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B-29 Free Communication/Poster - Fitness and the Environment

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 5S - p 143–145
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000433638.44696.4c

May 29, 2013, 1:00 PM - 6:00 PM

Room: Hall C

630 Board #105 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Relationship Between Maternal Fitness In Pregnancy And Infant Birth Weight

Michèle Bisson1, Natalie Alméras2, Jérôme Frenette1, Julie Plaisance1, Caroline Rhéaume2, Emmanuel Bujold1, Angelo Tremblay2, Isabelle Marc1. 1Research Centre of the Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Québec, Québec, QC, Canada. 2Research Centre of the Institut Universitaire de Cardiologie et Pneumologie de Québec, Québec, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Cardio-respiratory fitness and muscular strength have a high prognostic value for health, well being and life expectancy. Evidence suggests an impact of maternal physical activity on fetal growth but scarce information objectively supports the relationship between maternal fitness during pregnancy and birth weight.

PURPOSE: To assess the influence of maternal muscular and cardio-respiratory fitness during pregnancy on infant birth weight.

METHODS: A total of 65 healthy pregnant women underwent a fitness assessment at the onset of the 2nd trimester of pregnancy (16th week of gestation), including maternal anthropometry (BMI and skinfolds), exercise and life habits questionnaires, cardio-respiratory fitness (peak VO2) and muscular fitness (handgrip strength). Offspring birth weight and obstetrical/perinatal outcomes were collected from maternal charts after delivery.

RESULTS: Six women (9.2%) gave birth to children whose body weight exceeded reference values for gestational age. Cardio-respiratory fitness (peak VO2) was associated with physical activity spent at sports and exercise before and in early pregnancy (p=0.0005), lower pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001), employment (p=0.014) and higher handgrip strength (p=0.0002). However, maternal cardio-respiratory fitness was not associated with infant birth weight. Interestingly, maternal handgrip strength was positively associated with infant birth weight (r=0.34, p=0.0068) even after adjustment for confounders such as infant sex, gestational age at delivery, maternal pre-pregnancy BMI or skinfolds, age, parity and total gestational weight gain (adjusted r=0.27, p=0.0480).

CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that maternal muscular fitness is potentially a new determinant of infant birth weight, suggesting that muscle mass, strength and function of the pregnant mothers may act remotely, possibly through hormonal or nutritional pathways, to influence the fetal environment.

631 Board #106 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Associations Between Exercise And Leisure-time Physical Activity

Austin R. Eichelberger, Sean M. Fenske, Joey A. Lee, Dale D. Brown, FACSM, Kristen M. Lagally, FACSM, Skip M. Williams, Kelly R. Laurson. Illinois State University, Normal, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise is commonly used to improve health and assist in achieving weight-loss through additional energy expenditure. However, due to the potential physical demands of exercise, some exercisers may spend more of their day being sedentary outside of their exercise sessions on workout days when compared to non-workout days.

PURPOSE: To compare the percentage of time spent in leisure-time physical activity and being sedentary on days with and without an exercise session.

METHODS: Twenty healthy adult volunteers, eight women and twelve men (age = 21.6 ± 2.2 years, height = 175.9 ± 8.3 cm, body mass 79.6 ± 17.1 kg), were verbally recruited from a moderately-sized, Midwestern university. Participant’s normal patterns of activity were monitored using the SenseWear Pro Armband over a three-day period. Paired-samples t-tests were used to compare the percentage of time spent being sedentary and physically active between non-exercise and exercise days (when excluding the exercise session).

RESULTS: Significant differences were found between the percentage of time spent being sedentary on exercise versus non-exercise days (p< 0.001). There was also a significant difference between the percentage of time spent in physical activity outside of exercise on exercise and non-exercise days (p<0.001). Participants spent 57.5% of their day being sedentary on exercise days versus 28.8% on days without an exercise session. Similarly, participants spent 8.8% of their day prior to and or following an exercise session being physically active on days with an exercise session compared to 39.7% on days without an exercise session.

CONCLUSIONS: In general, participants were nearly three times more sedentary and five times less active outside of the exercise session on days where exercise took place. Future research is needed to determine the mechanism and extent of this phenomenon.

632 Board #107 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Sweat Rate vs. Body Temperature

Halie Thomas, Krista Fox, William Harvey, Steve Burns. University of Central Missouri, Warrensburg, MO. (Sponsor: Michael Godard, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Thermoregulation is an important aspect of exercise in heat stress environments particularly when top performance is required. The purpose of this study was to find how core temperature and sweat rate correlate. The hypothesis was that women with higher sweat rates would have a lower core temperature.

METHODS: Subjects were 18 women ages 18 to 21 with an average weight 66.41±11.04 kg and height 164.34 ± 4.26 cm, body fat = 25% - 49.2%. Subjects cycled indoors in the heat (22° C) for 60 min. including 45 minutes at an intensity determined by 75% of their age-predicted maximum heart rate. During the remaining 15 minutes subjects were encouraged to reach the highest possible intensity they could tolerate. Heart rate and core temperature were tracked and recorded every five minutes. No fluids were given during exercise.

RESULTS: The average fluid loss by sweat was 0.595 ±0.35kg with range of 0.360 – 0.904 kg. Average temperature increase 2.36° ±.17 C.

CONCLUSIONS: The data collected suggests that while individuals sweat at different amounts they tend to maintain relatively the same body temperature throughout. Future research should be conducted on how body fat percentage affects sweat patterns.

633 Board #108 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Markers of Health Status of Incoming Freshmen at a Midwestern University

Ryan J. Leone, Mary-Jon Ludy, Amy L. Morgan, FACSM. Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH.

(No relationships reported)

According to the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, there has been a consistent increase in overweight and obesity in adolescents over the past several decades. Overweight teenagers are at a substantially higher risk for obesity later in life which is associated with a myriad of chronic diseases.

PURPOSE: To explore the disease risk indicators in first year college students upon commencement of freshman year.

METHODS: Within the first three weeks of arriving on campus, first year college students (n=22/79 male/female; age 18 ± 0.3 yr) were recruited via public advertisements in the newspaper, online, and fliers on campus. Participants were screened for height, weight, BMI (calculated as kg/m2), waist circumference, blood pressure (using an automated cuff), and body composition. Body composition was determined using bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) and air-displacement plethysmography (ADP via BODPOD). Participants also completed the International Physical Activity Questionnaire to estimate activity level.

RESULTS: Participants predominantly displayed a healthy BMI (23.3 ± 5.7 kg/m2); 74% were categorized as normal weight, 19% as overweight/obese, and 7% as underweight. Mean waist circumference for males and females was 75.9 ± 7.1 cm and 81.0 ± 12.6 cm, respectively; 12% of students were categorized as having a risk factor associated with high waist circumference. Systolic (119.3 ± 11.9 mmHg) and diastolic (71.5 ± 8.6 mmHg) blood pressure demonstrated that 7% of students were hypertensive, 46% were prehypertensive, and 48% were normotensive. Body composition, determined by BIA (M: 13.3 ± 4.8%, F: 28.4 ± 8.5%) and ADP (M: 13.1 ± 5.4%, F: 28.1 ± 8.0%), indicated that 23-24% of freshmen have excess or risky high body fat. ACSM guidelines for weekly physical activity were met by 72% of participants.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that nearly three quarters of students arriving on campus have a healthy BMI, waist circumference, body composition, and activity levels. Despite this, more than half of participants demonstrated an elevated blood pressure. In order for universities to develop appropriate interventions, further research is necessary to identify possible causal factors of elevated blood pressure among first year students.

Supported by BGSU College of Education and Human Development

634 Board #109 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

The Use Of Cortisol And Hba1c As Biomarkers Of Stress In University Administrators

Jacilyn M. Olson1, Ro DiBrezzo, FACSM2. 1University of Central Oklahoma, Edmond, OK. 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to explore the impact of perceived stress and cardiorespiratory fitness on cortisol and HbA1c, biomarkers of stress, in a group of select university administrators. The impact of gender on these relationships was of special concern.

METHODS: University administrators with job titles of Chancellor, Provost, Vice Chancellors and Vice Provosts of the university, and Deans and Associate Deans at the college level were recruited. Twenty-five administrators (15 males and 10 females) participated and completed a battery of assessments that included the University Administrative Concerns Questionnaire, a finger-stick blood test for HbA1c, estimation of cardiorespiratory fitness, and analysis of salivary cortisol over the course of two days. Data were analyzed using a series of unpaired t-tests to examine gender differences. The relationships between variables were examined separately for the genders using multiple regression analyses.

RESULTS: The results of the gender comparisons revealed that men and women scored similarly on the variables of perceived administrative stress, t (23) = 0.50 p = .62, cardiorespiratory fitness, t (23) = -1.28 p = .21, and HbA1c, t (23) = -0.57 p = .57. However there was a significant difference for cortisol AUC, t (23) = -3.00 p = .0064, with males having significantly greater cortisol concentrations. The effect sizes for these analyses were small to moderate, except for cortisol AUC, where a large (d = 1.22) effect was found. The results of the multiple regression analyses indicated that neither cortisol AUC or HbA1c were significantly predicted by perceived stress and cardiorespiratory fitness in either gender. However, prediction of HbA1c for females did account for a promising 42% of the variance, with fitness accounting for more of variability than perceived stress.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite the lack of predictive power, the analyses revealed several gender differences in the magnitude and direction of the correlations between variables. This indicates that despite similar mean values for stress and fitness related variables, the relationships between the variables may be different for men and women, warranting further research.

635 Board #110 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Effects Of Self-confidence, Body Shape Image, Fast Food Consumption On Physical Fitness In Hispanic Students

Daniel Park1, Zoe Lambert1, Jessica S. Zamarripa2, Noemi Ramirez2, Kyung-Shin Park3. 1Macomb Senior High School, Macomb, IL. 2Texas A&M International University, Laredo, TX. 3Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Mexican-American adolescents were significantly more likely to be overweight and less fit than non-Hispanic white adolescents due to lower psycho-social outcomes, which may further affect levels of physical fitness and other aspects of children’s lives such as academic performance.

PURPOSE: to investigate effects of psycho-social outcomes such as self-confidence and self-body shape image on levels of physical fitness in Hispanic high school students.

METHODS: 132 high school students (68 males and 64 females) completed a questionnaire regarding self-confidence, self-body shape image, and fast food consumption and a fitness test was conducted to measure muscular strength and endurance (push-up and sit-up), flexibility (sit and reach), estimated VO2max (Queens’ college step test), and body composition (BMI) at the end of school year. The correlation test between each variable in the questionnaire and variables in the fitness test was calculated for each gender using the Pearson correlation coefficient at P<0.05.

RESULTS: Significant relations were found between self-body image and push-up (r=0.456, P=0.008), sit-up (r=0.345, P=0.05) and BMI (r=0.362, P=0.038) in female students. In male students, Self-confidence showed significant correlation with push-up (r=0.328, P=0.033), sit-up (r=0.290, P=0.037), sit and reach (r=-0.392, P=0.035), and BMI (r=-0.327, P=0.047). Fast food consumption is positively related with BMI in both male (r=0.390, P=0.037) and female (r=0.354, P=0.043) students.

CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate that level of self-confidence for male and level of self-body shape image for female students can be key factors which may motivate them to attend physical fitness and to control their diet. Along with the positive relation between fast food consumption and BMI in both male and female students, it is suggested that comprehensive intervention for psycho-social outcomes and nutritional education may help improve levels of physical fitness in Hispanic adolescents.

636 Board #111 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Alterations in Physical Fitness of Medical Students during Their First 2 Years

Anissa Angelosante1, Melissa A. Jenson2, Lynda Cosgrove1, Dan Martin1, Fred Peterson1, Jerry L. Mayhew3. 1A. T. Still University of Health Sciences, Kirksville, MO. 2truman State University, Kirksville, MO. 3Truman State University, Kirksville, MO.

(No relationships reported)

Medical school is a very stressful pursuit that may cause considerable alteration in personal lifestyle choices. Previous investigations have shown unsatisfactory changes in various physical and psychological performances of medical students. Noteworthy among these changes may be losses in fitness, which could impact their health in later life.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the changes in physical fitness parameters before and after the first 2 years of medical school course work.

METHODS: Male (n = 30, age = 23.8 ± 1.8 y) and female (n = 22, age = 23.5 ± 2.5 y) medical students enrolled at an osteopathic medical school performed selected physical fitness tests during their first quarter of enrollment and at completion of the first 2 years. The tests included aerobic (predicted VO2max), strength (grip strengths), body composition (skinfold testing, weight, waist:hip ratio and BMI), and muscular endurance (YMCA bench press test and abdominal curls.) Throughout their didactic work students had access to a fully equipped training facility 18 hrs/day with unlimited access to instructor-lead classes and personal fitness tutors.

RESULTS: Men had a significant increase in waist:hip ratio (2.0 ± 3.0%) and decrease in grip strength (2.4 ± 6.6%). Nonsignificant changes in other variables ranged from -1.0% to 6.6%. Women had a significant decreases in body mass (-2.0 ± 4.7%), BMI (-2.9 ± 4.6%), waist:hip ratio (-3.6 ± 7.3%), %fat (-1.2 ± 2.7%), and bench press repetitions (-9.0 ± 8.7%). Significant variable x gender interactions indicated that men increased in body mass, BMI, waist:hip ratio, and bench press repetitions, while women decreased in each of those variables.

CONCLUSION: Medical school appears to reduce fitness parameters more in men than in women. Negative trends in body composition would suggest that men entering the medical profession are more likely to encounter reductions in healthy lifestyles to a greater extent than women. Further study may need to focus on the intensity, frequency, duration, and mode of exercise utilized by medical students as well as dietary habits that might accompany the intense academic demands.

637 Board #112 May 29, 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM

Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Risk Factors in College Students

Natalie R. Micinski, Jill L. Barnas, Karen K. Dennis, Ali Lierman, Laura V. Wheatley, Dale D. Brown, FACSM. Illinois State University, Normal, IL. (Sponsor: Dale D. Brown, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

According to the National Heart Lung Blood Institute (, metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors that raises ones risk for heart disease and other health problems. Those risk factors include large waistline (female >35 in, men >40 in); high triglyceride level (>150 mg/dl), low HDL cholesterol level (female < 50 mg/dl, men <40mg/dl), high blood pressure (>130/85 mm Hg), and high fasting blood sugar (>100 mg/dl). While one can have any of these risk factors, an individual that has three or more is considered to have metabolic syndrome.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome risk factors in college age students.

METHODS: Ninety nine females and sixty nine males from a moderately-sized, Midwestern university participated in the study with the subjects having a mean age of 21.0 ±3.6 yrs. and 21.3 ±1.4 yrs., a BMI of 24.2 ±4.9 and 25.6 ±4.5, and a body fat of 29.3 ±7.94% and 17.8 ±9.4%, respectively. All testing was completed during a single session with the subjects reporting to the laboratory having fasted and restricted fluid intake 12-h prior to testing. Height and weight were obtained with Body Mass Index (BMI) subsequently calculated. Physical fitness assessments and blood lipid levels were obtained on subjects. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the results of the study with percentages for males and females calculated.

RESULTS: The most prevalent risk factors were the low HDL values in 16.2% of the females and 18.8% of the males. Elevated triglyceride values were evident in 14.1% and 11.6% of the females and males, respectively, with increased waist circumference in 9.1% of the females and 10.1% of the males. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses were increased in 8.3% and 4.8%, respectively, of the subjects (males and females combined). Elevated blood glucose was prevalent in 8.3% of the subjects with percentages combined across males and females.

CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome are clearly increased putting young adults at risk for the development of metabolic syndrome.

© 2013 American College of Sports Medicine