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E-32 Free Communication/Poster - Training Strategies and Performance

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 5S - p 501–513
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000433729.11644.e8
Abstract
Free

May 31, 2013, 7:30 AM - 12:30 PM

Room: Hall C

2134 Board #198 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Electrical Muscle Stimulation and Performance in Collegiate Football Athletes

Michael Calvin1, Kelly Brooks2, Jay Dawes2, Keith Randazzo3, Jeremy Carter4. 1 Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA. 2 Texas A&M University, Corpus Christi, TX. 3 Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA. 4Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. (Sponsor: Jeff Chandler, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE:NFL scouts view performance tests such as the 40-yard sprint and the vertical jump in judging potential of future NFL athletes. A popular device called the Compex Muscle Stimulator (Compex) contains a preset setting that is called “potentiation,” described by the developers as being able to increase the muscle activation rate of force development by potentiating the muscles closer to the action potential. The purpose of this study was to test whether using an Electrical Muscle Stimulation (EMS) device, directly before performing these tests would increase performance of the athlete.

METHODS: Participants included 14 Division I collegiate male football athletes, age 18-22 years. The potentiation cycle (3.5 minutes) was chosen for group 1. Group 2 did not use the Compex. Both groups were given up to two minutes to prepare for the 40-yard sprint on their own. Participants were allowed two trials at the 40-yard sprint with two minutes between the trials, and were measured with an electronic timing device. Participants performed the vertical jump test next. The reach height was measured and two attempts were given for each participant to test their vertical jump using the Vertec. The best trial for each test was used for the data computations. Procedures were repeated 1 week later with group 2 using the Compex while group 1 did not. The performance of each participant between each set of testing was compared using ANOVA to find any significant differences. Differences were compared between groups to rule out changes in performance. A t-test was used to find significant differences between the groups.

RESULTS: No significant differences between groups, trials, or between athletes for the vertical jump (28.2 inches, 27.6 inches) or the 40 meter dash (4.82 sec, 4.85 sec ) were found (p<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Results suggest that a single use of the Compex on the hamstrings of Division I collegiate male athletes does not significantly increase performance in the 40-yard sprint or vertical jump performance tests. Performance tests for football athletes are becoming more important as skill level increases for the sport. This study does not support the used of EMS to acutely increase performance. Prior research proved EMS effective during chronic training. More research is needed to determine effectiveness of EMS.

2135 Board #199 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of Post-exercise Rating Time On Session RPE

Joshua Christen, Carl Foster, FACSM, John P. Porcari, FACSM, Richard P. Mikat, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: Session RPE (sRPE) has gained popularity as a simple method for the global evaluation of training load. A single measure of sRPE is typically obtained 30 min following the conclusion of a training session.

PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of post-exercise time on sRPE following both steady-state and interval cycle ergometer exercise bouts.

METHODS: Habitually active subjects (N=15)(VO2max=51+4 & 36+4 for males & females) completed one steady-state ride and four interval 30 min training bouts in countterbalanced order. The steady-state ride was conducted at a power output of 90% of VT. The work-to-rest ratios of the interval rides were 1:1, 2:2, and 3:3. The high-intensity component of each interval was 75% of PPO. Heart rate (HR), blood lactate (BLa), and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during each ride. The sRPE was measured at 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 60 min and 24 hr after completion of each ride.

RESULTS: BLa at the prior to the cool down followed interval length (steady state=4.0, 1:1=6.7, 2:2=8.7, & 3:3=8.7 mmol*l-1. sRPE, at 30 min post exercise, followed a similar trend: steady state=3.7, 1:1=3.9, 2:2=4.7 & 3:3=6.2. No significant differences (p > 0.05) in sRPE were found based on time of post-exercise sampling.

CONCLUSION: Post-exercise time has no meaningful effect on sRPE after steady-state or interval cycling exercise bouts. The sRPE does discriminate between different exercise types and interval ratios.

2136 Board #200 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Responses To A 16 Day Training Camp In High Performance Male And Female Rowers

Kenneth S. Graham1, Nancy J. Rehrer, FACSM2. 1 NSW Institute of Sport, Sydney Olympic Park, Australia. 2University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.

(No relationships reported)

Athletes undertake training to improve competition performance. Training programmes often contain both high volume and high intensity loads. An approach to prevent non-functional overreaching or overtraining is to monitor the strain response to the training.

PURPOSE: To examine the changes in body mass, heart rate (HR), haematocrit (Hct), haemoglobin (Hb), creatine kinase (CK) and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in high performance male and female rowers to identify measures that may be sensitive to training strain.

METHODS: A squad of rowers (28 male and 18 female) undertook a 16-day training camp at ∼1600m at the beginning of the pre-competition phase of training. Training during the camp was increased by ∼33% to an average of 247 min.day-1. Morning measures of body mass, HR, Hb, Hct, CK and BUN, were taken daily, prior to training. ANOVA was used to identify “day” and “sex” effects and any interaction. Bonferroni adjustment was used for post-hoc comparisons.

RESULTS: Mean body mass varied within a 0.77 kg range with a maximum 81.24 kg on day 6 to a minimum of 80.47 kg on day 14. Differences from day 1 values were determined for days 3, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 (all less than p<0.027). Resting HR increased from 48.8 b.min-1 (day 1) to a peak of 55.2 b.min-1 (day 4) before declining to 48.6 b.min-1 (day 14) (p<0.001). Hct did not vary significantly across the camp (p=0.064) or between sexes (p=0.188). Hb was at a maximum (15.7 gm.dl-1) on day 2 with a minimal value on day 8 (14.6 gm.dl-1) before increasing to 15.5 gm.dl-1 (day 16) (p=0.003). Males had greater mean Hb than females (15.6 vs 14.1 gm.dl-1, p<0.001). CK increased from an initial value 149 to 532 IU.ml-1 (day 4) before declining to 242 and 244 IU.ml-1 on the final two days (p<0.001) with no differences between sexes (p=0.084). There was an interaction (p=0.009) due to a larger increase in CK (day 4) for the males. BUN increased across the camp from day 1 to a peak on day 14 (5.3 to 7.6 mmol-1, p<0.001). Mean values were higher for males than females (7.4 vs 5.7 mmol.l-1, p=0.004), however, there were no sex differences in the response across the camp (p=0.604).

CONCLUSION: A number of physiological measures appear sensitive to changes in training load. These include resting heart rate and CK which increased with increases in training load and BUN, which increased across the camp.

2137 Board #201 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of 8 Weeks of Over-weighted Implement Training on Bat Velocity of Novice College Students

David J. Szymanski1, Jeremy G. Carter2, Donny R. Chandler1, P. Tyler Donahue1, J. Barrett Stover1, Michael Greenwood, FACSM2. 1 Louisiana Tech University, Ruston, LA. 2Texas A & M University, College Station, TX.

(No relationships reported)

In baseball/softball it is important to increase bat velocity (BV) because a faster swing will decrease swing-time and increase decision-time, allowing the hitter to wait longer before deciding to swing and to hit the ball with greater exit velocity.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of 8 weeks of over-weighted (OW) implement training on BV of novice, college Kinesiology students.

METHODS: Group 1 (G1): men (M = 14) swung a 83.8 cm, 850.5 g standard (S) baseball bat, while women (W = 13) swung a 83.8 cm, 652.0 g S softball bat and hit tennis balls off of a batting tee 3x/wk for 8 wk for a total of 1248 swings. Group 2 (G2): men (M = 14) swung a 77.5 cm, 1814.4 g OW implement and a S baseball bat at a 1:1 swing ratio while women (W = 13) swung a 77.5 cm, 1360.8 g OW implement and a S softball bat at a 1:1 swing ratio and hit tennis balls off of a batting tee 3x/wk for 8 wk for a total of 1248 (OW = 624; S = 624) swings. BV was measured via a Set-Pro SPRT5A device.

RESULTS: Group comparisons were determined using independent t-tests assuming equal variance. Both groups made statistically significant (p < 0.01) increases in BV (G1 = 3.9%; G2 = 4.4%); however, there were no significant differences pre/post between groups (G1 = 27.19±5.80; 28.28±5.23 m·s-1 and G2 = 27.14±5.79; 28.38±4.98 m·s-1). When data were separated by gender, only G2 W significantly increased (7.8%) pre/post BV after 8 weeks of training (22.53±3.15; 24.27±3.08 m·s-1).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that performing OW swings at a 1:1 swing ratio in combination with a S baseball bat do not provide additional improvements to BV for novice, college M. However, for novice, college W swinging an OW device did provide additional improvements to BV compared to swinging a S softball bat alone. Since these individuals were inexperienced, college students, future research should examine the effects of OW implement training on competitive baseball and softball players during offseason training.

2138 Board #202 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects Of Compression Equipment On Performance And Recovery In Motocross

Stephan Nuesser. SNDC performance Diagnostic Center, Burscheid, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Motocross is a highly physical demanding sport. The possible effects of compression garments during a competition-like test event are relatively unknown.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this project was to investigate the influence of compression equipment on performance and recovery in competitive motocross.

Method: 10 high level motocross riders (mean ± SD: 22,5 yrs ± 6,2, 72,4 kg ± 10,2, 179,1 cm ± 5,2cm)performed a competition like test event on 2 separate days on the identical motocross track. Day 1 (D1) was performed without any compression equipment; Day 2 (D2) was held 1 week later, wearing Full Leg and Arm Compression sleeves (Compressport, Switzerland) the whole day. During each day the riders had to do following test protocol: 25 min warm up on the track followed by 2 riding sessions (moto) of 25 min with individual maximum speed. The break in-between the motos was 30 min. Capillary blood samples for determination of lactate (LA) and creatin kinase (CK) were taken in rest, immediately after 1st and 2nd riding session and 60 min after the last moto. A questionnaire about muscle soreness and recovery state was completed after each day.

RESULTS: Lac and CK was significant lower (P< 0,05) after 1st and 2nd moto and 60min after the last riding session at Day2 (with compression equipment) compared to Day 1. D1, LA: 3,6 mmol ±1,3, 3,4 mmol ± 1,0, 1,6 ± 0,3. CK: 274,4 u/l ± 103,6, 313,3 u/l ± 120,7, 348,5 u/l ±129,4. D2, LA: 2,8 mmol ± 0,9, 2,7 mmol ±0,8, 1,1 mmol ± 0,4. CK: 216,1 u/l ± 99,1, 249,4 u/l ± 108,5, 284,4 u/l ± 106,4. The results of the questionnaire are supporting the measured results. The riders had subjectively a 10% better state of recovery and less muscle soreness after D2 compared to D1. D1 75,2 % ± 15,9, D2 85,2 % ± 9,4.

CONCLUSION: Full Leg and Arm compression sleeves have a positive effect on lactate production and creatine kinase release. These two parameters show a reduced muscular workload and tissue/cell damage during the motocross, competition like test protocol. The results are not supported by other studies which could be because of the very complex physical structure of motocross. Besides a high cardiovascular load, the physical impacts after jumps and the vibration of the motorcycle are very intense. These factors are complex and consist of a multiple physical strain, which is higher and more intense then in other disciplines.

2139 Board #203 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Instability Resistance Training Effects on Muscular Power Outputs in Inexperienced Resistance Trainers

Dragan Radovanovic1, Milovan Bratic1, Marjan Marinkovic2, Aleksandar Ignjatovic3. 1 Faculty of Sport and Physical Education, University of Nis, Nis, Serbia. 2 Military Academy Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia. 3Faculty of Pedagogy Jagodina, University of Kragujevac, Jagodina, Serbia.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the differences in muscular outputs after eight weeks of stable and unstable resistance training in inexperienced resistance trainers. It was hypothesized that instability resistance training would provide significantly greater training gains in muscular outputs.

METHODS: The sample consisted of 75 male subjects (aged 19-22), divided into three equal groups. The first experimental group consisted of participants who in addition to their usual daily physical activities (DPA) were involved in programmed resistance training under unstable conditions. The second experimental group consisted of participants who in addition to their usual DPA were involved in resistance training under stable conditions. The control group consisted of participants who only took part in their usual DPA without any form of resistance training. The research included bench press and squat exercises, performed with a barbell, with a previously established load of 50% of one repetition maximum (1RM). The unstable conditions were provided by a Swiss ball for the bench press, while barbell squats were performed on a BOSU ball. Five muscular outputs were evaluated: force, power, velocity, distance of movement of the barbell and 1RM.

RESULTS: All muscular outputs improved with training. The multivariate analysis of variance showed that the differences in the applied training model as an experimental factor, leading to significantly higher values of muscular outputs in the unstable resistance training group. Unstable resistance training did provide an advantage for velocity (129.68cm/s±12.51 vs. 112.76cm/s±9.88, p<0.01) and distance of movement of the barbell (27.44cm±3.63 vs. 24.64cm±1.89, p<0.05). However, the values of one-repetition maximum, force and power did not show significant differences after different training models were applied.

CONCLUSION: Resistance training under unstable conditions is a more efficacious tool for increasing values of muscular outputs in relation to resistance training under stable conditions. However, training with 50% of 1RM under unstable conditions cannot be recommended as an effective method for increasing maximum muscle force for inexperienced resistance trainers.

2140 Board #204 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Very Short-term Training On Peak Torque, Power, And Neuromuscular Responses Of The Forearm Flexors

Daniel A. Traylor, Terry J. Housh, FACSM, Robert W. Lewis, Jr., Haley C. Bergstrom, Glen O. Johnson, FACSM, Richard J. Schmidt, Nathaniel DM Jenkins, Kristen C. Cochrane. University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Lincoln, NE.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE:The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of three sessions of concentric, isokinetic training of the forearm flexors on peak torque (PT), average power (AP), and the amplitude (AMP) and mean power frequency (MPF) of the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanomyographic (MMG) signals at 60 and 180°·s-1 in males.

METHODS: Nine adult males (mean age ± SD = 22.3 ± 2.1 years; body mass = 79.6 ± 7.1 kg; height = 177.3 ± 4.8 cm) completed two pretests (pretest 1 and pretest 2) and a posttest that included maximal, concentric isokinetic forearm flexion (non-dominant arm) muscle actions at 60 and 180°·s-1. The AMP and MPF of the EMG and MMG signals were recorded from the biceps brachii (BB). During the three training sessions, the subjects performed five sets of ten maximal, isokinetic concentric forearm flexion (non-dominant arm) repetitions at 60°·s-1. Six separate 3 (time: pretest 1, pretest 2, and posttest) × 2 (velocity: 60 and 180°·s-1) repeated measures ANOVAs were used to analyze PT, AP, MMG AMP, MMG MPF, EMG AMP, and EMG MPF.

RESULTS: The results of the present study indicated that there were training-induced increases (p < 0.05) in PT, AP, and MMG AMP at 60 and 180°·s-1. There were, however, no changes in to EMG AMP, EMG MPF, or MMG MPF.

CONCLUSIONS: The present findings indicated that concentric forearm flexion PT and AP increased without changes in agonist muscle activation of the BB, global motor unit firing rate, or action potential conduction velocity of the BB. It is likely that the increases in PT and AP following very short-term training were due to changes in co-activation of antagonist muscles or neuromuscular adaptations in forearm flexor muscles other than the BB.

2141 Board #205 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect Of Lower Body Negative Pressure On Physiological, Perceptual and Affective Responses During Self-Regulated Exercise

Sinead E. Sheridan, Paul L. O’Connor, Eoin Fitzgibbon, Niall M. Moyna. Dublin City University, Dublin, Ireland.

(No relationships reported)

Background: Lower body negative pressure treadmill exercise (LBNP-TE) was developed for health maintenance during periods of microgravity. It involves exercising on a treadmill within a waist-high pressure chamber connected to a pump. LBNP-TE increases ground reaction forces (GRF). Upright LBNP running increases heart rate (HR) and VO2 in recreational and competitive athletes.

PURPOSE: To compare the physiological, perceptual and affective responses in women during 30 min of self-regulated treadmill walking with and without LBNP.

METHODS: Fifteen healthy women (mean ± SD; age 24.2 ± 5.1 yr, VO2max 48.6 ± 6.9 ml.kg-’.min-1, BMI 22.6. ± 2.0 kg.m2) made 7 visits to the laboratory. The first visit assessed VO2max. During the next 6 visits, participants exercised for 30 min on a standard treadmill or a LBNP treadmill at normal body weight (BW), +10%BW, +20%BW, +30%BW and +40%BW. Participants were allowed to alter the velocity during the initial 3 min of exercise and during the first 30 sec of every 6th min. HR was recorded using telemetry and respiratory and metabolic variables were measured using open circuit spirometry. Blood samples were drawn and RPE-O (Borg 15 category scale) and affective responses (Feeling scale) were recorded during the final 15 sec of each 5 min interval.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in any of the measured parameters between the experimental conditions.

Table 1

Table 1

Values are mean SD; EE = Energy expenditure,

CONCLUSION: There was no significant difference in the physiological, perceptual or affective responses in healthy women during self-regulated walking with or without LBNP. This may be due to lower GRF when walking compared to running.

2142 Board #206 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Evaluation of the Streetstrider On An Indoor Training Stand Compared To An Elliptical Cross-trainer

John P. Porcari, FACSM, Kristen Sylvester, Mark Gibson, Scott T. Doberstein, Carl Foster, FACSM. University of Wisconsin - La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

The StreetStrider is an elliptical cross-trainer with wheels and is designed to be used outdoors. An indoor training stand is available for the StreetStrider so that it can be used indoors in inclement weather; hence the name “StreetStrider with a Flat.”

PURPOSE: This study was designed 1) to determine if self-selected exercise using the “StreetStrider with a Flat” meets ACSM guidelines for improving cardiorespiratory fitness and 2) to compare how self-selected exercise using the “’StreetStrider with a Flat” compares with self-selected exercise using a standard Precor elliptical cross-trainer.

METHODS: Nine male (21.7±2.45 years old) and eight female (21.5± 2.27 years old) recreationally active students performed habituation trials followed by two randomized exercise bouts. The exercise bouts included 30 minutes of self-selected exercise on both the “StreetStrider with a Flat” and a Precor elliptical cross-trainer (Model EFX 576i).

RESULTS: Self-selected exercise elicited significantly higher heart rate responses (157±18.8 vs. 151±18.2 bpm; 81±9.9 vs. 78±9.1 %HRmax) on the “StreetStrider with a Flat” than on the Precor elliptical cross-trainer (p< .05). There were no significant differences in VO2 (33.7±10.6 vs. 32.2±8.2 ml/kg/min), energy expenditure (13.2±4.2 vs. 12.6±3.2 kcal/min), or RPE (12.2±1.5 vs. 11.7±2.3) between modalities.

CONCLUSIONS: 1) Exercising at a self-selected pace on the “StreetStrider with a Flat” met ACSM guidelines for improving cardiorespiratory fitness. 2) The “StreetStrider with a Flat” elicits physiological responses that are similar or greater in intensity to a standard elliptical cross-trainer.

2143 Board #207 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Tabata Interval Exercise: Energy Expenditure and Post-Exercise Responses

Michele Olson, FACSM. Auburn University Montgomery, Montgomery, AL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Tabata training, named for its developer Dr. Izumi Tabata who studied this form of conditioning at the National Institute of Fitness and Sports in Tokyo, involves a movement or modality such as squat jumps, stair running or cycling done for 20 seconds at max effort with 10 seconds rest for 8 total cycles. The Tabata researches found that this protocol produced significant improves in VO2 max following a period of training. However, no published data are available regarding the energy cost of the Tabata method. The purpose of this study was to measure the energy cost of a Tabata protocol and determine the energy expenditure following a Tabata bout.

METHODS: 15 participants, 12 women and 3 men (mean age, 24.9 yr) who were physically active or involved in university athletics participated in the study and provided informed consent. The study protocol was as follows: Pre-exercise VO2 was measured for 30 minutes (Parvomedics metabolic system) while the subjects rested in a supine position on an athletic training table. Subjects then completed a Tabata bout executing 8 cycles of body-weight squat jumps with max effort while being measured continuously for VO2. Following exercise, the subjects’ VO2 was further recorded as per the pre-exercise conditions.

RESULTS: Mean pre-exercise VO2 was 3.7 ml.kg.-1.min-1. For the Tabata bout VO2 was 38.4 ml.kg.-1.min-1 with an average peak VO2 of 48.2 ml.kg.-1.min-1 during various 20 second max effort periods. Peak RER recovery values were 1.54. At 10, 20 and 30 minutes post-exercise, the mean VO2 was 12.5, 6.4 and 4.1 ml.kg.-1.min-1, respectively. All time-ordered post-exercise VO2 values were significantly higher than pre-exercise (ANOVA, p. 0.05). Using the 5 kcal.min-1 equivalent for every 1 L of O2 consumed, kcal cost for the Tabata protocol was 13.4 kcal.-1min-1 (standardized to 70 kg wt). Additionally, the kcal expenditure incurred 30 minutes post exercise was double that for the 30 minute pre-exercise period: 80.5 kcals versus 39 kcals, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: This data shows that a bout of Tabata exercise using body-weight squat jumps produced a marked VO2 equivalent to 11.0 METs and a VO2 that had not fallen to pre-exercise 30 minutes post exercise. Thus, the intensity of Tabata’s appear to provide a viable interval training method particularly for athletes and the higher-fit.

2144 Board #208 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of 2 Days/w High-intensity Intermittent Cross Training On Maximal Oxygen Uptake

Yu Zhong Xu, Katsunori Tsuji, Motoyuki Iemitsu, Izumi Tabata, FACSM. Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Japan. (Sponsor: Izumi.Tabata, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE:The purpose of this study was to elucidate effects of non-exhaustive high-intensity intermittent cross training (HIICT) on maximal oxygen uptake (V(•)O2max).

METHODS: Experiment 1: The HIICT exercise consists of totally 7 intermittent 20 sec exercise bouts with 10 sec rest between the bouts. The subjects (n=8) bike on bicycle ergometer and run on a treadmill alternatively for the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th bouts and 2nd, 4th, 6th bouts, respectively. Exercise intensity (170% V(•)O2max) for both bicycle and running of the HIICT exercise was as same as of the high intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) which exhausts the subjects after they exercise intermittently for all seven 20-sec bouts of running or bicycling with a 10-sec rest between bouts. The peak oxygen uptake, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), peak blood lactate concentration (PBL) was measured for both HIICT exercise and HIIEs (running and bicycling). Experiment 2: Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to either a training group (T, n=8) or a control group(C, n=8). The T group underwent the HIICT for 2 days/week for 6 weeks.

RESULTS: Experiment 1: Oxygen uptake during the last bout of bicycling and running of HIICT exercise was not statistically less than V(•)O2max, for bicycling and running, respectively (p>0.10). RPE of HIICT exercise (15±2) was significantly lower than that observed for both HIIE running (20±0, p<0.001), and HIIE bicycling (20±0, p<0.001). PBL of HIICT exercise (12.8±1.0 mmol/L) was also significantly less than both HIIE running (16.7±1.3 mmol/L, p<0.001) and HIIE bicycling (16.6±1.4 mmol/L, p<0.001). Experiment 2: The HIICT increased T group’s V(•)O2max significantly for both bicycling and running by 13.1 % and 10.4 %, respectively (p<0.001), while no change in V(•)O2max was observed in C group.

CONCLUSIONS: The non-exhaustive high intensity intermittent cross training, which maximally tasks aerobic energy releasing system, elevates maximal aerobic power at the frequency of 2days/week.

2145 Board #209 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Changes In Strength And Muscle CSA During Combined Endurance And Strength Training: Order Effect

Moritz Schumann1, Maria Küüsmaa1, Henna Syväoja1, Simon Walker1, Kai Nyman2, Arja Häkkinen1, William J. Kraemer, FACSM3, Keijo Häkkinen1. 1 University of Jyväskylä, Jyväskylä, Finland. 2 Central Hospital of Central Finland, Jyväskylä, Finland. 3University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

(No relationships reported)

Neuromuscular fatigue produced by endurance exercise may lead to decreases in force produced during a subsequent strength training session and can, in turn, result in compromised strength development during training. Single session combined endurance and strength training, thus, raises the question about the role of the exercise order with regard to chronic neuromuscular adaptations.

PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of single session combined endurance (E)+strength (S) and S+E training on maximal S and muscle CSA.

METHODS: Thirty-two previously untrained men (mean±SD; age, 29±5 years; height, 178±5cm; body mass, 76±9kg) were matched by anthropometrics and baseline physical performance to an E+S (n=14) or S+E (n=18) group and trained for 24weeks (2x12wks). Maximal S (1RM and maximal isometric leg press, MVC) and muscle CSA (by ultrasound, at 50% length of vastus lateralis) were measured at week 0 (T0), 12 (T1) and 24 (T2). Subjects performed 2 combined sessions (2x E+S or S+E) during weeks 0-12 and 2.5 combined sessions (5x E+S or S+E per 2 weeks) during weeks 13-24. S training focused primarily on leg muscles (and included upper body and trunk exercises) with loads of 70-95% of 1RM. E training consisted of continuous and intermittent cycling and the intensity was progressively increased throughout the training with a duration of 30-60min/session.

RESULTS: Both groups significantly increased 1RM at T1 (E+S, +8%, p<0.01; S+E, +12%, p<0.001) and T2 (E+S, +13%, p<0.001; S+E, +17%, p<0.001) compared to T0. MVCmax significantly increased in both groups at T2 (E+S, +11%, p<0.01; S+E, +13%, p<0.05). Muscle CSA increased significantly in both groups at T1 (E+S, +5%, p<0.05; S+E, 4%, p<0.01) and T2 (E+S, 11%, p<0.001, S+E, 14%, p>0.001) compared to T0. No significant differences were found in gains of 1RM, MVCmax and CSA between the groups.

CONCLUSION: This study did not show significant differences in adaptations of 1RM, MVCmax and muscle CSA during 24 weeks of single session combined E+S versus S+E training in previously untrained men. However, the differences of 2-4% observed in maximal strength and muscle CSA gains between the groups indicate that future studies conducted with modified training mode, intensity and/or frequency may lead to a significant difference between E+S and S+E training.

2146 Board #210 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Adaptation Of Short-term High-intensity Interval Training On Exercise-induced Stresses

Ting Yao Wang1, Mein Mein Lee2, Kuei Hui Chan2. 1 National Yang Ming University, Taipei, Taiwan. 2National Taiwan Sport University, Taoyuan County, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Short-term high-intensity interval training (HIT) was suggested to be a time-efficient strategy to improve aerobic capacity. The high intensity may induce stress after training. Exercise-induced stress includes oxidative, mechanical and metabolic stresses. Each stress responds to its own biochemical marker. However, it is still unclear whether the stresses induced by HIT could be adapted or not after a short-term training.

PURPOSE:To compare the responses of blood levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), creatine kinase (CK) and cortisol between first and last HIT session over two weeks.

METHODS: Eight healthy male participants (age: 22.3±1.9 yrs, height: 174.1±7.5 cm, weight: 72.0±8.8 kg) performed 6 times of HIT (7 bouts, 4-min interval at 90% VO2max, 2-min rest between intervals) on treadmill in 2 weeks (3 d·wk-1). Before and after (0h, 1h and 2h) 1st and 6th HIT, blood samples of participants were collected to measure the concentrations or activities of TBARS, CK and cortisol. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA with repeated measures.

RESULTS: In 1st HIT, TBARS at 0h (4.50±0.62 μM) and 1h (4.28±0.29 μM)), CK at 0h (220.6±48.1 U/L), 1h (211.1±43.4 U/L) and 2h (210.6±45.4 U/L)), as well as cortisol at 0h (492.4±132.4 nmol/L) were significantly higher than rest (TBARS: 3.92±0.28 μM, CK: 190.1±37.4 U/L, cortisol: 325.5±101.1 nmol/L, p <0.05). In 6th HIT, TBARS at 0h (4.33±1.32 μM) and 1h (4.01±0.97 μM)) as well as CK at 0h (249.4±75.2 U/L), 1h (237.8±71.5 U/L) and 2h (236.8±72.4 U/L) were still significantly higher than rest (TBARS: 3.61±0.95 μM, CK: 205.8±68.8 U/L p <0.05). The cortisol did not change after 6th HIT (p >0.05). However, there was no significant difference at the same time points between 1st and 6th HIT.

CONCLUSIONS: HIT induced oxidative, mechanical and metabolic stresses. The short-term HIT may not get exercise-induced stresses adaptation.

2147 Board #211 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Optimal Pacing In 400 M Front-crawl Simulated Competitions: Self-Selected Vs. Externally Paced Pattern

Sabrina Skorski1, Oliver Faude2, Katharina Rausch1, Nina Wengert1, Tim Meyer1. 1 Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany. 2University of Basel, Basel, Germany. (Sponsor: Prof. Dr. Tim Meyer, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Although it is assumed that athletes develop a stable pacing pattern (PP) during their career, data on day-to-day variability is lacking. The 1st aim of this study was to calculate the smallest worthwhile change in PP during 400 m crawl simulated competition (SC) which is important to identify relevant training induced changes in PP (SMW). In the 2nd part, the starting phase of a 400 m crawl swim was manipulated as compared to self-selected PP (PPSS) and analyzed for effects on PP during later stages of the race and on overall performance (MAN).

METHODS: In the SMW study, 16 swimmers (7♀, 9male;, 16.9±2.1 yrs) performed 2x400 m crawl SC, 7 days apart. In the MAN study, 15 swimmers (4♀, 9♂, 18.4±2.6 yrs) carried out 3x400 m SC. After a SC with PPSS, the initial 100 m of the following 2 races were manipulated in randomised order: slower (PPslow: +2.9±1.4s, 4.2±2.0%) or faster (PPfast: -1.9±0.8s, 3.0±1.4%). All 50 m split-times, maximal blood lactate concentrations (bLamax) and heart rates (HRmax) were measured during each trial in SMW and MAN. Average race velocity (V) was calculated to express sector V in relation to overall race V (normalised PP).

RESULTS: Coefficient of variation (CV) was small at the beginning of 400 m SC in SMW (CV: 0.9-1.8%;Cl: 0.6-2.9%) and increased to 2.7% (Cl: 2.0-4.3%) in the last 100 m. Athletes were significantly faster in PPSS compared to PPfast and PPslow (PPSS= 275.0 ± 15.9 s, PPslow= 277.5 ± 16.1 s, PPfast=278.5 ± 16.4 s, p<0.03), bLamax (p=0.33) or HRmax (p=0.47) was detected in MAN. Normalized PP was significantly different between conditions (p<0.001) due to the manipulated 1st and 2nd 50 m (p<0.001). No differences were detected in the later sections (p>0.45). 2 subjects showed best performance in PPfast (-2.9 s) and 4 in PPslow (-0.2 to -1.3s). When corrected for start time no difference was observed between sections in PPSS (p>0.22, even). The first 100 m were faster than all others in PPfast (p<0.001, fast-slow); in PPslow the last 50 m were faster than the 1st (p=0.009, slow-fast).

CONCLUSION: PP seem stable at the beginning of a 400 m SC, with increasing variability towards the end. A single change of the starting phase cannot enhance performance in most swimmers. Some athletes profited by the manipulation, hence research should focus on the identification of physiological/psychological influences on PP.

2148 Board #212 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Relationship between Physiological and Musculoskeletal Characteristics and Tactical Performance in Naval Special Warfare Operators

Katelyn Fleishman Allison1, John P. Abt1, Timothy C. Sell1, Jonathan M. Oliver1, Anthony C. Zimmer1, Greg D. Hovey1, Dallas E. Wood2, Zachary J. Nott2, Scott M. Lephart, FACSM1. 1 University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA. 2Naval Special Warfare, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Naval Special Warfare SEAL Operators must possess musculoskeletal and physiological characteristics necessary to meet mission related tasks, preserve health and physical fitness, and maintain physical readiness. Previous reports of physical training and fitness characteristics of SEALs are not contemporary and have not investigated these characteristics as they relate to tactically-relevant activities.

PURPOSE: To examine the relationship between musculoskeletal and physiological laboratory measures and tactical task performance of SEAL Operators.

METHODS: Thirty eight SEAL Operators (Age: 30.4±5.8 yrs, Height: 1.8±0.1 m, Mass: 88.2±13.2 kg) completed testing for body fat (BF%), fat mass (FM), and fat free mass (FFM); aerobic capacity VO2Peak) and lactate threshold (LT); isokinetic shoulder strength, knee strength, and lumbar strength; and tactical events, including a medicine ball toss, broad jump, 5-10-5 agility drill, 25 lb pull ups, body weight bench press, 1 RM dead lift, and 300 yd dash. A correlational analysis (α=0.05) was performed to determine the relationship between lab variables, individual tactical task performance, and a cumulative tactical task ranking (CTTR).

RESULTS: The following significant correlations were revealed: CTTR with BF%, FM, FFM, VO2 @ LT, shoulder strength, knee strength, and lumbar strength(r=-0.61 to 0.55, p<0.05); medicine ball toss with FFM (r=0.73, p<0.001); broad jump with BF%, FFM, shoulder strength, knee strength, and lumbar strength (r=-0.56 to 0.71, p<0.05); 5-10-5 drill with BF%, FM, VO2 @ LT, shoulder strength, knee strength, and lumbar strength (r=-0.57 to 0.46, p<0.05); pull ups and bench press with BF, FM, VO2Peak, shoulder strength, and knee strength (r=-0.67 to 0.58, p<0.05); dead lifts with FFM and knee strength (r=0.33 to 0.43, p<0.05); 300 yd dash with BF, FM, VO2Peak, knee strength, and lumbar strength (r=-0.66 to 0.70, p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Laboratory-based physiological and musculoskeletal characteristics are significantly correlated to tactically-relevant tasks. Optimizing these characteristics through physical training may enhance a SEAL Operator’s overall tactical readiness. These results may provide practical implications for assessing the tactical readiness of Navy SEALs. Supported by ONR #N00014-11-1-0929

2149 Board #213 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Use of Heart Rate Variability for Monitoring Overtraining in Endurance Athletes

Raymond Peralta, Mariel Wenzel, Michele Aquino, Laura D’Amore, Cory Whitmer, John Wygand, Robert M. Otto, FACSM. Adelphi University, Garden City, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Overtraining is associated with long-term excessive frequency, volume, or intensity of training resulting in prolonged fatigue and decreased performance. Overtraining is common among endurance athletes preparing for ultra-endurance events such as 226 km (IM) triathlon, and 113 km (Half-IM) triathlons.

PURPOSE: Endurance athletes were monitored for the variation in the time between heartbeats (HRV), in conjunction with signs and symptoms suggestive of overtraining, during their preparation and completion of an endurance race.

METHODS: 7 subjects volunteered for the study (4 ♀), (38.9 ± 11.4 yrs), 4 IM (12.32 ± 1.68 hrs), 2 Half-IM (6.98 ± .75 hrs), 1 (215.5 km cycle 8.45 hrs). Participants engaged in their normally scheduled training program and concurrently underwent a monitoring protocol, at four time intervals, conducted at T1 (one month prior to their endurance race, at peak training volume), T2 (within one week of their race, at peak taper), T3 (within one week after their race, at peak fatigue), and T4 (one month postrace at recovery). HRV analysis software for Time Domain (SDNN: standard deviation of the RR interval reflects total HRV for a period of interest); Frequency Domain (high frequency (HF) evaluated in the range from 0.15 to 0.4 Hz reflects parasympathetic influences on HRV; and Low frequency (LF) (evaluated in the range from 0.04 to 0.15 Hz reflects both sympathetic and parasympathetic influences of HRV) were obtained.

RESULTS: Time Domain (SDNN) 64.6 ± 24, 62.5 ± 34, 70.5 ± 34.6, and 65.7 ± 25 ms; High Frequency Domain 1117 ± 1242, 1132 ± 1366, 2391 ± 3035, and 1642 ± 1192 ms2; Low Frequency Domain 1036 ± 1114, 1022 ± 965, 1595 ± 1666, and 1015 ± 859 ms2; Well Being Quiz 23.9 ± 7, 24.9 ± 4, 20.6 ± 3, and 23.6 ± 5 points, and Total Quality Recovery (TQR) questionnaire 13.1 ± 4, 13.0 ± 3, 12.6 ± 4 and 14.4 ± 4 points for T1, T2, T3, and T4, respectively, were obtained. Repeated measure ANOVA (p > .05) for the aforementioned parameters revealed no significant difference among the assessments.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that cardiac autonomic imbalances were undetectable, despite wide variations in the physical and psychological stress, and fatigue during a two month window that included the peak training stress, race performance stress, and recovery.

2150 Board #214 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Prescription Of Interval Training Using The Critical Power Model

Nicholas A. Jamnick1, Ashley M. Placek1, Ida E. Clark1, Robert W. Pettitt1, Thomas W. Kernozek, FACSM2, Robert W. Pettitt1. 1 Minnesota State University, Mankato, Mankato, MN. 2University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, LaCrosse, MN.

(No relationships reported)

The critical power (CP) model enables the calculation of time to exhaustion (tLIM) for a given power output above CP using the equation of tLIM = W’/(power – CP), where W’ is the curvature constant, and CP is the asymptote for the power- tLIM relationship.

PURPOSE: We tested the hypothesis that two power- tLIM configurations can be manipulated by changing proportions of 70 and 80% of W’ to evoke consistent end-exercise oxygen uptake (VO2) and heart rate (HR) values.

METHODS: 5 men and 5 women completed a graded exercise test, 3-min all-out exercise tests, and intervals prescribed to deplete either 70 or 80% of W’ on separate testing sessions. Intraclass correlations (ICC α), standard error of measures (SEM), and coefficient of variation (CV) were calculated on end exercise values.

RESULTS: End-exercise VO2 were similar for the 3.5 and 5 min bouts depleting 70% of W’ (ICC α = 0.91, SEM = 3.23 mL·kg-1·min-1, CV = 8.1%) and similar for the 4 and 5 min bouts depleting 80% of W’ (ICC α = 0.95, SEM = 2.34 mL·kg-1·min-1, CV = 8.1%). No VO2 differences were observed between trials or conditions (p = 0.58). Similarly, HR values (∼181 b·min-1) did not differ between trials or conditions (p = 0.45).

CONCLUSIONS: Use of the CP model for interval training prescriptions of different power- tLIM configurations evokes similar end-exercise VO2 values on a given day. End exercise HR may be used to monitor and estimate day-to-day variations of end exercise VO2 of an initial interval.

2151 Board #215 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Applying the Critical Velocity Model for an Off-Season Interval Training Program

Brianne West, Ida E. Clark, Cherie D. Pettitt, Steven R. Murray, Thomas W. Kernozek, Robert W. Pettitt. Minnesota State University, Mankato, Mankato, MN.

(No relationships reported)

The critical velocity (CV) model offers an opportunity to prescribe and test empirically different velocity-time (V-t) protocols of high-intensity interval training (HIIT); however, currently such experiments are lacking.

PURPOSE: We evaluated a group of competitive, female soccer players completing one of two HIIT regimes: a short group (n = 6) completing higher V and shorter t protocol, and a long group (n = 10) completing lower V, longer t.

METHODS: Both groups trained 2 days per week for 4 weeks. For each workout, both groups ran at velocities exceeding CV designed to deplete identical fractional percentages (%) of D’, or interval t = [D – (D’ × %)]/CV, where D is the training displacement, and D’ is the V-t curvature constant. The metrics of CV and D’, along with total performance (V180s) and the velocity at 90 s were used as an estimate of the velocity of maximum oxygen uptake (vVO2max) to evaluate at pre- and post-training values during a 3-min all-out exercise test.

RESULTS: Despite differences in V-t configurations, both groups increased their CV (+0.22 m·s-1, +6%) and decreased their D’ (-24 m, -13%) (p < 0.05). The vVO2max for the team (i.e., both groups) increased from pre- to post-training by 0.14 m·s-1, and V180s increased by 0.11m·s-1 (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: HIIT bouts that range 2 to 5 min are suitable for increasing CV, in prior trained athlete. These bouts are of insufficient intensity to increase D’, indeed they result in a decrease D’. To increase D’, we suggest examining HIIT intensities that are <2 min and >130% of vVO2max.

2152 Board #216 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect Of Respiratory-muscle Training On Physical Performance Other Than Physical Cardiopulmonary Function: A Pilot Study

Chung-Yen Wu1, Chich-Haung Yang2, Shih-Ting Wang1, Lan-Yuen Guo1. 1 KAOHSIUNG MEDICAL UNIVERSITY, KAOHSIUNG, Taiwan. 2Tzu-chi University,, Hualien, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Similar to skeletal muscles, improving respiratory muscle performance via training can enhance an athletes’ cardiopulmonary ability. However, only few studies have investigated the effects of respiratory muscle training on physical performance other than cardiopulmonary function.

PURPOSE:To investigate whether respiratory muscle training can enhance physical performance in tennis players.

METHODS: Four healthy tennis players (21.5 ± 1.3 yrs) were recruited and randomly assigned to an training or control group. The training group trained their respiratory muscles for 4 weeks by using the POWER breathe®-Sport Performance Classic (IMT Technologies Ltd, UK). They underwent trials of spontaneous breathing (30 breaths) twice per day for 3 days. Balance tests (stork stand test, star excursion balance test), agility tests (star shuttle run test, shuttle run test), a trunk muscle strength test (trunk flexors, trunk extensors) and spinal curvature evaluation (thoracic kyphosis, lumbar lordosis) were used to evaluate the effect of training program. The difference between pre-training and post training were compared using the means of the above mentioned tests.

RESULTS: Within the training group, the balance test (stork stand test: 73.8 ± 11.4 vs. 109.5 ± 11.4 sec for right side; 69.5 ± 25.5 vs. 103.7 ± 26.9 sec for left side), agility test (star shuttle run test: 35.0 ± 3.5 vs. 34.0 ± 3.0 sec; shuttle run test: 16.0 ± 1.5 vs. 15.3 ± 1.1 sec) and trunk muscle strength test (trunk flexors: 18.1 ± 0.3 vs. 18.3±0.6 kg; trunk extensors: 72.7 ± 6.0 vs. 78.0 ± 1.7 kg) were improve after training , whereas no changes occurred within the control group. In addition, no difference was seen in spinal curvature.

CONCLUSIONS: Four weeks of respiratory muscle training in tennis players seems be able to improve the physical performance in agility, balance, and trunk muscle strength.

2153 Board #217 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Continuous Versus Intermittent Exercise Training: 8-week Intervention Outcomes in Aerobic Capacity and Autonomic Balance

Shu-Yun Lu1, Li-Yen Tsao2, Mei-Chih Chen3. 1 National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan. 2 National Taipei College of Business, Taipei, Taiwan. 3Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Kuo, Chia-Hua, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of 8-week continuous or intermittent moderate exercise training on aerobic capacity and autonomic regulation in college students.

METHODS: Forty healthy college students (20 males, 20 females) aged 20.91 ± 1.08 yr, height 167.85 ± 8.36 cm, and weight 62.51 ± 12.55 kg were recruited. All participants were divided into male continuous, male intermittent, female continuous and female intermittent groups, and performed 8-week exercise training. The training program contains treadmill exercise for 30 minutes per day, three days a week. During the exercise training, the continuous group run for 30-min continuously, while intermittent group consisted of 3 × 10 min running sessions separated by at least 10 minutes. Aerobic capacity was measured by maximal oxygen consumption on a treadmill. Autonomic balance was mirrored by heart rate variability.

RESULTS: After 8-week training period, improvement in aerobic capacity and autonomic balance are not significantly different between two training programs in both male and female subjects. Both continuous and intermitted training programs can improve aerobic capacity and autonomic regulation in healthy college students.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that intermittent exercise would be as good as continuous exercise training for improving aerobic capacity.

2154 Board #218 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Reproducibility Of Acute Exercise Responses and Session RPE During Steady State Training

Nathali B. Niedorowski, Carl Foster, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Session RPE (sRPE) has been proposed as a simple and practical method for evaluating the intensity of exercise training. There is inadequate data regarding the reproducibility of sRPE and how well it relates to accepted markers of exercise training intensity.

PURPOSE: To compare sRPE during matched training sessions and to compare sRPE to conventional markers of exercise training intensity (%HRmax, blood lactate [HLa], and the average of the momentary RPE.

METHODS: Healthy subjects (N=10) performed three pairs exercise bouts from the possibility of 4 randomly chosen intensities, based on Talk Test responses observed during an incremental cycle ergometer test. Conventional exercise responses (%HRmax, [HLa], and RPE) at each segment of each ride were compared with the sRPE obtained following exercise.

RESULTS: The conventional markers of exercise intensity (%HRmax & RPE) were slightly more reproducible than sRPE, which was about as reproducible as [Hla].

CONCLUSIONS: sRPE appears to be adequately reproducible to compete with conventional markers of exercise intensity.

2155 Board #219 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects Of Nasal Irrigation On Exercise Time, Sympathetic Tones, Lactate, And Ratings Of Perceived Exertion

Melissa A. Whidden, Joshua Thompson, Tom Parker, Rob Tobin, David Stearne, Sheri Melton, Melissa Reed. West Chester University, West Chester, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Nasal irrigation (NI) is the process of rinsing out one’s nasal cavity and nasal sinuses with a hypertonic saline solution squirted from a plastic bottle or neti pot. While NI is typically used to treat chronic sinusitis, it may improve aerobic exercise time during a single bout by improving breathing capacity through the nose and increasing the buffering capacity of the blood via the sodium bicarbonate concentration in the irrigation solution.

PURPOSE: To examine how NI effects intense aerobic exercise performance time, sympathetic tones, blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE). To our knowledge, no other study has examined NI as an intervention to improve aerobic exercise time.

METHODS: Twenty active male participants (21.8 ± 0.33 years of age) performed two treadmill graded exercise tests (GXT’s) under an experimental (NI performed 10 minutes prior to exercise) and control (no NI) condition. Total exercise time, heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), blood lactate, and RPE were measured at rest, during the GXT (including warm up and cool down), and after a five minute passive recovery period. Means were compared using Student’s t-tests.

RESULTS: HR was significantly lower (P<0.05) with NI than without during the first two minutes of the warm-up, 104.6 ± 3.8 bpm and 102.4 ± 3.2 bpm versus 95.2 ± 2.9 bpm and 96.7 ± 2.8 bpm, respectively. Furthermore, HR trended towards significance (P<0.1) during the first two minutes of the first stage of the GXT with NI. MAP was significantly lower (P<0.05) during the passive cool down with NI when compared to without, 93.0 ± 2.9 mmHg versus 87.0 ± 2.7 mmHg. Although total exercise time did not change significantly, it increased from 16.99 ± 0.68 min to 17.19 ± 0.64 min with NI, or by 1%.

CONCLUSION: NI may improve total exercise time during a single exercise bout and may enhance recovery from intense aerobic work. Further studies are needed to examine the mechanism(s) by which NI improves exercise time.

Supported by the College of Health Sciences Faculty/Student Research Award, West Chester University

2156 Board #220 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects of Aerobic Exercise with Blood Flow Restriction on Cardiovascular Parameters In Athlete vs. Non-Athlete Females

Charity Cavazos. University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK. (Sponsor: Michael Bemben, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of the current study is to examine the hemodynamic responses to low-intensity aerobic walking with blood flow restriction (BFR) on female athlete and non-athletes.

METHODS: Thirty healthy female subjects (age= 21.9 ± 3.7) were categorized as athlete and non-athlete based on their physical activity level [athlete (N=15), non-athlete (N=15)], VO2peak [athlete (N=9), non-athlete (N=21)], and body fat percentage [athlete (N=21), non-athlete (N=9)]. Subjects performed pre-exercise arterial stiffness assessment and treadmill walking and/or running with or without BFR cuffs for two bouts of 10 min with a 2 min rest interval between the bouts. Participants had their post-exercise arterial stiffness, heart rate (HR), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (Q) and stroke volume (SV) assessed post exercise (at 5, 20, and 40 min).

RESULTS: For the subject categories according to their level of physical activity and VO2peak, there were significant condition effects (p<0.05) for HR, cardiac index, and Q and time effects (p<0.05) for large arterial elasticity (C1) and small arterial elasticity (C2). Both subject categories also showed significant condition × group interactions (p<0.05) for Q and cardiac index. For the subject category according to their VO2peak, there was a trend for condition main effect (p=0.055) for systemic vascular resistance (SVR) and a significant interaction for time × group (p<0.05). Based on BF%, a significant main effect (p<0.05) for condition was found for HR and pulse rate (PR) as well as a significant main effect for time (p<0.01) and condition × group interaction for and C2 (p<0.05) and a trend for time main effect for C1 (p=0.053).

CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercise with BFR elicits greater changes in HR and Q indicating greater fluctuations in physical forces applied to the arteries, which may result in greater changes and adaptations in vascular

smooth muscle with long-term training using BFR and may be used to prevent cardiovascular disease.

2157 Board #221 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of a 6-week High-Speed Sprint Program on Ice Hockey Skating Speed and Skate Speed Predictors

Anthony Clapp1, Jessica Larkin1, John L. Walker, FACSM2. 1 Augsburg College, Minneapolis, MN. 2Texas State University, San Marcos, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Training programs utilizing high-speed treadmill sprinting have become common practice in the hockey community to improve skate speed. However, different muscles are recruited in skating as compared to running. It may be beneficial to attain off-ice performance variables to better predict on-ice speed and train accordingly.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a 6-week high speed treadmill running program on skating speed in male and female hockey skaters and to identify the strongest predictors of ice hockey skating speed.

METHODS: Sixteen collegiate ice hockey players from a NCAA division III program, eight male (Age=19.5 ± 1.1 yrs, ht. = 187.0± 8.1 cm, wt.=77.8 ± 9.0 kg) and eight female (Age=20.1 ± 1.1 yrs, ht. = 166.1± 8.9 cm, wt.=68.8 ± 9.1 kg) participated in this program. Body fat by air displacement plethysmography, 40 yard sprint speed, one repetition max squat press, vertical jump, VO2 maximum, and on-ice 35 meter skating speed were measured prior to sprint training. The athletes completed a six-week training program consisting of high-speed sprinting three days a week. Each sprint session consisted of 4 sets of 20 mph sprints on 0% incline for 20 meters then 4 sets of 20 mph sprints on 0% incline for 50 meters then 4 sets of 20 mph sprints on 10% incline for 20 meters with 90 seconds of rest between each set. Following training, the participants’ performance characteristics were measured again.

RESULTS: After the six week period both the on-ice speed and off-ice sprint speed produced significant improvements. Average 40 yard dash score improved from 5.99 ± .23 to 5.82 ± .34 (p = 0.00017). Average 35 meter skate score improved from 4.61 ± .19 to 4.47 ± .27 (p = 0.00119). Additionally, this study revealed that the main predictor of 35 meter hockey sprint was 40 yard dash (r = .93) and the analysis created a regression equation to predict on-ice speed based on 40 yard dash time: 35 meter skate time = 0.2795 + 0.7238(40-yard time). The other four off-ice characteristics did not significantly contribute.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of off-ice sprint training for hockey teams during the off-season has taken on much added importance in the last decade and in this study, 6-weeks of high-speed treadmill training improved both running and skating speed.

Supported by Augsburg College URGO program.

2158 Board #222 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Motivational Factors of the Female Triathlete

D. Matt Lovett. University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, LA. (Sponsor: Dr. Lisa C Colvin, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Triathlon remains one of the fastest growing sports in the world and much of that growth is in the female division. Yet little research has assessed the motivational factors of triathletes. The majority of motivational research of endurance athletes has examined distance runners. But understanding the female triathlete based on the research of female runners is problematic if they are motivated by different factors. Studies with runners have consistently shown the following: females were more strongly motivated to run than their male counterparts to (a) control weight, (b) be affiliated with other runners socially, (c) increase self-esteem, and (d) mentally cope with stressful situations (Havenar & Lochbaum, 2007; LaChausse, 2006;).

PURPOSE: To explore the motivational factors of triathletes to better understand potential gender differences that affect triathlon participation.

METHODS: The 56-item MOTS (Motives of Triathletes Scale—a modified version of the Motives of Marathoners Scale) was sent to 799 participants in three different triathlons in the South with a response rate of 20.7% (n=165). A factorial ANOVA was performed on nine psychological motives with gender as the between-subjects factor.

RESULTS: Results showed significant (p<.05) gender differences in the motives of Affiliation (females higher than males), Life Meaning (females higher than males), and Personal Goal Achievement (females higher than males). In addition, an interaction between age and gender was discovered which indicated that self-esteem motives differed according to age and gender. A test of simple main effects revealed that females in their 40s had greater Self-esteem scores than males in their 40s.

CONCLUSION: There are not only differences in the motives of triathletes based on gender, but some of the differences are counter to longstanding gender differences established in other endurance athlete studies.

2159 Board #223 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Impact Of Baseline NetPVGRF/kg Ability Upon PAP Of CMVJ’S During 12 Different Treatments

Hugh S. Lamont1, Christopher J. MacDonald2, Jay G. Garner3, Harrish Chander3, Jeremy Gentles2, Ashley Kavanaugh2. 1 California Lutheran University, Thousand Oaks, CA. 2 East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. 3University of Mississippi, Oxford, MS. (Sponsor: Dr Steven Hawkins, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Maximal voluntary Contractions (MVC’s) can elicit Post Activation Potentiation (PAP) during Counter Movement Vertical Jumps (CMVJ’s), acutely increasing; Jump Height (cm), Peak Vertical Ground Reaction Force (PVGRF; N), and Impulse (N.s-1). Whole Body Vibration (WBV) has also elicited varied PAP. Such methods may rely upon variable elements of PAP; therefore, concurrent exposure (MVC + WBV) could facilitate, or inhibit the resultant PAP.

PURPOSE:To asses’ acute differences in NetPVGRF/kg and Δ% during 7 CMVJ’s following 12 treatments.

METHODS: 13 subjects; 8 females (Height 172.68 ± 4.88cm, Weight 74.41 ± 14.47kg, Age 22.62 ± 2.18 yrs.), and 5 males (Height 174.75 ± 3.31cm, Weight 84.36 ± 8.02kg, Age 23.60 ± 3.29yrs) participated in the study. Two groups were created based upon NetPVGRF/kg capability at baseline. (Concentric phase PVGRF (N), minus body weight (N), divided by body mass (kg), was expressed as NetPVGRF/kg (N/kg). (G1) = “Strongest” (16.56N/kg ± 2.19), N = 6, 4 males, 2 females. (G2) = “Weakest” (11.53N/kg ± 1.73), N = 7, 6 females, 1 male). Six testing sessions, with two randomly assigned treatments, (Conditions; CON, WBV, MVC, MVC+WBV, Exposures, 3x3(120s), 5x2(90s), 3x5(180s)) followed by CMVJ’s at; 60s, 120s, 180s, 300s, 480s, 660s, 900s post treatment were completed. Hands were fixed against the waist for jumps, PVGRF data was sampled at 1086Hz using a Force Plate. Two, four-way repeated measures ANOVA’s; 1) on raw scores (Condition (4), Exposure (3), time points (8), Group (2)), 2) Percent change (%Δ) scores (Condition (4), Exposure (3), Change (7), Group (2)), utilizing a Bonferroni correction, and post hoc tests were performed.

RESULTS: Main effects for; Time (p = .00, Eta2 = .414, 1-β =1.00, T1 > T2, T5, T6, T7, and T8, T1 = T3 and T4), and Group (p = .001, Eta2 = .678, 1-β = .992, G1 > G2, mean diff = 4.94 N/kg). Group 1 saw no differences for time points (p >.05) with T1 > T6 for G2 (p = .044). Main effects for; Time (p = .00, Eta2 = .399, 1 - β = 1.00, T1 > T2, T4, T5, T6, T7, and T8, T2 = T3) and group (p = .048, Eta2 = .311, 1 - β = .529, G1 > G2 mean diff = 2.84%; 97.33% vs 94.49%) %Δ. No interactions were found (p > .05).

CONCLUSIONS: Time point and grouping differences suggest NetPVGRF/kg capability at baseline impacted the resultant PAP. However, high between condition and within subject variability warrants further investigation.

2160 Board #224 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Group-based High Intensity Interval Training Improves Adherence and Reduces Cardio-metabolic Risk Factors in Sedentary Individuals

Sam Shepherd1, Oliver Wilson2, Helen Bradley2, Juliette Clark2, Matthew Cocks1, Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani2, Alexandra Taylor2, Wagenmakers Anton1, Christopher Shaw3. 1 Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 2 University of Birmingham, Birmingham, United Kingdom. 3Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

Within a laboratory setting, high intensity interval training (HIT) elicits similar beneficial metabolic adaptations as traditional endurance training (ET). However, question marks remain whether and how HIT interventions aiming to improve metabolic health can be implemented in the general population.

PURPOSE: The present study investigated the hypothesis that a 10 week instructor-led group-based HIT intervention would enhance exercise capacity and improve cardio-metabolic risk factors in previously sedentary individuals to a similar extent as ET.

METHODS: 59 overweight sedentary volunteers (22M, 37F, 40±2 y, BMI 28.2±0.6 kg.m-2) were randomly assigned to undertake HIT or ET exercise classes. HIT consisted of repeated sprints (15-60 s duration) on a spin ergometer interspersed with periods of recovery cycling (≤25 min per session, 3x.wk-1). ET participants cycled at a constant workload (∼65% VO2max) on a spin ergometer (30-45 min per session, 5x.wk-1). Assessments of VO2max, body composition (bioimpedance), insulin sensitivity (oral glucose tolerance test) and blood lipid profiles were made pre and post training.

RESULTS: Mean weekly training time was 65±2 and 180±10 min for HIT and ET (P<0.05), respectively, and adherence was greater in the HIT group (HIT 84±2% vs. ET 66±5% sessions attended; P<0.05). Training induced small decreases in weight (HIT 1±1%, ET 2±1%; P<0.05)

and relative fat mass (HIT 3±1%, ET 4±1%; P<0.05), and increased VO2max (HIT 9±2%, ET 10±3%; P<0.05). Fasting insulin concentrations were reduced (HIT 15±6%, ET 12±5%; P<0.05) in line with improved insulin sensitivity (Matsuda) (HIT 24±8%, ET 15±7%; P< 0.05) post training. Fasting serum concentrations of free fatty acids (HIT 14±6%, ET 5±3%; P<0.05), total cholesterol (HIT 7±2%, ET 7±3%; P<0.05) and triglyceride (HIT 17±10%, ET 5±4%; P<0.05) were reduced in response to training. No differences between groups were detected for any of the variables reported.

CONCLUSIONS: HIT performed in an instructor-led, group environment provides a viable training mode to improve exercise capacity, insulin sensitivity and lower blood lipids in sedentary adults. This approach may prove successful in improving exercise adherence and provide an effective lifestyle intervention to reduce cardio-metabolic risk factors.

2161 Board #225 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The effects of Training Intensity in Insulin Resistance and Resistin

Kuo-Wei Tseng1, Yi-Pin Wang2, Hung-Wen Cheng3, Hui-Mei Lin3. 1 Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City11153, Taiwan. 2 Power & Health Physical Medicine $ Rehabilitation Center, Taipei City, Taiwan. 3Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the resistance regulation and the relation to insulin sensitivity as changed in exercise intensity via different training condition for college swimmers. In addition to preventive care, but also provide more micro-molecular level changes.

METHODS: Longitudinal study of 20 college swimemers who received highly intensity training for 2 months and then switched to low intensity training for 6 months. Measurements included body composition, oral glucose tolerance test, insulin response during OGTT, blood lipid and resistin in training and detraining session.

RESULTS: The insulin concentration at OGTT 30mins and blood glucose level at OGTT 90mins of the post-season stage were significantly elevated (insulin: 28.24 ± 3.68 μu/ml vs. 40.93 ± 4.11μu/ml; glucose: 98.60 ± 4.13 mg/dl vs. 111.00 ± 4.07 mg/dl, p<0.05), but not for the value of glucose area under curve. It’s also showed hyperinsulinemia which insulin area under curve (IAUC) in post-season stage was up to 2 times when compared to pre-season stage( 1226.19 ± 331.53 vs. 2346.34 ± 326.34 , p < 0.05 ). Serum resistin concentration in pre-season was significantly higher than the post-season (2.10 ± 0.27 ng/ml vs. 1.14 ± 0.14 ng/ml, p <0.01). The results showed significant negative correlations between resistin and insulin at OGTT 120mins (r = -0.714, p <0.01), and between resistin and IAUC (r = -0.695, p <0.01 ) during high intensity exercise training period.

CONCLUSIONS: This study found that insulin sensitivity related to resistin in young and healthy population while in highly training stage, but not approved when decreased in physical activity. Resistin was not the major factor in the deterioration of insulin sensitivity. Besides, the more sensitive of insulin, the more homeostatic condition in organism. In our study, for young and exercise habit groups should not only prevent insulin resistance due to physical activity changed, but also further informed the relationship between the insulin sensitivity and other molecular aspects.

2162 Board #226 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effect Of 28 Days Of Beta-alanine Supplementation On Repeated-Sprint Ability

Chad A. Witmer, Jacob Grazer, Frank Azarelo, Gavin L. Moir, Emily J. Sauers, Shala E. Davis, FACSM. East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 28 days of beta-alanine supplementation on the magnitude of fatigue, mean power output (MPO), peak power output (PPO), and blood lactate accumulation during a repeated-sprint cycling protocol (10 × 6-second sprints interspersed with 30-seconds of recovery) in active, college-aged males and females.

METHODS: This study was a double-blind placebo controlled study with 9 male and 9 female subjects. Participants performed 10 × 6-second sprints interspersed with 30- seconds of passive recovery on an electromagnetically braked cycle ergometer at a standardized resistance of .70 Nm·kg-1. Two familiarization trials were performed, followed by the pre-supplement baseline trial. Each session was separated by 48 hours minimally. Subjects were matched for gender and baseline fatigue scores, and then randomly assigned to either a placebo group or supplement group. Subjects then underwent 28 days of supplementation with either beta-alanine (6.4 g/day) or placebo. At the conclusion of supplementation, subjects again performed the repeated-sprint protocol. A 2-way ANOVA with repeated measures on one factor (time: pre to post) was used to assess the differences for mean fatigue, mean MPO, mean PPO, mean RPE, and mean delta blood lactate (Δ HLA) values. The alpha level for all analyses was set at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences for mean fatigue (group: p = .538, time*group: p = .431), mean Δ HLA (group: p = .231, time*group: p = .092), mean MPO (time: p = .139, time*group: p = .214), mean PPO (time: p = .131, time*group: p = .495), or mean RPE (time: p = .102, time*group: p = .976).

CONCLUSION: The present study showed that after 4 weeks of beta-alanine supplementation (6.4 g/day) repeated-sprint ability (fatigue, PPO, MPO) was not augmented, nor was the degree of blood lactate accumulation across the test. This lack of difference may reflect the impact of other mechanisms of fatigue (e.g. PCr depletion; central fatigue) and / or could be attributed to a lack of adequate buffering by carnosine.

2163 Board #227 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Analysis of Two Different Types of Tapers on Exercise Performance

Christina Rial. Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX. (Sponsor: David Nichols, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

A taper is a decrease in intensity, duration, and frequency of the training load prior to competition. The type of taper performed leading to the competition can affect maximal aerobic exercise performance. Types of tapers include the Step (ST) or Exponential decay (ED) taper. Research suggests that the exponential decay taper is more beneficial than the step taper on maximal aerobic performance.

PURPOSE: To compare the responses of heart rate (HR), rate of perceived exertion (RPE), and maximal oxygen consumption (VO2) during a graded maximal exercise test with a ST or an ED taper.

METHODS: Recreational runners volunteered and were randomly divided into two groups, the ST (n = 9) or ED (n = 11) group. The participant’s baseline VO2 max was determined using the Bruce protocol. Participants trained for 4 weeks followed by a 1 week taper. Maximal aerobic capacity was tested pre and post taper. During the exercise test, HR, RPE and VO2 data were gathered at each stage of the Bruce protocol. Independent t-tests were used to compare group means at each stage of the treadmill tests. A repeated measures ANOVA was used to compare differences in VO2 during the treadmill tests. Significance level was set at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: The ED group (15.56 ± 1.33; 10.64 ± 1.21) had a significantly lower RPE compared to the ST group (16.20 ± 2.68; 11.13 ± 0.64) in stage 4 of the pre test (p = .025) and in stage 2 of the post test (p = .032), respectively. The ED group (107.22 ± 15.06 bpm; 127.33 ± 22.25 bpm) had a significantly higher HR compared to the ST group (103.71 ± 7.41 bpm; 125.14 ± 13.50 bpm) in stage 1 and 2, of the pre test (p = .034; p = .043), respectively. There were no significant differences in maximal VO2 between the pre and post test in the ED and ST.

CONCLUSION: The ED lead to a decreased RPE after the taper. There were no other significant differences after the taper between the two groups. Therefore, the ED may lead to a decreased sense of effort during competition. Neither taper resulted in maximal exercise performance differences.

2164 Board #228 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Subtle Variations In Preferred Treadmill Speed Offset Positive Physiological Gains Afforded By Hiking Poles

Matthew P. Rearick, Amos Shenk, Annie J. Shreckhise. Roanoke College, Salem, VA.

(No relationships reported)

Walking with hiking poles appears to offer certain physiological benefits (e.g., increases in steady state VO2, respiratory rate [RR] and heart rate [HR]) over walking without poles under similar task conditions. This comes without concomitant increases in the perception of effort [RPE]. Nevertheless, it is not entirely clear whether the espoused benefits of hiking pole use are as robust as reported, particularly in view of different task constraints.

PURPOSE: This study examined differences in physiological and perception of effort variables as healthy subjects walked with and without hiking poles during preferred walking speeds across a range of grade levels.

METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects walked on a treadmill at preferred speeds over five grades (0 - 20%) with and without hiking poles. Inspired/expired gases (VO2 & RR), HR and RPE were collected using standard methods. Grade level conditions were randomized, pole conditions counterbalanced. Each stage lasted three minutes with dependent measures collected during the final 30 seconds. Across all grade levels, preferred rates of locomotion were determined using the protocol reported by Martin et al. (1992).

RESULTS: While main effects (p’s < 0.05) for grade level were consistently found across all dependent measures (VO2, RR, HR, RPE) no significant differences were found between pole and no pole conditions (p’s > 0.05, e.g., VO2 18.2 ± 2.7 vs. 18.0 ± 3.2 ml/kg/min & HR 136.9 ± 23.6 vs. 135.5 ± 23.0 bpm, respectively). As to preferred walking speed, a main effect for grade was observed (p < 0.05), with slower rates being selected as grade increased (mph range 2.6 ± 0.3 [0%] to 2.1 ± 0.2 [20%]). Nevertheless, while subjects consistently chose slower rates when using poles (2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 2.4 ± 0.3 with no poles), a significant effect was not found (p = 0.141).

CONCLUSIONS: When subjects self-select treadmill speed across a range of grade levels while using hiking poles they appear to adjust rate in such a way (i.e., slightly downward) as to negate any positive physiological gains afforded by hiking pole use and instead opt in finding what would appear to be a preferred physiological output for the present task conditions. While changes in preferred treadmill speed are subtle (and non-significant) they are enough to elicit this important change in physiological output.

2165 Board #229 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Music Choice has No Influence on Muscular Endurance or Anaerobic Exercise Performance

Joe Sherman, Ryan Hanson, Scott Richmond. Missouri State University, Springfield, MO.

(No relationships reported)

It has long been believed that listening to music during exercise can be a performance enhancer and thus for many individuals, music is a staple of every workout. To date, most research has been limited to studying the effects of music during aerobic activities.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of personal choice and a music standard on muscular endurance and anaerobic exercise performance.

METHODS: Volunteers were recruited to participate in the back squat (n = 15; age = 20.9 ± 2.0), bench press (n = 14; age = 20.7 ± 1.9), and Wingate (n = 4; age= 21 ± 1.4). Participants had previous resistance training experience. For both the back squat and bench press a one repetition-max (1RM) was calculated using a weight that could be performed between 3-15 repetitions (reps). Participants were randomly assigned to either the music standard or the personal choice group. For Trial-1, following a light warm up, subjects began listing to either the standard or the personal choice music and performed as many full repetitions as possible with 75% of their predicted 1RM. After 48-72 hours rest the participants came in for Trial-2 where they would perform the same procedure as Trial-1 while listening to the opposite music. The Wingate anaerobic test was performed on a Monarch cycle ergometer. During the Wingate, subjects rode against 7.5% of body weight resistance while listening to either the standard or the personal choice music. Again after 48-72 hours rest, Trial-2 was performed using the same procedure as Trial-1 except while listening to the opposite music.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference in bench press performance (p = 0.169; Preferred Music = 10.6 ± 1.8 reps vs. Standard Music = 10.1 ± 1.5 reps) or in squat performance (p = 0.460; Preferred Music = 13.5 ± 3.7 reps vs. Standard Music = 14.3 ± 4.4 reps) based on the music listened to while lifting. For the Wingate, there was no significant difference in peak power (p=.688; Preferred Music = 943.1 ± 121.5 vs. Standard Music =959.7 ± 176.1) but there was a trend towards a difference in mean power (p=.064, Preferred Music = 725.1 ± 106.6 vs. Standard Music = 747.7 ± 119.9).

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that there is no significant impact on anaerobic power or muscular endurance when listening to a music standard or preferred music.

2166 Board #230 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of High-Intensity Interval Training and High-Volume Endurance Training on Maximal Aerobic Capacity, Speed and Power in Club Level Gaelic Football Players

Cathal J. Cregg1, David Kelly1, Paul L. O’Connor1, Pat Daly2, Niall M. Moyna1. 1 Dublin City University, Dublin 9, Ireland. 2Gaelic Athletic Association, Dublin, Ireland.

(No relationships reported)

Gaelic football is a field-based sport characterised by irregular changes of pace and anaerobic effort interspersed with periods of light to moderate aerobic activity. High-volume endurance training (HVET) has been traditionally used to improve aerobic capacity in club level Gaelic football players. While ideal for developing aerobic capacity, it is time consuming, and may lack the specificity required to develop or maintain running speed and muscle power. High-intensity interval training (HIIT) involves repeated short duration bouts of high intensity exercise interspersed with periods of active or passive recovery. This type of training involves a markedly lower training volume than HVET and has been shown to improve VO2max to a similar extent as HVET.

PURPOSE:To compare the effects of 6-weeks of HVET and HIIT on VO2max, running speed, and muscle power in club level Gaelic football players.

METHODS: Club level male Gaelic football players (n=25) were randomly assigned to a HITT (mean ± SD; 27.2 ± 3.6 yr) or a HVET (24.7 ± 4.0 yr) group. Participants trained 3 d.wk-1 for 6 weeks. Maximal aerobic capacity, vertical jump (VJ), counter-movement jump (CMJ), and 5 m and 20 m sprint times were measured at baseline and after 6 weeks.

RESULTS: Maximal aerobic capacity increased significantly in both the HIIT and HVET group in response to the 6 week training program. The percentage improvement in VO2max was similar in both groups (7%). There was no change in CMJ, CMJ flight time or 5 m speed in either group in response to training. Compared to baseline, performance in the VJ and 20 m sprint decreased significantly in the HVET group following the training program, and did not change in the HIIT group.

CONCLUSIONS: VO2max increased similarly in both training groups despite the fact that the total time requirement was 2.5 fold greater in the HVET than the HIIT group (840 min vs 374). The total exercise time in the HIIT group was 88 min or 10.5% of the total HVET time. HIIT is a time efficient training method for improving aerobic capacity and maintaining indices of speed and power in club level Gaelic football players.

Supported by the Gaelic Athletic Association

2167 Board #231 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Compression Shirts Decrease Pain and Improve Performance in Youth Pitchers

Sanjay Menon, Kevin A. Witte, Paul M. Novakovich, James R. Andrews, Elizabeth M. Russell. The Andrews Research and Education Institute, Gulf Breeze, FL.

Supported by S. Menon: Contracted Research - Including Principle Investigator; This study was funded by IntelliSkinTM.

Shoulder and elbow injuries have become increasingly prevalent among youth and young adult baseball pitchers. Continued throwing while in pain or fatigued is a key risk factor for injury in pitchers. Compression therapy has been widely used for performance enhancement and recovery by providing mechanical pressure to the surface of the body to compress and stabilize underlying tissues. However, it is unknown how compression garments may affect overuse injury risk factors and performance in baseball pitchers.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the efficacy of a compression shirt on fatigue, pain, and performance over the course of 60 pitches in youth and young adult baseball pitchers.

METHODS: Fifteen male baseball pitchers (mean age: 16.1 ± 1.8 years, height: 1.79 ± 0.06 m, mass: 78.7 ± 10.8 kg) threw 60 pitches in each of two conditions: a “shirt” and no shirt (control) condition. The shirt was compressive garment with stabilizing “webbing” on the posterior portion. Testing sessions were one week apart and the order of the conditions was randomized between subjects. Pitching speed was averaged every 10 pitches. Visual Analog Scales of pain and Borg Scale Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE) were collected after each set of 10 pitches.

RESULTS: Pitching performance improved significantly when wearing shirt (approximately 1 mph), such that pitchers threw significantly faster compared to the Control condition (p=0.042). The increase in pitch velocity was seen immediately after the first 10 pitches (p=0.044) and at intervals through the final 60 pitches (p=0.018). As pitch count increased, pain also increased in both conditions; however, the development of pain over time was significantly less when subjects wore the compression garment. Fatigue also significantly increased as pitch count increased but these exertion ratings were not different between conditions.

CONCLUSION: Compression shirts with stabilizing webbing enabled pitchers to delay or prevent the onset of pain from pitching multiple innings while concurrently improving performance. It is possible that therapeutic interventions, such as compression shirts worn during practice and play, may reduce pain and limit the potential for injury.

Funding for this study was provided by IntelliSkinTM

2168 Board #232 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effect of Interval Training and Local Electrical Stimulation on Targeted Fat Loss in Men

Zied Haj Hamida1, André Cyr2, Alain S. Comtois1, James A. Hodgdon, FACSM3, Jean P. Boucher, FACSM1. 1 UQAM, Montreal, QC, Canada. 2 CSSS Gatineau, Gatineau, QC, Canada. 3Consultant, San Diego, CA.

Supported by Z. Haj Hamida: Contracted Research - Including Principle Investigator; FITTnLEAN.

Physical activity and controlled diet are known to decrease body fat mass. However, this reduction in fat does not affect all body areas to the same extent. So-called “refractory spots” may remain almost unaffected. Our previous studies (Haj Hamida, Z. et al., 2008) conducted on women demonstrated that the use of local low current electrical stimulation was able to reduce the subcutaneous adipose tissue thickness at the thigh, one such refractory area.

PURPOSE: To determine if this treatment was effective in men as well.

METHODS: 12 men were recruited to participate in this study. All participants formed a single experimental group. Participants followed a 10-week 3 sessions a week training program. A typical session consisted of a 45 min. moderate interval training (65 % of VO2max interspersed with active rest periods between 35 % and 45 % of VO2max). The abdominal region of each participant was electrically stimulated during training. The electrical stimulation consisted of a 6 mA square wave pulse alternating current delivered from a custom made stimulator (FITTnLEAN, Laval, QC, CAN). Tests were conducted at the beginning and at the end of training to measure: Percent body fat from circumferences and stature (Hodgdon JA & Friedl K, 1999), abdomen fat pad thickness (ultrasound), abdomen and thigh circumferences.

RESULTS: Participants (n=6 at T2, mean age 34.5 ± 4.6 years) demonstrated an absolute reduction of 2.3 % body fat, a relative change of 8.99 % from T1 to T2 (t5= 5.818, p = 0.002). The abdomen fat pad thickness measured at the site of stimulation was reduced from 4.4 cm at T1 to 3.5 cm at T2, a 0.9 cm (17.80%) decrease (effect size of 0.97, p = 0.064, t5=2.366). Furthermore, the abdominal circumference also decreased significantly (t5= 7.806, p = 0.001, effect size of 3.19) by 5.6 cm, a 5.14 % reduction from T1 to T2. At the thigh, a non-stimulated control site, no significant differences were obtained with training (1.0 cm difference, t5= 0.777, p = 0.472, effect size of 0.32).

CONCLUSION: Our results support our previous research on women showing a significant electrical stimulation effect combined with physical activity intervention on local or targeted adipose tissue loss.

Financial support provided by FITTnLEAN.

2169 Board #233 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Recovery Using Different Water Immersion Temperatures Accelerates Post-exercise Cardiac Parasympathetic Reactivation

Vinicius O. Ottone1, Fabrício de Paula1, Paula Aguiar1, Pâmela Fiche1, Tatiane Araújo1, Cândido C. Coimbra2, Flávio C. Magalhães1, Etel Rocha-Vieira1, Fabiano T. Amorim1. 1 Federal University of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri Valleys, Diamantina, Brazil. 2Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Water immersion (WI), a post-exercise recovery strategy, has been used to modulate the cardiac autonomic activity. Although WI is popular among athletes, its effectiveness on enhancing recovery is not clear. Additionally, the effects of WI temperature on parasympathetic reactivation are not well investigated.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of different WI temperatures on cardiac parasympathetic reactivation, measured by heart rate variability, after a session of exercise.

METHODS: Eight men [24 ± 6 years, 69 ± 9 kg, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) of 54 ± 4 mL·kg-1·min-1], participated in four randomized experimental conditions conducted in a temperate environment (20 ± 2° C and 70 ± 10% relative humidity). Each experimental session consisted of 30 min resting in the supine position, followed by eccentric unilateral knee extension exercise (100% of the concentric 1-RM; 3 × 10 repetitions) and 90 min of treadmill running at 70% of VO2peak (2 × 45 min, separated by 10 min rest). Post-exercise recovery strategies consisted of 15 min of passive WI at 15° C, 28° C, 38° C or control (CON, seated at room temperature), followed by 30 min resting in supine position. The R - R intervals were continuously recorded using a heart rate monitor (RS 800cx, Polar). Cardiac parasympathetic activity was evaluated using linear method by measuring the time domain [the square root of the mean of the sum of the squares of differences between adjacent normal R-R intervals (rMSSD)] during the last 10-min of initial resting period (P1), exercise session (P2), recovery strategies (P3) and final resting period (P4).

RESULTS: The rMSSD in P2 compared with P1 was reduced (p<0.05) and was not different among conditions (p>0.05). During P3, rMSSD was still reduced (p<0.05) compared with P1 regardless of experimental condition. Comparing P4 with P1, 15° C induced higher (87 ± 28 and 70 ± 22 ms, respectively, p< 0.05) and 28° C induced similar (68 ± 19 and 62 ± 26.5 ms, respectively, p> 0.05) rMSSD, while during CON (46.8 ± 15 and 61.9 ± 16.8 ms, respectively) and 38° C (35 ± 18 versus 70.5 ± 18.4 ms, respectively) rMSSD was lower (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: In the present study, post exercise WI at 15° C and 28° C were effective in accelerating cardiac parasympathetic reactivation.

2170 Board #234 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects of Vision EyeTraining on Softball Skill Performance

Brittany Tallhamer1, Randall W. Bryner2, Michael Ryan1, Paul Reneau1. 1 Fairmont State University, Fairmont, WV. 2West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if a 6-week vision training program, designed to train saccades, accommodation, vergence of the eye, hand eye coordination and peripheral vision, enhanced skills related to softball in a group of female collegiate softball players.

METHODS: Twenty-one healthy softball athlete’s age (18-21 years), from a Division II collegiate setting were randomly assigned into treatment or control groups. Treatment consisted of 20 sessions of vision training conducted over six weeks. Eye training was conducted following a specific program using equipment from the Eye Metrix, Inc (Maryland Heights, MO, USA) with exercises changing every session. The control group did not participate in any vision training. All subjects maintained their usually softball practice schedule. Study design was a 2 × 2 factorial with group (experimental group and control group), and time (pre- and post- testing). The dependent variables included colored line hitting perception test, colored line bunting perception test and background alteration, vertical saccades, horizontal saccades and hand eye coordination/peripheral vision assessment. The testing and training occurred at Fairmont State University in the Feaster Center.

RESULTS: Vision Eye training significantly (p≤0.05) improved performance in softball related skill tests; colored line hitting perception test (Pre- 4.15 ± 4.81 vs. Post- 20.85 ± 5.5), colored line bunting perception test (Pre- 9.38 ± 4.86 vs. Post- 13.08 ± 3.12), background alteration (Pre- 12.46 ± 4.63 vs. Post- 25 ± 4.76), and fielding test (Pre- 18.38 ± 4.54 vs. Post- 37.87 ± 1.15). The experimental group also showed a significant difference (p≤0.05) in all the eye training tests.

CONCLUSIONS: This research suggests that Vision Eye Training has a positive impact on softball skill performance.

2171 Board #235 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Repeated Sprints With Or Without Direction Changes: Role Of Lower Limbs Muscle Power

Ramdane Almansba, Jean P. Boucher, FACSM, Alain S. Comtois. University of Quebec in Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. (Sponsor: Jean P Boucher, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine the relationship between repeated sprints with or without direction changes (DC) and the leg muscular power measured both with the Wingate test and Myotest device in a group of 17 soccer players (aged 16 to 17 years).

METHODS: All players performed two different designs of repeated sprints (RSs), with or without DC (linear 40m or square shape 10m sides). RSs both types were performed as such, 6 × 40m intercepted by 20sec passive recovery. The 30s Wingate Test and the vertical jump analysed with the Myotest device were executed prior the RSs. Physiological responses (HR, [La-] and RPE) to RSs were recorded and analysed.

RESULTS: The fastest 40m linear sprint time was strongly correlated (p<0.01) with the power measured with Myotest device (r = -0.68 and -0.75, respectively), while the mean linear RSs was weakly correlated (p<0.05) with the peak power and fatigue index measured by Wingate test (r=-0.54 and -0.56, respectively). Anecdotally, we did not find any correlation between RSs with DCs and performance indices for both Wingate and Myotest parameters. There were no correlations (p>0.05) also between indices of the linear RSs (decrement index, average and fastest times) and RSs with DCs. We observed significantly (p<0.01) higher physiological (HR and [La+] and RPE) responses (p<0.01) to RSs with DC compared to linear RSs.

CONCLUSIONS: Leg muscular power evaluated with the Myotest device is a better indicator of linear RSs performance than that provided by the Wingate test. As well, the RS with or without DCs require different motor ability components and should be taught separately.

2172 Board #236 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

The Effects of Static Stretching on Metabolic Efficiency during a Graded Cycling Test

Trebor Besser1, Bryan Evans1, Daniel Finn1, Andrew O’Neill1, Mark A. Schafer2, Donald L. Hoover2. 1 Rockhurst University, Kansas City, MO. 2Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE:Static stretching (SS), which is associated with decreased muscular stiffness and force production, has been shown to decrease performance for many activities, such as vertical jump, sprint, and 1 RM strength measures. However, the influence of SS on longer duration forms of human performance remains unclear. Deeper understanding of this issue is needed, as SS is widely used in training and rehabilitation. This study explored the effects of SS on metabolic efficiency during a graded cycling test.

METHODS: Twenty experienced cyclists (33.2±6.28 yr, 179.207±7.16 cm, 77.20±10.04 kg) completed this study. Criteria was used to 1) include subjects who ride an average of at least 50 miles per week and 2) exclude individuals who possess any type of pathology.

Participants visited the laboratory on two occasions. They completed a graded cycling test under two randomized conditions, following standardized static stretching (SS) or no stretching (NS) protocols. Following a uniform warm up, subjects rode an electronically-braked cycle ergometer until volitional failure. Conditions were controlled and measured by computer, and inspired and expired gases were collected via open-spirometry. The following variables were assessed continuously (30s avg) during each trial: VO2, VCO2, VE, METs, RER, VT, FEO2, FECO2, and HR. Within-subjects repeated measures ANOVA was used for statistical analysis.

RESULTS: Significant condition × time interactions were found for VO2 (F(1,19)=4.324,p=0.001), VCO2 (F(1,19)=12.962, p=0.000), RER (F(1,19)=14.427, p=0.000), and FE O2 (F(1,19)=2.517, p=0.03). These measures were significantly different between the SS and NS conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: These results have both scientific and clinical relevance, as they suggest that SS significantly influence metabolic efficiency measures during the stages of a graded cycling test. These findings suggest that SS may make experienced cyclists more metabolically efficient at lesser exercising intensities and less metabolically efficient at higher riding intensities. More study is needed on the impact of SS and metabolic efficiency, given the role of metabolic efficiency in many measures of human performance.

2173 Board #237 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Effects of Aerobic and Anaerobic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Blood Hematology at 3400 meters

Lance Jongekrijg, Sean Clancy, Jacob Murawske, John E. Davis. Alma College, Alma, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Many previous studies have examined the effects of aerobic training programs on aerobic capacity and blood hematology at altitude. However, to our knowledge, no studies have compared the benefits of aerobic and anaerobic training on these responses.

PURPOSE: To determine the differential effects of aerobic and anaerobic training on aerobic capacity and blood hematology during moderate altitude exposure.

METHODS: Fourteen subjects participated in the study; five were assigned to an aerobic training group, four to an anaerobic training group, and five to a control group. Testing occurred at five different times: sea level (SL1), upon acute exposure to 3400 m (ALT1), after one week at altitude (ALT2), two weeks following acclimatization at 3400 m (ALT3), and upon return to sea level (SL2). During each series of testing VO2 max, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, maximum heart rate, and oxygen saturation were collected. Both the anaerobic and aerobic training protocols were five days in duration and completed on a cycle ergometer. The anaerobic training program consisted of 12 bouts of exercise at 120% VO2max for 30 second with 90 seconds rest, while the aerobic training included exercise at 55% of workload for 30 minutes.

RESULTS: As expected, aerobic training was found to increase VO2max to a greater extent after 5 days of training (ALT2) compared to the anaerobic program (2.3 ± ml/kg/min compared to -. 9 ± ml/kg/min). After the training programs were completed and seven additional days of acclimatization (ALT3) each group (anaerobic and aerobic) increased their VO2 max However, there was a greater increase in the aerobic group than the anaerobic group (4.9 ± 1.9 ml/kg/min compared to 2.1 ± 1.0 ml/kg/min). In all groups, hemoglobin concentration increased significantly from SL1 to ALT2 and ALT3. The rate of increase of hemoglobin from ALT1 to ALT 3 was greatest in the aerobic group relative to the anaerobic and control groups (Aerobic = 1.5 ± .5 g/dl, Anaerobic = .8 ± .6 g/dl, Control = .9 ± .6 g/dl).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that completing an aerobic training program at altitude is important for increasing aerobic capacity at moderate altitude. While the hematological response was observed in all groups, aerobic training appears to accelerate the response relative to no exercise or anaerobic exercise training.

2174 Board #238 May 31, 11:00 AM - 12:30 PM

Verbal Instruction Effect on Stretch Shortening Cycle Duration and Reactive Strength Index-Modified During Plyometrics

Timothy J. Suchomel1, Luke R. Garceau2, William P. Ebben3. 1 East Tennessee State University, Johnson City, TN. 2 Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI. 3University of Wisconsin-Parkside, Kenosha, WI. (Sponsor: Randall L. Jensen, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Strategies that may enhance training and sport performance are often sought. Verbal instruction (VI) is a simple strategy which has been shown to improve depth jump performance. However, the effect of VI on the stretch shortening cycle (SSC) performance of other plyometric exercises has yet to be examined.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of VI on the SSC performance during various plyometric exercises.

METHODS: Seventeen healthy subjects (age = 21.4 ± 1.5 yrs; height = 171.0 ± 8.9 cm; body mass = 70.2 ± 15.0 kg) performed 3 maximal effort repetitions of the lateral cone hop (CH), countermovement jump (CMJ), right-leg countermovement jump (RCMJ), and tuck jump (TJ) on a force platform during 2 separate testing sessions. Subjects were habituated with each plyometric exercise before testing. No VI (NVI) was given during the first testing session and subjects were unaware it would be used in the second session. During the second session, VI was given during each repetition. Time to takeoff (TTO), jump height (JH), and reactive strength index-modified (RSImod) were calculated from the 3 jump average of each exercise. Differences during the NVI and VI conditions were assessed using paired t-tests.

RESULTS: CH, CMJ, RCMJ, and TJ TTO decreased 23.1% (p =0.005), 19.0% (p = 0.006), 17.9% (p = 0.030), and 22.2% (p = 0.001) respectively during the VI as compared to the NVI condition. CH and TJ JH decreased 18.2% (p < 0.001) and 8.2% (p = 0.002) respectively during the VI as compared to the NVI condition. CMJ and TJ RSImod increased 15.4% (p = 0.004) and 11.4% (p = 0.025) respectively during the VI as compared to the NVI condition, while RCMJ RSImod neared significance (p = 0.050).

CONCLUSION: Providing VI during plyometric exercises may improve the SSC training stimulus of some plyometrics by reducing the TTO. Higher intensity plyometrics, such as the TJ, may produce eccentric demands that cannot be modified via VI. It is unsurprising that JH and RSImod decreased due to the lateral rather than vertical nature of CH. In other words, it is likely that subjects focused on “being fast” instead of maximal JH. Further research examining VI as a training strategy is recommended.

© 2013 American College of Sports Medicine