Ribose-Cysteine Supplementation on Blood Glutathione Over Time with Exercise

Allan H. Goldfarb, FACSM, Ciara Floyd, Will Fox. Univ., of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Glutathione is a key regulator of oxidative stress and inflammation but its synthesis is limited by the transport of cysteine into cells. Ribose-Cysteine has been purported to increase glutathione in rats but has not been evaluated in humans.

PURPOSE: This pilot study was designed to determine if Ribose-Cysteine supplementation for either 30 or 60 days can enhance whole blood glutathione levels. A secondary purpose was to determine if this treatment would alter the exercise-induced changes in glutathione status.

METHODS: Five active young healthy individuals (24.3 ± 0.92yrs), height (174.4±4.5 cm), weight 78.4± 4.7 kg, 54.01 ± 3.3ml.kg.-1min-1 VO2 max, volunteered as subjects. Subjects performed a pre-supplement 30 min run at 70-75% VO2 max in a post-absorptive state. Blood samples were obtained before and immediately after the exercise by vacutainer. Subjects took the supplement for 60 days (250 mg/d) and returned after 30 and 60 days. Subjects did the same 30 minute run with blood sampling as previously noted. Blood was immediately processed and treated to stabilize the samples for glutathione, centrifuged and supernatants stored at -80oC until analyzed. Glutathione in both the oxidized and reduced forms were analyzed by processing the samples in a Shimadzu HPLC system and compared to standards. Data was analyzed by SPSS 19.0.

RESULTS: Oxidized glutathione (GSSG) increased 310% after exercise (p=0.017) prior to supplementation with no change in total glutathione. Glutathione concentration increased by 70% from 1.31 ± 0.08 mM baseline to 2.23±.011mM after 30 days of supplementation. However, after 60 d of supplementation the glutathione concentration had fallen to 81% of baseline (1.06± 0.025mM). After 30 days of supplement the amount of GSSG at rest and after exercise did not change compared to baseline. After 60 days of supplement the post exercised GSSG amount only increased 13% compared to baseline.

CONCLUSIONS: The data suggests that supplement with Ribose-Cysteine for 30 d can enhance whole blood glutathione and prevent exercise induced oxidative stress. However, 60 days of supplement probably inhibited the synthesis of RBC glutathione to result in lower than normal glutathione levels but still showed inhibition of GSSG formation after exercise.

2420 Board #121 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Ergogenic And Pharmokinetics Impact Of Short Acting β2-agonist On 5 Km Time Trial Performance

Gregory P. Whyte, FACSM1, John Dickinson1, Neil Chester1, Jie Hu1, Barry Drust1, Mike Loosemore2. 1Liverpool John Moores UNiversity, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 2English Institute of Sport, London, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Whilst there appears to be no ergogenic effect from inhaled salbutamol no study has investigated the impact of inhaling the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) daily upper limit of 1600 μg on endurance running performance. Accordingly, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the ergogenic effect of inhaled short acting β2-agonists at doses up to 1600 μg on 5 km time trial performance. In addition, we examined the pharmokinetics of inhaling up to 1600 μg salbutamol prior to exercise.

METHODS: Seven male non-asthmatic runners (mean+SD; age 22.4+4.3 years; height 179.7+7.0 cm; body mass 76.6+8.6 kg) provided written and verbal informed consent. Participants were required to complete three 5 km time-trials on separate days. Fifteen minutes prior the initiation of each 5 km time-trial participants inhaled one of the following treatments: placebo (PLA), 800 μg inhaled salbutamol (SAL800) or 1600 μg inhaled salbutamol (SAL1600). During the 5 km trial HR, O2, CO2, E, RPE and blood lactate was measured. Urine samples (90 ml) were collected between 30-180 minutes post 5 km time trial and analysed for salbutamol concentration. Total time, HR, O2, CO2, E, RPE and blood lactate under each treatment were analysed by a repeated measures ANOVA.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7+186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3+179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6+190.7 s). Significant differences were observed in RPE at 2 km (PLA 13.9+1.1; SAL800 14.9+1.1; SAL1600 14.9+1.5; p=0.02), 3 km (PLA 14.7+1.3: SAL800 16.0+1.3; SAL1600 16.0+1.3; p<0.01) and 4 km (PLA 16.0+1.2; SAL800 17.1+1.3; SAL1600 17.0+1.3; p=0.01). Urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96+69.22 ug.ml-1) and SAL1600 (574.06+448.17 ug.ml-1) was not significantly different.

CONCLUSIONS: There was no significant difference in total 5 km time between treatments (PLA 1714.7+186.2 s; SAL800 1683.3+179.7 s; SAL1600 1683.6+190.7 s). Significant differences were observed in RPE at 2 km (PLA 13.9+1.1; SAL800 14.9+1.1; SAL1600 14.9+1.5; p=0.02), 3 km (PLA 14.7+1.3: SAL800 16.0+1.3; SAL1600 16.0+1.3; p<0.01) and 4 km (PLA 16.0+1.2; SAL800 17.1+1.3; SAL1600 17.0+1.3; p=0.01). Urine concentration between SAL800 (122.96+69.22 ug.ml-1) and SAL1600 (574.06+448.17 ug.ml-1) was not significantly different.

2421 Board #122 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Biochemical And Morphological Alterations In Rats Submitted To High-fat Diet And L-arginine Supplementation

Aline Guimaraes Amorim, Emilene Maciel, Lorena Sousa Mendes, Andressa Abrantes Lima, Marilene Oliveira Rocha Borges, Antonio Carlos Romao Borges. Federal University of Maranhao, Sao Luis, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Chronic intake of high-fat diet can alter tissue integrity and serum levels of total cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TRG), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein) and HDL-C (high density lipoprotein). The amino acid L-arginine (ARG) has been cited as an treatment aid to alterations related to a high fat diet intake.

PURPOSE: To assess if ARG supplementation has effect on biochemical parameters and tissue morphology of rats submitted to high-fat diet.

METHODS: 17 male Wistar rats (initial weight 300 g) were divided into four groups: standard chow (CONT, n = 4), standard chow with 0.4 g of arginine / day (CONT + ARG, n = 4), high-fat diet (HF, n = 5) and high-fat diet with arginine 0.4 g / day (HF + ARG, n = 4). Supplementation period consisted of the last 4 from 14 weeks of the experiment. Body weight and food consumption were monitored. Euthanasia was performed after a 12 hour-fasting period for collection of biological material. Serum was obtained for TC, TRG, LDL-C and HDL-C analysis. Brain and heart samples were collected to obtain electron micrograph images. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA (p <0.05).

RESULTS: HF group showed higher food intake than HF-ARG (102,8±19,71 and 75,51±15,64g, respectively) (p <0.001). HF and HF+ARG groups presented higher TC concentrations (170,1 ± 23,7 e 153,7 ± 14,1 mg/dL, respectively) and LDL-c (91,3 ± 24,5 e 75,7 ± 12,3 mg/dL, respectively) (p <0.0001). The ARG-HF group showed lower TRG levels (p <0.05) compared to the HF group (150,7 ± 6,6 e 166,5 ± 15,1 mg/dL, respectively). Brain tissue from HF group exhibited morphological damage that HF-ARG group did not presented, including diffuse display of empty spaces.

CONCLUSIONS: The hyperphagic model was effective in the HF group. ARG supplementation exhibited significant effect on TG levels, and ameliorate morphological damage provided by high-fat diet intake. Parameters related to oxidative damage and inflammatory processes deserve attention in future studies. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: FAPEMA for financial support.

2422 Board #123 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

The Relationship between Acute Inorganic Dietary Nitrate Supplementation and Muscle Fatigue in Knee Extensor Exercise

Seungyong Lee, Mark G. Abel, Thorburn B. Symons, David T. Thomas, James W. Yates, FACSM. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The effect of acute beetroot juice supplementation (providing 8.0mMol/day of inorganic dietary nitrate) on the rate of resistance exercise fatigue as measured by changes in peak torque, was investigated.

METHODS: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over study, 35 recreationally active subjects consumed beetroot (BR) juice or placebo (PL: isocaloric/isonitrogenous black currant beverage) 12 and 2.5 hours before the fatiguing exercise procedure. Peak torque was measured on the BIODEX dynamometer by performing 50, maximal effort, concentric (CON) knee extensions at 90°/s. The change in peak torque over time was used as a fatigue index. Peak torque was averaged over 5 consecutive contractions and then expressed as a percentage. Blood pressure (BP) was recorded before and after exercise.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between BR and PL in the rate of fatigue over 50 contractions. By stage 3 (11th-15th reps) subjects retained 87.6±6.9% of their strength with BR and 86.7±6.3% with PL. Results for stages 6 (26th-30th) and 10 (46th-50th) were as follows: BR 64.1±11.4 vs. PL 63.2±11.7 %, BR 47.9±12.6 vs. PL 46.9±12.9%, respectively. No significant differences between BR and PL in resting BP (systolic or diastolic) were observed before fatiguing exercise. After fatiguing exercise, diastolic BP (BR 67.2±9.8 vs. PL 64.5±7.9mmHg, p < 0.05) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (BR 91.6±9.3 vs. PL 88.8±8.2mmHg, p < 0.05) were both increased with BR supplementation differing from PL group.

CONCLUSION: The outcome of the present study suggested that acute bouts of beetroot juice supplementation had no significant effect on knee extensor muscle fatigue measured during isokinetic contractions.

2423 Board #124 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Chronic Nitrate Supplementation With Training: No Effect On O2-efficiency And Endurance Exercise Performance

Joke Puype, Monique Ramaekers, Peter Hespel. KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

(No relationships reported)

It is now well established that either acute or short-term (1-2 wks) oral nitrate supplementation (∼6mmol/day) with beetroot juice (BR), can reduce the O2 -cost of submaximal exercise and thereby enhance exercise performance. However, it is currently unknown whether chronic nitrate intake combined with training can stimulate training adaptations.

PURPOSE: To investigate whether high intensity endurance training plus nitrate intake can increase O2-efficiency during submaximal exercise, and exercise performance, more than training alone.

METHODS: Moderately trained, healthy males (22.7 ± 2.4 yr; VO2, 61 ± 9 ml.min-1. kg) performed bicycle ergometer training (4-6 mmol/L lactate, five 30min sessions per week, 6 weeks), either with BR (∼0.07mmol/kg-1·day; BR, n=10), or with a control drink (apple black currant juice, ∼0.5L/day; PL, n=10). The control group received BR, but did not train (CON, n=10). Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period the subjects performed a 30min time trial (TT) and a maximal incremental exercise test till exhaustion (MAX). Subjects received BR or PL from 4 days before the pretest to eliminate the acute effects of nitrate intake.

RESULTS: The training increased mean power output during the TT by 13% and 11% in BR and PL respectively (p<0.05). Moreover, compared with CON, power output at the 4mmol/l lactate threshold (LT4) measured in MAX increased by 17% in BR (p<0.05) versus 11% in PL (p=0.11). Furthermore, the O2 cost of submaximal cycling (LT4) from the pretest to the posttest decreased by ∼8% in BR (p<0.05), tended to be lower (∼4.7%) in CON (p=0.07), yet was constant in PL. The training increased VO2max from 60,3 ± 2,0 to 64,0 ± 2.1 ml·min-1·kg in BR (p<0.05), which was not different from PL (pretest: 60.6 ± 1.4, posttest: 62.4± 1.9 ml·min-1·kg). VO2max was constant throughout the study in CON (pretest: 59.6 ± 2.8 , posttest, 58.6 ± 2.4 ml·min-1·kg). The training program also prolonged time to exhaustion to the same degree in BR (12%) and PL (10%) (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Chronic nitrate intake during a period of endurance training does not add to the effects of acute nitrate intake to either enhance O2-efficiency during submaximal exercise, or stimulate endurance exercise performance.

2424 Board #125 May 31, 3:30 PM - 5:00 PM

Effect Of Dietary Nitrate On Cerebral Oxygenation And Cognitive Performance During Cycle Exercise

Kevin G. Thompson1, Louise Turner2, Jonathon Pritchard2, Fiona Dodd2, David O. Kennedy2, Crystal Haskell2, James R. Blackwell3, Andrew M. Jones, FACSM3. 1University of Canberra, Canberra, Australia. 2Northumbria University, Newcastle, United Kingdom. 3University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Dietary nitrate has been demonstrated to decrease systolic blood pressure, reduce oxygen consumption and improve exercise tolerance during short-term endurance exercise. It has also been reported to enhance regional cerebral perfusion in areas associated with executive function, mental fatigue and perception of effort in older adults at rest.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of dietary nitrate supplementation on cerebral oxygenation, effort perception, mental fatigue and cognitive performance during exercise.

METHODS: The study received institutional ethical approval. Sixteen subjects ingested 500 ml of nitrate-rich beetroot juice (containing 5 mmol nitrate) or a placebo on separate occasions in a double-blind cross-over design. After a 90 min absorption period the participants cycled for 20 min at 50% and then 70%VO2peak before cycling at 90%VO2peak to volitional exhaustion. Participants completed cognitive tasks (RVIP for 9 mins, Stroop for 9 mins) prior to exercise, during the 50% and 70% VO2peak stages and following the 90% VO2peak stage.

RESULTS: Following dietary nitrate supplementation, plasma [nitrite] was found to be increased (post-absorption 222±61 vs 124±43nM; post-exercise 178±44 vs 133±37nM p<0.01) and systolic blood pressure reduced (post-absorption 113±8 vs 118±5mmHg; post-exercise 112±8 vs 116±6mmHg p<0.05) compared to placebo. Change in cerebral deoxyhaemoglobin concentration was significantly lower with nitrate compared to placebo during the pre-exercise cognitive tasks, as well as during exercise at 50% and 70%VO2peak and post-exercise (F6,90 = 2.29, p<0.05). Cerebral oxyhaemoglobin concentration and total haemoglobin concentration responses were similar between treatment conditions. Changes in cognitive task performance, mental fatigue (100 mm line scale), RPE and mood (fatigue and vigor, BRUMS questionnaire) were similar in both treatment conditions. Exercise tolerance at 90% VO2peak significantly increased (184.9±122s vs 159.7±108.6s p<0.05) in the dietary nitrate condition.

CONCLUSION: Nitric oxide availability during exercise did not improve cognitive performance or attenuate mental fatigue or subjective effort responses during moderate to severe exercise.

© 2013 American College of Sports Medicine