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A-31 Free Communication/Slide - Physical Activity and Young People: Cognitive Function and School Performance

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 5S - p 14–16
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000433606.46481.77

May 29, 2013, 9:30 AM - 11:15 AM

Room: 127

126 Chair: Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM. University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS.

(No relationships reported)

127 May 29, 9:30 AM - 9:45 AM

Physical Activity And Cardiovascular Fitness Are Associated With Academic Achievement In 2nd And 3rd Grade Students

Amanda N. Szabo1, Kate Lambourne1, David M. Hansen2, Jaehoon Lee2, Jerry L. Greene2, Jessica L. Betts1, Jeffery J. Honas1, Richard A. Washburn1, Charles Hillman, FACSM3, Joseph E. Donnelly, FACSM1. 1Kansas University Medical Center, Kansas City, KS. 2University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS. 3University of Illinois, Champaing-Urbana, IL. (Sponsor: Dr. Joseph Donnelly, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Childhood obesity is a major public health issue, impacting children’s physical and psychological health as well as academic achievement (AA). Increasing physical activity (PA) and fitness has been suggested as a way to improve AA in children. The purpose of this study was to explore the association between objectively assessed PA and AA and the role of cardiovascular fitness and socioeconomic variables in this association.

METHODS:Cross-sectional data were collected from a large sample (N=691) of second and third grade students including AA (Wechler Individual Achievement Test -WIAT III), cardiovascular fitness (20-meter PACER laps), and daily PA (accelerometer counts/day). Demographic data were assessed via parent self-report.

RESULTS:N=402 students wore the accelerometer for at least 10 hours on 3 days or more and therefore, were included in the final path analysis to evaluate potential mediation relationships among PA (predictor), fitness (mediator), and WIAT-III subtest standard scores (outcomes; i.e., reading, spelling, and arithmetic). Findings showed a direct effect of PA on fitness (β= .228, p<.01) and an indirect effect of PA via fitness only on arithmetic performance (β=.052, 99% CI=[.008, .085]) when controlling for grade, mother’s education level and household income. Neither PA nor fitness were directly associated with WIAT-III reading or spelling scores.

CONCLUSIONS:PA and fitness were significantly associated with academic performance in arithmetic, a task which requires cognitive control or the ability to inhibit and update working memory, and to shift between rule sets. This finding supports previous reports which have shown a positive association between PA and fitness and cognitive control. PA and fitness were not associated with oral reading ability, reading comprehension or spelling. Randomized trials are warranted to determine if changes in PA and fitness are associated with changes in AA. Regardless, these data suggest that PA and Fitness are important and associated with AA.

128 May 29, 9:45 AM - 10:00 AM

Classroom Exercise Breaks And Educational Outcomes: Dose-response Relationships

Erin K. Howie, Michael W. Beets, Roger D. Newman-Norlund, Jeffrey C. Schatz, Russell R. Pate, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine whether various durations of classroom exercise breaks have acute effects on cognitive functions including executive functions, attention and academic performance.

METHODS: Using a within-subjects design, 96 students in 4th and 5th

grades participated in 5, 10, and 20 minutes of classroom exercise breaks or 10 minutes of sedentary activity over a 4 week period. Classroom groups were randomized to the order of conditions. Students completed a one minute math test, a working memory task and the Trail Making Test before and after each condition. They were also observed for time-on-task behavior. Post-test scores were compared using repeated measures ANCOVA adjusted for classroom and gender as covariates and pretest scores from each condition included as a time-varying covariate.

RESULTS: Math scores were significantly higher after 10 and 20 minutes of exercise compared to the sedentary condition (25.6 and 25.4 respectively vs. 24.4). In analyses of the full group, there were no other significant differences in working memory scores or performance on the Trail Making Test. On-task behavior was the same after 5, 10, and 20 minutes of exercise compared to the sedentary condition (81.4%, 79.9%and 81% respectively vs. 76.8%). One classroom group (4th grade, 21 students) was determined to be an outlier on the basis of lower IQ scores, baseline performances on the outcome measures and participating in the classroom exercise breaks at the end of the day, compared to the other classes who participated in the morning. When the outlying classroom was removed from the analyses, in addition to improved math scores, the remaining 75 students in 4 classroom groups had higher working memory scores after 20 minutes compared to sedentary (19.1 vs. 17.4). On-task behavior was significantly higher after 10 and 20 minutes of exercise (87.6% and 83.9% respectively vs 76.8%). There were no improvements after 5 minutes of exercise in any outcomes in either group.

CONCLUSIONS: Students showed acute improvements on selected tests of attention, cognition and academic performance after 10 and 20 minutes of classroom exercise breaks, but not after 5 minutes. The effects of classroom exercise breaks may vary by time of day and by classroom. Supported by an ACSM Foundation Doctoral Research Grant.

129 May 29, 10:00 AM - 10:15 AM

Integrating Physical Activity with Academics: Can 10 min Practice Improve Math Fluency Performance in Children?

Spyridoula Vazou. Iowa State University, Ames, IA. (Sponsor: Panteleimon Ekkekakis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Two of the most disconcerting problems pertaining to American children today are their poor academic achievement and the epidemic of obesity and physical inactivity. A possible solution, based on an evolving literature, is integrating physical activity (InPA) with academic subjects in the classroom. However, research on the acute effect of InPA with academic subjects on academic performance is scarce.

PURPOSE: To examine (a) the effect of InPA (versus sitting) with a math practice session on math performance and (b) possible interactions based on gender and body mass index (BMI) in a tightly controlled laboratory study.

METHODS: 35 typically developing prepubescent children, 16 boys and 19 girls (9-11 yrs; 10.55±0.74), 24 normal-weight (85th percentile), completed two 10-min sessions (InPA vs. sitting) of math practice in counterbalanced order. During the InPA practice session, children moved (e.g., skipping, jumping) in space to collect and answer cards with two-number multiplication problems whereas during the sitting practice session, children answered the same number of cards (t=-0.73, p<0.05) and at the same level of difficulty (t=-0.88, p<0.05). Accuracy and speed in a three-number multiplication test were also measured before and after practice.

RESULTS: A t-test for HR showed a significant difference between the InPA practice (143.26±11.70 beats•min-1) and sitting (90.06±7.24 beats•min-1) condition (t=23.55, p<0.001). A mixed ANOVA for accuracy showed a significant condition x time interaction (F=5.06, p<0.05), a significant condition x time x gender interaction (F=10.16, p<0.01), a significant condition x time x body type interaction (F=5.21, p<0.05), and a significant body type x gender interaction (F=4.63, p<0.05). From pre- to post-math practice, participants in the InPA condition improved more compared to the sitting condition. This improvement was stronger for girls than boys and for overweight participants than normal-weight ones. A mixed ANOVA for speed showed a significant main effect of time (F=24.11, p<0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: A 10-min session of PA integrated with math practice has a positive effect on math performance compared to similar practice while sitting. Gender- and body type-related differences contribute to changes in performance. Supported by CHS Seed Grant, ISU.

130 May 29, 10:15 AM - 10:30 AM

Time of Day Patterns of Sedentary Activity in 12th Grade Girls

Caitlin Vining, Shawn Youngstedt, Marsha Dowda, Russell Pate, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

In recent years, the risks associated with sedentary behavior (i.e. obesity, Type II diabetes) have become more recognized. Knowledge of the time-of-day when individuals are most sedentary may be beneficial when designing program interventions to promote and increase physical activity.

PURPOSE: To examine time-of-day patterns of sedentary behavior in high school girls.

METHODS: High school girls (n=325) wore ActiGraph waist accelerometers (ActiGraph, MTI model 7164, Fort Walton Beach, FL) to measure daily minutes of sedentary, light, moderate physical activity (MVPA), and vigorous physical activity (VPA). Accelerometers were worn for an average of 11 hours per day for 7 days. Data were provided for at least 3 weekdays and 1 weekend day from all girls. For the present study, hourly averages of sedentary activity were analyzed on week day and weekend days.

RESULTS: A significant time-of-day sinusoidal trend was observed for both the weekday and weekend data. Relatively high levels of sedentary behavior were seen in the morning and evening (especially in the morning) on both the weekday and weekend. The least sedentary behavior was observed between 3-9 pm on weekdays and between 11 am-8 pm on weekend days.

CONCLUSION: Relatively higher levels of sedentary behavior were seen in the morning and evening, especially in the early morning. Potentially, replacing this sedentary activity with moderate or vigorous exercise could have significant benefits.

131 May 29, 10:30 AM - 10:45 AM

Impact of Daily Physical Education on Fluid Intelligence among African American Youth: A Longitudinal Analysis

Julian A. Reed, Chelsea Richardson, Raegan Thompson, Suzanne Howell, Mason Castles, Bradley Baker. Furman University, Greenville, SC. (Sponsor: Anthony Caterisano, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Recent studies suggest that physically active and fit youth have enhanced cognition compared to their less active and fit peers.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the impact of 45 minutes of daily physical education on Fluid Intelligence among African American youth.

METHODS: An analysis of variance (ANOVA) mixed effect linear model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of 45 minutes of daily physical education on Fluid Intelligence among youth in grades 2nd-8th attending a Title I school in the southeastern US. Gain scores (final post-test assessment in May 2012 - original pre-test assessment in September 2010) were calculated and analyzed for significance and for the interaction between school and time was estimated for each outcome. Each analysis was stratified by grade level (elementary school/middle school) and adjusted by age to help control for baseline differences by school. Two Title I control schools who did not provide daily physical education were identified and utilized as comparisons.

RESULTS: Experimental elementary school students observed statistically significant gain increases on 2 of 5 (p&lt;.05) SPM Fluid Intelligence Sections compared to 0 of 5 (0.00%) for control elementary school students from 2010-2012. Experimental middle school students observed statistically significant gain increases on 4 of 5 (p&lt;.05) SPM Fluid Intelligence Sections compared to 0 of 5 Sections for control middle school students from 2010-2012.

CONCLUSIONS: Providing 45 minutes of daily physical education lead to increases in Fluid Intelligence among experimental elementary and middle school youth. Funded by Campbell Young Leaders Foundation.

132 May 29, 10:45 AM - 11:00 AM

Individual Psychological Factors And Social Support Associated With Adolescent Physical Activity

Jeanette M. Garcia1, John R. Sirard1, Ross Larson1, Dianne Neumark-Sztainer2. 1University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA. 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine the association between individual psychological variables and adolescent physical activity (PA), mediated by social support and nominated friends’ PA.

METHODS: Data were from the 2010 Eating and Activity among Teens (EAT), a large cross-sectional study conducted in 20 middle schools and high schools in Minnesota. Self report PA was categorized into total hours of PA per week. Psychological factors consisted of self-reported PA enjoyment, PA self-efficacy, and PA barriers. Social support for PA included both parental support and peer support, which were derived from questions that asked the individual to what extent his/her parents and peers supported the individual’s efforts to be active. To measure peer PA, individuals nominated friends from a school roster. Peer PA was derived by using the averages of the self-reported PA of all nominated friends who also completed 2010 EAT data collection. Structural Equation Modeling was used to examine the relationship among the psychological variables, social support, and peer PA, with the individual adolescent’s PA as the dependent variable.

RESULTS: The sample consisted of 1591 participants (14.5 ± 2 yrs, 54% female, 70% non-white). The model fit indices (RMSEA= 0.55, CFI= 0.96, TLI= 0.91) indicate that the model was a good fit. Individual psychological factors significantly predicted self-report PA (p< 0.0001). Peer PA significantly mediated the relationship (p< 0.0001) between psychological factors and self-report PA. However, social support did not significantly mediate the relationship between psychological factors and self-report PA (p= 0.8).

CONCLUSIONS: Psychological factors such as self-efficacy and PA enjoyment strongly predict self-report PA, but are mediated by friends’ PA, while perceived social support for PA did not mediate this relationship. Future studies should further examine the influence of friends on PA.

Supported by NIH NHLBI and NICHD.

133 May 29, 11:00 AM - 11:15 AM

Street Playing Increases Subsequent Selective Attention In Children

Herbert G. Simões, Marcela B. Dias, Stéphany V. Brito, Isabela A. Ramos, Raiane M dos S Pereira, Rodrigo A V Browne, Ana M do Vale, Bernardo S. Trajano, Maritza A de S Coura, Carmen S G Campbell. University Catholic of Brasilia, Brasília, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Physical exercise has been shown to increase cerebral oxygenation and activity of neurotrophic growth factors, enabling for a better synaptic neuroplasticity. These aspects would be related to exercise improving cognitive function, but little is known in regard to the effects of nonstandard exercise modes in children.

PURPOSE: To investigate the acute effects of 30 min of street playing on subsequent school and cognitive tasks in children.

METHODS: 43 children (22 boys and 21 girls) attending the 4th year of elementary public school participated on this study. Firstly, an Academic Achievement Test (AAT) was considered to select a homogeneous sample. Thereafter, the sample was divided into a group with prior street playing (SP): 23 children - 13 boys, 10 girls, 9.7±1.4yrs, 34.6±8.8kg, 1.40±0.09m, 17.3±2.6kg.m(2)-1, 94.0±13.7 score at AAT; and the control group without physical activity (CON): 20 children - 9 boys , 11 girls, 9.2±0.7yrs, 36.6±9.2kg, 1.38±0.07m, 19.0±4.1kg.m(2)-1, 92.6±13.3 points in AAT. The SP group underwent 30min of active play with a mean heart rate of 178.8±27.2bpm. The CON remained seated in a room coloring drawings during 30min with a mean heart rate of 91.7±11.8bpm. Subsequently, at 15th min of post-session recovery, participants underwent an academic achievement protocol containing 10 portuguese and 10 mathematics simple questions; and at 35th and 45th min of recovery to a computerized Stroop and Flanker tasks respectively.

RESULTS: The SP resulted in a greater correct answer (p<0.05) on a more complex level of the Stroop task when compared to CON (87%±3.8 vs 65±8.2%) respectively. No differences were observed in the Flanker score between groups. The portuguese, mathematics and the total academic achievement protocol for the SP group (3.5±1.0, 3.6±1.0 and 7.1±1.7 points) did not differ from CON (3.1±1.0, 3.7±1.1 and 6.8±1.8 points).

CONCLUSIONS: 30min of street playing resulted in improvement of selective attention as evidenced through greater correct answer in the complex part of the Stroop test. Supported by CNPq and FAP-DF.

© 2013 American College of Sports Medicine