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Abst C-Thematic

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2012 - Volume 44 - Issue 5S - p 186-266
doi: 10.1249/01.mss.0000417528.45625.44
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A-21 Thematic Poster - Cardiovascular Control with Age

MAY 30, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 3020

914 Chair: Craig Crandall, FACSM. Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Dallas, TX.

(No relationships reported)

915 Board #1 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Post Isometric Exercise Hypotension In Elderly Hypertensive Women

Daniel Rodriguez1, Rafael Vieira Olher2, Francisco Luciano Pontes Jr.3, Danilo Bocalini4, Aylton Figueira Jr.1, Milton Rocha de Morais4. 1São Judas Tadeu University, São Paulo, Brazil. 2Gama Filho University, São Paulo, Brazil. 3University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. 4Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Hypertension affects approximately 60% of the population over 60 years old. In these sense is extremely important to verify the cardiovascular responses to resistance exercise (RE) in this population, especially to moderated isometric exercises (IE), since the elderly perform this sort of action in some daily activities.

PURPOSE: The aim of this investigation was to check the post-isometric exercise hypotension (PIEH) after two different IE intensities in hypertensive elderly women.

METHODS: Nine elderly hypertensive women controlled by medications (SBP 121 ±7,0 mmHg; DBP 72 ±5,8 mmHg; MBP 88 ±4,9 mmHg and HR 77 ±8 bpm) aged 60 to 70 years (64,33 ±1,0 years) performed two sessions of IE (4 sets of 5 contractions lasting 10 seconds each; 30 sec. intervals) in a handgrip dynamometer 5030 J1 -Sammons Preston (Canada). The intensities of the sessions were 30% and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The blood pressure (BP) and Heart rate (HR) were evaluated during rest and post-exercise, at 5, 10, 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Two-way ANOVA for repeat measures was applied followed by a TURKEY’s post hoc test.

RESULTS: The results revealed no significant changes in the BP and/or in the HR among both protocols when compared to the rest values (P >0,05). The cardiovascular parameters returned to the rest values five minutes after the end of the IE sessions.

CONCLUSION: Our data shows that elderly women with controlled hypertension when subjected to an acute isometric exercise of short duration do not present PIEH.

916 Board #2 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Postmenopausal Status Influences Active Hyperemia Induced FMD Following a High Fat Meal

Cameron McCarthy. Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

The brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) test is a non-invasive measure of endothelial function and is commonly stimulated by forearm occlusion, resulting in reactive hyperemia mediated vasodilation. However, vasodilation can also be produced by active hyperemia, via contracting skeletal muscle. A high fat meal (HFM) has been shown to attenuate reactive hyperemia induced FMD, likely due to the degradation of nitric oxide (NO). Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a cofactor necessary for the biosynthesis of NO. Therefore, it plausible that supplementation with BH4 will mitigate the insult of a HFM. However, these conclusions have yet to be elucidated using an active hyperemia stimulus.

PURPOSE: To determine the vascular dysfunction of a HFM, with and without BH4, on active hyperemia induced FMD.

METHODS: 23 older adults (9 postmenopausal women within 3 years (W<3), 6 postmenopausal women for greater than 10 years (W>10), and 8 men (M)) ingested a HFM with and without the co-ingestion of BH4. FMD was measured at baseline and 4 hours post-ingestion.

RESULTS: At baseline, FMD was higher (p<0.05) in W<3 (10.1±1.4) compared to M (3.3±1.5) and W>10 (3.1±1.7) when collapsing across treatment. In addition, a group x time interaction (p=0.017) was observed which indicated that W>10 had a significant increase in FMD from pre- to post-time points, regardless of treatment (3.1±1.7 to 6.2±2.0; p=0.016). No significant pre- to post-changes in FMD were observed in the W<3 and M groups.

CONCLUSION: Women early in menopause appear to have greater active hyperemia induced FMD compared to women who have been in menopause for an extended period of time and men. However, women who have been in menopause greater than 10 years show an improvement in active hyperemia induced FMD following a high-fat meal, regardless of BH4 co-ingestion. Collectively, menopausal status may impact the postprandial active hyperemia induced FMD. This work was supported in part by grants from the American Heart Association (R.A.H) and Cardiovascular Discovery Institute (R.A.H).

917 Board #3 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Heart Rate Response During And Post Graded Exercise Test In Elderly Male Runners According To Training Volume

Gustavo C. Bornholdt, Ana Carolina Corte Araujo, Danilo Marcelo Prado, Leonardo Kenji Hirao, Arnaldo José Hernandez, Luis Eugênio Garcez Leme. University of São Paulo Medical School, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Heart rate (HR) response during and post exercise is controlled by combination of parasympathetic and sympathetic activity. It is known that aerobic endurance training exposes the heart to overload. This frequent exposure can result in alterations in cardiac automatism and autonomic modulation. Nevertheless, little is known about the heart rate response during and post exercise in elderly runners (ER).

PURPOSE: to evaluate heart rate response during graded exercise treadmill test and recovery period in ER according to training volume.

METHODS: Twenty five ER (age= 71.4 ± 4.5) were divided into two groups: 42 k runners (Group 1, n= 10); and 10 k runners (Group 2, n= 15). All subjects performed a graded treadmill cardiopulmonary exercise test to determine the maximal aerobic capacity and ventilatory anaerobic threshold (VAT). HR response during exercise was evaluated by relative change (Δ%) for intervals between rest to VAT, VAT to peak, and rest to peak. HR recovery at both one minute (ΔHRR1) and two minutes (ΔHRR2) were defined as the difference between HR at peak of exercise and at 1 and 2 minutes post exercise, respectively.

RESULTS: Group 1 had similar relative aerobic fitness compared to Group 2. There were statistical difference between Group 1 and Group 2 in relation to ΔHRR1 and ΔHRR2

P< 0.05 considered statiscally significant.


CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that elderly male runners with greater training volume showed both an increase in vagal reactivation and decrease cardiac sympathetic activity following recovery period. In conclusion, the present results suggest a positive influence of increased training volume on cardiac autonomic modulation in elderly male runners.

918 Board #4 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Vascular Dysfunction with Age: Evidence from Upright and Supine Passive Limb Movement

H. Jon Groot1, Joel D. Trinity2, Gwenael Layec2, Matthew J. Rossman1, Stephen J. Ives2, Russell S. Richardson2. 1University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. 2Salt Lake City VAMC, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

Aging attenuates the hyperemic response to supine passive limb movement. In the young, increased perfusion pressure evoked by an upright-seated posture augmented the hyperemic response, however, whether this increase is consistent with age is unknown.

PURPOSE: Utilizing a model devoid of exercise-induced increases in metabolism, this study sought to elucidate the impact of age on central and peripheral contributors to movement-induced hyperemia to better understand the mechanisms contributing to reduced blood flow with age.

METHODS: Passive leg movement was performed in 20 young (21±2 yrs) and 20 old (72±6 yrs) healthy participants for 3 min in both the supine and upright-seated position. Second-by-second measurements of central and peripheral hemodynamic responses were noninvasively performed (Finometer and Doppler Ultrasound), while femoral perfusion pressure (FPP) was directly measured via catheter in a subset of 10 participants.

RESULTS: The young exhibited a 25% increase in movement-induced peak leg blood flow in the upright-seated position (supine: 942±67; upright: 1189±89 mL/min), while in the old, leg blood flow failed to increase (supine: 737±65; upright: 649±50 mL/min), despite a similar increase in FPP (5±1 mmHg). Changes to central hemodynamic responses in the supine and upright-seated position were unremarkable between groups.

CONCLUSION: In light of similar central hemodynamic changes with posture, this study reveals attenuated movement-induced hyperemia in the elderly. This observation appears to be independent of both metabolism and perfusion pressure, implying that local vascular phenomena, such as endothelial function and vascular stiffness, likely play a major role in vascular dysfunction with age.

919 Board #5 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Carotid Intima-media Thickness In Master Athletes

Niccolò Gori, Giulio Tempesti, Alice Bartolini, Anania Giuseppe, Laura Stefani, Giorgio Galanti. Sports Medicine, Florence, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The effects on heart of sport and regular physical activity( PA) in adult athletes is well known, while the impact on peripheral vessels are not yet completely clarified. This study aims to evaluate a possible relationship between carotid intima-media thickness(IMT) peak systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), body mass index (BMI), age andtraining - time in master athletes ( MA) METHODS: 100 MA(aged 50.0 ± 6.7 years) and 51 sedentaries ( S) (aged 51.1 ± 5.7), without cardiovascular risks factors were enrolled . By a questionnaire the weekly hours of training (at least 7.0 ± 2.6 h /w) and the BMI were evaluated. An echographyc 2D exam using QIMT-Esaote software, evaluated the absolute and mean IMT value of left and right common carotids. A treadmill modified Bruce test, was provided. The heart rate, blood pressure at rest, at peak of the effort (PE)and after 4’ of recovery and the MAP calculation were measured. Results : In both groups left IMT values resulted to be higher than right side(MA: 635 ± 104 vs 614 ± 104, average IMT 624 ± 92; S: 633 ± 78 vs 622 ± 90, average IMT 627 ± 78).A slight correlation between IMT and SBP at the PE was found in both groups (MA: R 0.28 p <0.01; S: R 0.32 p 0.02) as well as between IMT and MAP at rest and at the PE in MA (rest R 0.25 p 0.01; PE: R 0.23 p 0.02).A mild correlation between IMT and age was confirmed in boths (MA: R 0.30 p <0.01; S: R 0.30 p 0.03) but none was found between IMT /BMI and IMT /weekly time of training

CONCLUSION: the study supports the role of age in the wall carotid thickening .The progressive increase of SBP at PE is related on the enlargement of carotid wall mainly when SBP values are high. The PA does not directly affects carotid thickening reducing in subjects with same age and none vascular risk factors.

920 Board #6 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Age-Related Differences in Monoamine Oxidase Activity

Heidi A. Kluess, FACSM1, Kirk W. Evanson2, Audrey J. Stone2. 1Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 2University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR.

(No relationships reported)

Monoamine oxidase is an enzyme that breaks down biological amines, such as norepinephrine and serotonin and renders them inert for producing vasoconstriction.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if monoamine oxidase activity in skeletal muscle arteries and resistance arterioles was altered by aging.

METHODS: Femoral arteries and white gastrocnemius 1A arterioles (WG1A) were dissected from 2-month old (n=8) and 12-month old (n=8) female F344 rats. The arterioles were homogenized in enzyme buffer. Luminometric and spectrophotometric assays were used to quantify monoamine oxidase activity and total protein content of the vessel, respectively. Relative luminescence units (RLU) were proportionate to monoamine oxidase activity.

RESULTS: Monoamine oxidase activity in the femoral arteries from 2-month old rats was 40.33±10.32 RLU·μg-1 protein, but only 21.47±14.16 RLU·μg-1 protein in 12-month old rats (p<0.05). However, in the WG1A, 2-month old rats had 3.5 fold less monoamine oxidase activity (3.11±7.71 RLU·μg-1 protein) compared to 12-month old rats (11.42±5.13 RLU·μg-1 protein; p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that aging does not uniformly change monoamine oxidase activity. Resistance arterioles appear to have an increase in monoamine oxidase over time, while monoamine oxidase activity in conduit arteries tends to decrease, possibly resulting in a change in vasoconstriction via norepinephrine. Supported by the Arkansas Biosciences Institute, the major research component of the Arkansas Tobacco Settlements Proceeds Acts of 2000 and by NIH/National Heart Lung Blood Institute Grant 1R15HL092517-01.

A-22 Thematic Poster - Exercise in Patients with Cancer (Clinical Exercise Physiology Association)

MAY 30, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 3022

921 Chair: Alejandro Lucia. Universidad Europea de Madrid, Madrid, Spain.

(No relationships reported)

922 Board #1 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Feasibility and Preliminary Efficacy of an Exercise Training Program for Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

Christopher M. Sellar1, Gordon J. Bell1, Robert G. Haennel, FACSM1, Heather-Jane Au2, Neil Chua2, Kerry S. Courneya1. 1University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada. 2Cross Cancer Institute, Edmonton, AB, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Physical inactivity and obesity have been associated with poorer disease outcomes in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors, but few exercise interventions have targeted this population.

PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a 12-week supervised, exercise training program on the health related fitness of CRC survivors.

METHODS: We conducted a time-series study over a one-year period. Twenty-nine CRC survivors who had finished treatment were enrolled and completed fitness assessments before and after a 12-week concurrent aerobic and resistance exercise training intervention. The intervention consisted of 2 combined aerobic and resistance training sessions and 1 aerobic only training session each week. The primary outcome of feasibility was assessed by tracking participant recruitment, loss to follow-up, assessment completion rates, participant evaluation, and adherence to the exercise intervention. Secondary outcomes were changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, upper and lower body muscular strength, body composition, and flexibility with exercise training.

RESULTS: Eligibility and recruitment rates were 38% (72 of 191 CRC survivors) and 40% (29 of 72) respectively. Loss to follow up was 7% and the completion rate for study assessments was 93%. Mean and median adherence to the exercise training program were 91±18% (mean ± SD) and 98% respectively. On a scale of 1 (not at all) to 7 (very much), participants rated the testing burden as low (all tests ≤2.4) and evaluated the training program favorably (all items ≥6.6). Exercise training significantly improved absolute peak oxygen uptake (mean change [MC] = +0.24 L×min-1, p<0.001), upper body strength (MC = +7.0 kg, p<0.001), lower body strength (MC = + 26.5 kg, p<0.001), waist circumference (MC = -2.1 cm, p=0.005), sum of skinfolds (MC = -7.9 mm, p=0.006), and trunk forward flexion (MC = +2.5 cm, p=0.019).

CONCLUSION: Supervised exercise training was found to be feasible and improved many components of health-related fitness in CRC survivors, which may be related to disease and other health outcomes. Randomized controlled trials targeting symptom management, quality of life, and disease outcomes in this understudied survivor group are feasible and warranted.

923 Board #2 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Validity And Reproducibility Of The 6-Minute Walk Test In Cancer Patients

Katharina Schmidt1, Christian Thiel1, Lutz Vogt1, Anja Lungwitz1, Marcus Bernhörster1, Elke Jäger2, Winfried Banzer1. 1Goethe University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. 2Krankenhaus Nordwest, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. (Sponsor: Carl Foster, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The 6-minute walk test (6MWT) is a simple and frequently used exercise test to measure functional exercise capacity in patients with cardiac or pulmonary disease and healthy elderly. Although the 6MWT has been increasingly used in cancer research, its utility has not been systematically studied in cancer patients.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the validity and test-retest-reliability of the 6MWT in cancer patients.

METHODS: 50 cancer patients (36 f, 14 m; 57.4±10.2 years; BMI: 25.3±4.2; during (56%) or after (44%) treatment) performed a 6MWT and a spiroergometry on a cycle ergometer (0+25W, 3 min) until exhaustion to evaluate maximum exercise capacity (VO2peak, Wpeak). Heart rate and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE, 6-20) were assessed during both tests. The physical function subscale of the EORTC QLQ-C30 was used to evaluate perceived physical function. Participants were asked to complete a retest of the 6MWT within 2-7 days.

RESULTS: During cycle ergometry, VO2peak was 21.2±4.86 ml*kg-1*min-1, Wpeak 1.36±0.44 W*kg-1, and HRmax 151±23 beats*min-1. During 6MWT, cancer patients covered a distance of 594±81m with an average RPE of 12.7±2.1 at an intensity of 86.3±9.6% of HRmax. The distance walked correlated significantly (p<.001) with age (r=-0.52), exercise capacity (r=0.67; 0.70) and perceived physical function (r=0.55). The intraclass-correlation coefficient (ICC) and the coefficient of variation for test-retest reliability of walking distance were r=0.93 (95%-CI: 0.86-0.97; p<.001) and 3%, respectively. Testing for systematic bias revealed that participants covered a 3.1% (95%CI: +1.1;+5.2) longer distance and achieved a higher RPE (+1.0; 95%CI: +0.3;+1.8) in the retest while peak HR was not different (+2.6 beats*min-1; 95%CI: -0.7;+6.1).

CONCLUSIONS: The distance cancer patients walk in the 6MWT seems to be sufficiently reproducible and valid in relation to objective and subjective measures of physical function and exercise capacity. Thus, the 6MWT can be recommended for use with cancer patients. However, there was a marginal improvement in walking distance between test and retest. To avoid systematic bias in longitudinal studies, future studies should evaluate the extent to which a familiarization with the 6MWT can contribute to a reduction of a possible learning effect.

924 Board #3 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Physical Activity In Cancer Patients: Alterations In Heart Rate Variability, Quality Of Life And Fatigue

Daniel Niederer1, Lutz Vogt1, Christian Thiel1, Katharina Schmidt1, Claudia Hildebrand1, Louisa Anastasiadou1, Marcus Bernhörster1, Elke Jäger2, Winfried Banzer1. 1Goethe-University Frankfurt/Main, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. 2Krankenhaus Nordwest, Frankfurt/Main, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

There is increasing evidence that exercise can significantly improve physical fitness, fatigue and quality of life in cancer patients during as well as after treatment. Even though autonomic cardiac regulation seems to be an important outcome measure in several chronic diseases, it is unclear if cancer patients’ heart rate variability (HRV) may be affected by physical exercise.

PURPOSE: This study examines the effects of a 16-week moderate aerobic intervention on heart rate variability, quality of life and cancer related fatigue of patients during ongoing and completed acute cancer treatment.

METHODS: For this prospective controlled quasi-experimental study, three matched groups of each 15 tumor patients (60.4 +/- 8.9 years, 27 male, 18 female) were recruited: Physical exercise group 1 (during acute cancer treatment), physical exercise group 2 (post treatment) and non-intervention group (during acute cancer treatment, no physical exercise). Patients in both exercise groups received individualized counseling for home based exercise and were given the opportunity to participate in a guided Nordic-Walking training program (1x/week). Standardized short-term HRV recording (Polar S810®), assessments of fatigue, quality of life (EORTC QLQ-C30) and physical fitness were performed prior to and 16 weeks after the initiation of the exercise program.

RESULTS: ANCOVA showed between group differences regarding the HRV parameter total power (TP) and quality of life (QoL) over time (p < .05). At baseline, groups did not differ in TP or QoL. Follow-up scores of TP [logms2] differed significantly between non-intervention and intervention post treatment (2.0 ± 0.5 vs. 2.6 ± 0.5). QoL follow-up scores differed significantly between non-intervention and intervention during treatment (47 ± 15 vs. 64 ± 18) and post treatment (47 ± 15 vs. 69 ± 19).

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise enhances the cardiac autonomic regulation of tumor patients during and after cancer therapy. Further study is warranted to elucidate the potential of sympathovagal capacity to mediate exercise effects on pathophysiological cardiac changes related to cancer treatment and the levels of physical activity and inactivity.

925 Board #4 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Motor Performance And Fear Of Falling Of Cancer Patients Under Treatment

Lutz Vogt, Janis Egen, Daniel Niederer, Julia Klingler, Katharina Schmidt, Markus Hübscher, Christian Thiel, Marcus Bernhörster, Winfried Banzer. J.W.Goethe-University, Frankfurt/Main, Germany. (Sponsor: Carl Foster, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Studies suggest that cancer patients, particularly during chemotherapy treatment, encounter functional status limitations which may contribute to an enhanced risk of falling. Important independent predictors of falls are decreased lower limb power, impairment in balance and gait function, multi-medication and age.

PURPOSE: This study examines the physical function and fall-related self-efficacy of cancer patients during ongoing or recently (≤12 months) finished/completed cancer treatment in comparison to healthy age-matched and senior controls (≥65yr).

METHODS: Data were obtained from 45 subjects; fifteen cancer patients (51.1±6 yr) with histological confirmed diagnosis and two healthy control groups (2 × n=15), one age-matched (54.2±7.4 yr), and one older group (70.1±4.1 yr). Activity-related fear of falling was evaluated with the Falls-Efficacy-Scale International Version (FES-I). Physical performance measures included maximum voluntary quadriceps strength (highest of three 5-s-contractions, 2 min rest), postural sway (center of pressure) in quiet upright stance with eyes open and gait speed measures (most comfortable walking velocity).

RESULTS: Mann-Whitney-Test followed by Dunn post-hoc revealed significantly (p<0.05) reduced free walking speed in cancer patients (1.12±0.21 m/s) vs. age-matched controls (1.32±0.22 m/s), but no difference in relation to the senior control group (1.04±0.15 m/s). When comparing the cancer population with the age-matched or senior control group no statistical significant differences could be detected for postural sway (87±84; 52±27; 92±45 mm2), lower limb strength (128±50; 150±43; 118±50 Nm) or fear of falling (19.5±4.2; 18.1±2.5; 19.2±3.3 pts). Power (1-β) of insignificant findings ranged from 0.18-0.30.

CONCLUSIONS: The gait performance of cancer patients seems to be comparable to the functional status of approximately 15 to 20 years older adults. Physical impairments may limit independence and put patients at risk for falls in performing basic activities of daily living. The present findings call for larger studies to underline the importance of efficient training approaches for cancer patients of treatment and post-treatment phase alike to improve patient’s confidence and restore or maintain motor ability at the highest possible level.

926 Board #5 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Aerobic Exercise Effects on Metabolic Syndrome in Breast Cancer Survivors

Gwendolyn A. Thomas, Herbert Yu, Marty Alvarez-Reeves, Melinda L. Irwin, FACSM. Yale University, New Haven, CT.

(No relationships reported)

Obesity related chronic diseases are increasingly prevalent in cancer survivors, putting their long term health at greater risk. Physical activity interventions are believed to be beneficial for obesity related chronic diseases, particularly in preventing and improving metabolic syndrome (MS).

PURPOSE: We examined the prevalence of MS in a sample of 65 sedentary postmenopausal breast cancer survivors and the effects of an aerobic exercise protocol on improving MS.

METHODS: 65 participants from the Yale Exercise and Survivorship Study were randomized to a 6 month aerobic exercise intervention (n= 35) or a usual care (n=30) condition. MS was examined categorically (defined as meeting 3 or more criteria), via change in each criteria, and through a dimensional z-score of MS criteria.

RESULTS: At baseline, 46% (30 of the 65 women) met for MS. Six month prevalence of MS compared to baseline did not change in the exercise group while in the control group 7 women (23%) developed MS. There was a statistically significant difference in the change in glucose between the two groups (controls : 0.6 ±7.4; exercisers: -1.3 ±7.0; p =.029). Using a GLM adjusting for baseline MS scores and age, there was no difference in change in the continuous z-score of MS between the groups. However, when adherence to the intervention was examined, women (n =20) who reported doing on average 120 mins/week of aerobic exercise (i.e., 80% of the recommended 150 mins/week) had a significant (p = .009) decrease in MS z-score from baseline to 6 months (-0.76±.36) as compared to women who reported less than 120 mins/week (n = 15; 0.80±.42).

CONCLUSIONS: There was a high prevalence of MS in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. The exercisers had significantly lower glucose concentrations at 6 months when compared to usual care participants. Among the exercisers, individuals who met at least 80% of the recommended exercise min/week demonstrated a significant decrease in MS z-scores compared to women who did less exercise. These findings suggest that preventative exercise interventions would be helpful for preventing and decreasing the risk of obesity related chronic disease in postmenopausal breast cancer survivors. In particular, engaging in more than 120 min/week is necessary to see improvements in MS criteria.

Supported by ACS Grant(MRSG-04-006-01-CPPB)

927 Board #6 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Cancer Rehabilitation: Comparing Strides to Strength (STS) Group Exercise Program Participants’ Physical Activity Levels to Non-STS Cancer Survivors’

Paul Downey, Tara Ballard, Pat Nebus, Natalie Fulton. Presbyterian Hospital, Charlotte, NC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine if there is a difference in activity levels between cancer survivors starting the Strides to StrengthTM (STS) group exercise program and those that have not participated to see if either are meeting the American College of Sports Medicine’s (ACSMs) Guidelines of 150 min/week of exercise both prior to diagnosis and at the time of completion of a questionnaire.

METHODS: Participants in the Presbyterian Hospital’s Strides to StrengthTM program and Non-STS survivors completed a questionnaire assessing their pre-diagnosis and current physical activity levels. They were asked how often they engaged in physical activity of 30 minutes or more per day prior to diagnosis and currently. The questionnaire was collected and reviewed. All information was self reported by the cancer survivors.

RESULTS: Prior to their diagnosis, 18% of STS participants were meeting the goal of a minimum of 150 min/ week of exercise vs. 25% of Non-STS cancer survivors. Currently, 21% of STS participants are at a minimum of 150 min/week vs. 15% of Non-STS survivors. Both groups were composed of slightly over 50% breast cancer survivors with about 67% of STS participants identifying themselves as either undergoing current treatment or being within 1 year of completion of treatment vs. 53% of Non-STS survivors. These activity levels are below the national average for percentage of people meeting the minimum goal of 150 min/ week of exercise.

CONCLUSIONS: The cancer survivors participating in the STS supervised exercise program are more likely to meet the ACSM minimum goal of 150 min/ week of exercise vs. the Non-STS cancer survivors. The STS participants also listed a current lower perceived level of fatigue (2.9 vs. 5.2) and pain (3.1 vs. 1.2) on a 0-10 scale vs. the Non-STS cancer survivors.

A-23 Thematic Poster - Female Athlete Triad, Energy Availability and Energy Regulating Hormones

MAY 30, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 2000

928 Chair: Nancy Williams, FACSM. Penn State University, University Park, PA.

(No relationships reported)

929 Board #1 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Association Between Energy Availability And Serum IGF1, T3, Leptin And Insulin In Young Female Athletes

Karsten Koehler, Kristina Settner, Hans Braun, Silvia Achtzehn, Joachim Mester, Wilhelm Schaenzer. German Sport University, Cologne, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Although energy balance is not necessarily the aim of training, athletes should ensure that their dietary energy intake is sufficient to cover the additional expenditures of training and competition. Several intervention studies have shown that reduced energy availability (EA = energy intake - exercise expenditure) leads to suppression of hormones such as IGF-1, T3, leptin and insulin. However, little is known whether this effect can also be observed in cross-sectional studies.

PURPOSE: To assess the relationship between dietary EA and serum hormone concentrations in a cross-sectional study in young female athletes.

METHODS: In 189 female elite athletes (16. 5 ± 3.3 y, 58.9 ± 9.9 kg, 168.3 ± 8.5 cm), nutrition and activity data was assessed with a validated record. Anthropometric data was assessed and serum concentrations of IGF-1, T3, leptin, and insulin were measured. EA and hormone concentrations were age-adjusted. Data was clustered based on type of sport, food record quality and recent body weight development.

RESULTS: EA was lowest in racquet sports (24.5 ± 11.0 kcal/kg LBM) and highest in track & field (34.0 ± 11.9 kcal/kg LBM), but differences between sports were not significant. Gymnasts had lower levels of IGF-1 (p < .05 vs. track & field), leptin (p < .05 vs. team sports) and insulin (p < .05 vs. team sports, racket sports, track & field, and other sports).

EA (20.4 ± 10.3 vs. 32.9 ± 10.3 kcal/kg LBM; p < .001) but none of the hormones were reduced in athletes who provided poor quality food records.

12% of the athletes lost weight during the 7-day recording period and 10% gained weight. EA was significantly associated with weight development (stable: 29.9± 11.0; weight loss: 25.5 ± 13.0; weight gain: 37.1 ± 14.4 kcal/kg LBM). There was also a trend towards reduced IGF-1 levels in the weight loss group and towards elevated IGF-1 in the weight gain group.

CONCLUSIONS: This cross-sectional study shows that the association between EA and hormone levels is affected by the type of sport performed, food record quality, and weight development. The combination of food and hormonal data could be used to identify athletes at risk of insufficient energy intake and to objectively assess the quality of food and activity records in athletes.

The study was supported by institutional funding.

930 Board #2 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Energy Intake, Energy Expenditure, Body Composition, And Appetite-Controlling Hormones Before And After Ballet Performance

Soo Youn Kim1, Jung Ho Cho1, Ick Won Kang2, Mal Ryun Shin1, Ji Hyun Lee1, Jae Hyun Jung1, Sun Min Kim1, Myung Joo Yang1. 1Sookmyung Women’s University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of. 2Hongik University, Seoul, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

The primary focus of professional ballet dancers is to perform on stage. Ballet dancers strive to achieve their optimal physical condition while maintaining thin body shape for the performance. After the performance, however, their dietary behavior and physical activity level often change noticeably.

PURPOSE: To examine the changes in energy intake, energy expenditure, body composition, and appetite-controlling hormone levels of female ballet dancers before and after a ballet performance.

METHODS: 43 healthy female ballet dancers (age: 25.9 ± 2.8 yrs., ballet experience: 13.7±2.8 yrs.) recorded daily nutritional intake and physical activity by using 24-hour recall method for 14 days (7 days before and 7 days after performance) to determine the total energy intake and expenditure. The weight, BMI, percent body fat, total body water, ghrelin, leptin, glucose, and insulin levels were measured one day before the performance and then 7 days after the performance. Independent sample t-test was used to compare the measurements of before and after performance (P<0.05).

RESULTS: Energy intake (Pre: 1496±359 kcal, Post: 1674±426 kcal, t=-3.40, p=.001), total body water (28.38±2.37 L, Post: 28.58±2.23 L, t=-2.39, p=.021), ghrelin (Pre: 1017.8±339 pg/mL, Post: 1162.1±412 pg/mL, t=-2.31, p=.026), and leptin (Pre: 3.00±1.59 ng/mL, Post: 4.37±1.82 ng/mL, t=5.78, p=.000) showed significant increase after the performance. Energy expenditure (Pre: 3571±446 kcal, Post: 3154±466 kcal, t=9.76, p=.000) and glucose (Pre: 90.69±8.50 mg/dL, Post: 87.11±7.52 mg/dL, t=2.80, p=.008) showed significant decrease after the performance. The weight (Pre: 49.28 ±4.49 kg, Post: 49.59 ± 4.25 kg, t=1.99, p=.053), BMI (Pre: 18.36±1.06 kg/m2, Post: 18.48±1.04 kg/m2, t=-2.21, p=.032), percent body fat (Pre: 19.79±3.00 %, Post: 19.60±2.97 %, t=1.29, p=.203), and insulin (Pre: 4.44 ±4.19 µU/mL, Post: 4.95 ±3.40 µU/mL, t=-1.25, p=.217) showed no significant difference after the performance.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study indicate that ballet performance had significant effect on energy intake, energy expenditure, total body water, ghrelin, and leptin levels of the subjects. However, it is unclear what factors affected the increase of both the ghrelin and leptin levels after the performance.

931 Board #3 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Associations Between Cognitive Restraint And The Female Athlete Triad In Exercising Women

Jenna C. Gibbs, Jennifer L. Reed, Nancy I. Williams, FACSM, Mary Jane De Souza, FACSM. Penn State University, University Park, PA.

(No relationships reported)

The Female Athlete Triad (Triad) is a syndrome characterized by low energy availability (EA), menstrual dysfunction (MD), and low bone mineral density (BMD). To date, few investigators have examined the associations between cognitive restraint (CR) and the components of the Triad (individually and in combination) in exercising women.

PURPOSE: To examine the association between CR and EA, menstrual function (MF), and BMD, individually and in combination.

METHODS: Sixty-three exercising women (22.7±0.5yr; 57.6±0.8kg; VO2max: 46.9±1.2 ml/kg/min) participated in this investigation. CR scores were obtained from the Three Factor Eating Questionnaire. High CR was a score ≥9; normal CR was a score <9. EA was calculated as energy intake - exercise energy expenditure/kg FFM over 7d. Low EA was defined as <30 kcal/kg/FFM; optimal EA was ≥30 kcal/kg/FFM. MF was determined by daily measures of urinary reproductive metabolites across one menstrual cycle or 28d monitoring period. MD was defined as no menses for >3 months or inconsistent menstrual intervals of 36-90 days; whereas normal MF was menstrual intervals of 26-35 days. BMD was measured using DXA. Low BMD was a Z-score ≤-1.0; optimal BMD was a Z-score>-1.0. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated using binomial logistic regression to determine whether high CR is a risk factor for the Triad components (individually and in combination).

RESULTS: CR was associated with EA (χ2=5.7, p=0.017). Women reporting high CR were 5 times more likely to have low EA vs. those with normal CR (OR, 4.9; 95% CI: 1.2, 19.6, p=0.024). CR was also associated with MF (χ2=12.9, p<0.001). Women reporting high CR were 7 times more likely to have MD vs. those with normal CR (OR, 7.1; 95% CI: 2.3, 21.8, p=0.001). Additionally, women with high CR were at a greater risk of low EA and MD (OR, 14.1; 95% CI: 1.7, 116.7, p=0.014) or low BMD and MD (OR, 3.5; 95% CI: 1.1, 12.5, p=0.049) vs. women with normal CR.

CONCLUSION: In exercising women, high CR is associated with a greater risk of individual presentations of low EA or MD and the combinations of low EA and MD or low BMD and MD. Thus, screening for CR may provide useful information when assessing the components of the Triad in exercising women. Supported by: This study is supported by the U.S. DOD, Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (PR054531).

932 Board #4 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

The Female Athlete Triad: Preliminary Data From A Multi-site Study On Triad And Race

Sherri M. Kark1, Emilia A. Ochoa2, Margaret M. Harris1, Nancy M. DiMarco3, Nanna L. Meyer4. 1University of Colorado at Colorado Springs, Colorado Springs, CO. 2California State University, Long Beach, CA. 3Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX. 4University of Colorado at Colorado Springs and United States Olympic Committee, Colorado Springs, CO.

(No relationships reported)

The female athlete triad (Triad), an interrelated continuum of low energy availability (EA), menstrual function, and bone mineral density (BMD), is becoming more prevalent in active females.

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of the Triad among Caucasian (C) and African American (AA) athletes and normally active, non-athletic controls.

METHODS: Sixty-two C and AA athletes and nonathletes (age: 26±5 years) were recruited from two academic universities. Thirty-nine athletes (34 C, 5 AA) and 23 controls (15 C, 8 AA) participated. A descriptive cross-sectional design, exploring the association of race and sport on Triad risk was utilized. Subjects completed validated questionnaires (i.e., EDI subscales, TFEQ), self-reported menstrual, injury, and training history/status, and kept three dietary and exercise records, which were verified by recall and evaluated for EA. Subjects also underwent BMD testing using DXA. Descriptive statistics were calculated and group comparisons were analyzed using independent t-tests and chi-square analysis. Preliminary data between C and AA are presented.

RESULTS: EA, EDI subscale and TFEQ scores were similar between groups. 25% C females and 8% AA females reported menstrual disorders, while age at menarche was similar. Whole body (p=0.037) and lumbar spine BMD (p=0.001) were lower in C females than AA females, with 50% C and 15% AA reporting skeletal injury. Overall, in C females, 11% had the most severe, clinical form of the Triad compared with 0% in AA and 46% C vs. 23% AA had 2 Triad components. 69% AA females had at least 1 Triad component compared to 36% C. Both ethnicities had similar frequency (C=7%, AA=8%) of no Triad variables. Due to low sample size, assumptions for chi-square were not met for each cell and were therefore not computed.

CONCLUSION: This preliminary analysis shows that the Triad appears to infer differences among racial groups and exists in both C and AA females, but may be more severe in C.

933 Board #5 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

24-hour Ghrelin And Cortisol Are Associated Subsequent To Diet- And Exercise-induced Weight Loss

Brenna R. Hill, Mary Jane De Souza, FACSM, Jennifer L. Scheid, Nancy I. Williams, FACSM. Penn State University, University Park, PA.

(No relationships reported)

We have previously reported that ghrelin (Ghr) is elevated following diet- and exercise-induced weight loss in normal weight, premenopausal women. Cortisol (Cort) is believed to be modulated by changes in Ghr at the hypothalamus and has been shown to be elevated subsequent to weight loss where the diurnal rhythm may be preserved, but at elevated concentrations.

PURPOSE: To determine if Ghr and Cort are associated upon diet- and exercise-induced weight loss in normal weight premenopausal women.

METHODS: Subjects (5 exercising controls [EC], 15 exercising energy deficit [ED]) were studied at baseline (BL) and after (Post) a 3-mos intervention consisting of controlled feeding and supervised aerobic exercise (5 d/wk). Blood samples were obtained q10 min for 24hr and assayed using RIA for total Ghr. Twenty-four hr urinary Cort was assayed via ELISA. Statistical analyses included paired T-tests, ANOVA and stepwise linear regression.

RESULTS: Subjects in the ED group lost significant amounts of body weight (-2.9±0.6kg), and body fat (-3.8±0.6%) while EC remained weight stable (p=0.15). ED subjects increased VO2max from BL to Post (+5.2±1.2ml/kg/m, p=0.001). No significant difference was detected between groups at BL in energy intake (kcal/24h, p=0.15), but intake was significantly lower in ED at Post (p=0.04). Ghr AUC (p<0.001), 24hr mean (p<0.001) and peak Ghr (p=0.005) increased significantly from BL to Post in ED whereas no significant difference was detected from BL to Post in Ghr AUC (p=0.85), 24hr Mean (p=0.082), or 24hr peak (p=0.16). Cort increased significantly from BL to Post in ED (p=0.03) and remained unchanged in EC (p=0.27). Significant predictors of the change in Cort included the change in Ghr AUC (p=0.005), change in 24hr mean Ghr (p=0.01), change in peak Ghr (p=0.02) and the change in body weight (p=0.011).

CONCLUSIONS: Diet- and exercise-induced weight loss in normal weight premenopausal women is associated with elevated circulating concentrations of the hunger hormone, Ghr, and Cort. Ghr may play a role in the modulation of Cort in response to diet- and exercise-induced weight loss.

This work was supported by National Institutes of Health Grants: 1R01HD39245-01A1 and M01 RR 10732

934 Board #6 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Associations Between Energy Availability, Menstrual Function and Bone Health in Female Endurance Athletes

Katherine Beals, FACSM, Kimberly Henderson, Jessie Dorais. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

It has been hypothesized that low energy availability (EA) will lead to menstrual dysfunction (MD) and compromised bone health; yet, there is limited evidence to support these associations in female endurance athletes.

PURPOSE: To examine the prevalence of and associations between low EA, MD and compromised bone health among female endurance athletes (n=40; mean age 27 ± 5 yr) training ≥ 8 hr/wk.

METHODS: EA was determined by 3-day weighed food and activity logs recorded on 3 distinct training days (heavy, moderate and easy). Exercise energy expenditure was calculated using the Ainsworth Compendium For Physical Activity. Menstrual function was assessed via a validated menstrual history questionnaire. Bone health was ascertained by measuring bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine (via DXA) and from self-reported stress fracture incidence. Descriptive statistics were calculated and Pearson Chi-square (X2) analyses were used to examine associations between low EA, MD and compromised bone health.

RESULTS: Mean EA for all athletes was 27.8 ± 9.9 kcalkg-1 FFMday-1. Sixty-two percent of athletes had low EA (≤ 30 kcalkg-1 FFMday-1); only 5% had an EA currently considered optimal (≥ 45 kcalkg-1 FFMday-1). A history of amenorrhea (absence of ≥ 3 consecutive menstrual cycles) was reported by 58% of the athletes and 50% reported currently experiencing irregular menstrual cycles (i.e., cycles not occurring every 28-34 days). Eleven percent of the athletes had low spinal BMD (z score ≤ -1.0) and 12% reported at least one stress fracture. There were no associations between low EA and history of amenorrhea (X2=.46; P=.52), menstrual irregularity (X2=1.76; P=.19), low BMD (X2=1.55; P=.21) or stress fracture incidence (X2=.46; P=.50).

CONCLUSIONS: Low EA was common among these female endurance athletes and was not associated with MD or compromised bone health.

A-24 Thematic Poster - Outcomes Assessment of CAAHEP Accredited Exercise Science Programs

MAY 30, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 2009

935 Chair: Peter Ronai, FACSM. Sacred Heart University, Milford, CT.

(No relationships reported)

936 Board #1 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

An Examination Of The Internship Readiness Of Students Enrolled In A Coaes Accredited Program

Teresa Fitts, Melissa Roti. Westfield State University, Westfield, MA. (Sponsor: Shala Davis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the readiness of students (N = 29) from a CoAES Accredited University for an internship/capstone experience in Exercise Science. CoAES accreditation requires that all students engage in a capstone experience to help prepare students to be successful practitioners in fields related to exercise science. Practical application of theory to practice through fieldwork, an internship or clinical rotation has been found to be a beneficial component of the professional preparation of students in a broad range of fields. The transition from a lecture-based curriculum to an applied setting has been found to be a stressful experience which often mirrors the transition from academic study to a workplace setting (Kampfe & Mitchell,1995). Implementing practical experiences prior to the final capstone can mitigate the stress students experience and provide important teachable moments for faculty and students.

METHODS: Student (N = 29) readiness was analyzed over a five year period (2005-2010) through both quantitative and qualitative methods focusing on skill development and application of theoretical principles. Data included: scores from practical examinations administered in classes focusing on Fitness Assessment and Prescription, Group Exercise Leadership, and Gerokinesiology; structured interviews (N = 8) with students completing a service-learning component of the Fitness Assessment and Prescription class; Internship supervisor feedback and graduate survey data relating to preparation for employment.

RESULTS: Scores for practical examinations ranged from 73% to 96% (M = 86.46). Student interview findings revealed a positive connection between the didactic classroom experience and the service learning experience. Internship supervisors (N = 29) reported satisfaction with student preparation. Graduates responding to the CoAES survey (N = 24) question, “the clinical/practical portion adequately prepared me for my present position” reported above average responses (M = 4.10).

CONCLUSION: Students preparing for careers in Exercise Science are adequately prepared to engage in CoAES required capstone experiences. More research is needed to assess affective dispositions and personal characteristics that will enable students to excel.

937 Board #2 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Using Health Fitness Specialist Certification Examination Results for Internship Preparation in a CoAES Accredited Program.

David V. Harackiewicz, Sean Walsh. Central Connecticut State University, New Britain, CT. (Sponsor: David Camaione, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this investigation was to determine the strengths and weaknesses of students (N = 28) from a CoAES Accredited University on the 10 Knowledge, Skills and Abilities (KSA’s) specific to the Certified Health Fitness Specialist (HFS) examination as a prerequisite to beginning an internship capstone experience. Students that are better prepared in mastering the learning outcomes of the KSA’s may have a more satisfying experience in their internship which may lead to more ample employment opportunities. Weaknesses in specific areas of the KSA’s can be addressed by emphasizing the outcomes in the exercise science curriculum.

METHODS: HFS examination scores (N = 28) from the 2010-2011 academic year were collected by the program administrator. Each student submitted the results from the HFS test as a total score and percent distribution from each section representing the 10 KSA’s.The mean percent total score and percent correct score in each of the 10 learning outcomes specific to the HFS were reported.

RESULTS: The total score pass rate was reported (M = 75%) with the 10 KSA’s sections as follows: (1) Exercise Prescription and Programming (M = 68%), (2) Exercise Physiology and Related Exercise Science (M = 69%), (3) Health Appraisal, Fitness and Clinical Exercise Testing (M = 71%), (4) Nutrition and Weight Management (M = 68%), (5) Program Administration, Quality Assurance and Outcome Assessment (M = 64%), (6) Safety, Injury Prevention and Emergency Procedures (M = 69%), (7) Pathophysiology and Risk Factors (M = 74%), (8) Human Behavior and Counseling (M = 66%), (9) Electrocardiography and Diagnostic Techniques (M = 40%), and (10) Patient Management and Medications (M = 68%)

CONCLUSIONS: The pass rate of 75% is higher than the national HFS pass rate of 59%. Although that is positive for our students, specific content areas can be improved so students are better prepared for their internship experience and future employment.

938 Board #3 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

On-Campus Practicum Activities and Undergraduate National Examination Outcomes: Preliminary Data and Trends

Gregory J. Ledoux, Katie J. Bouley, Anthony L. Sgherza. Lyndon State College, Lyndonville, VT. (Sponsor: Vincent J. Paolone, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Undergraduate CoAES (CAAHEP) Accredited programs are encouraged to provide a capstone experience with the intent to ensure preparedness for Exercise Science related careers. Capstone activities have historically provided a venue for assessing academic program outcomes (Wagenaar, 1993). On-campus practicum activities (prior to capstone courses) are not required, but may be beneficial to national examination success.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the impact of on-campus practicum activities and undergraduate national examination success in the CoAES Accredited program at Lyndon State College (LSC). National examinations included the American College of Sports Medicine Health Fitness Specialist (HFS) and the National Strength and Conditioning Association Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) and Certified Personal Trainer (NSCA-CPT) Examinations.

METHODS: Nine undergraduate students from the graduating class of 2011 were included in the analyses. Two students chose not to enroll in the elective practicum course (NP), four students enrolled in the course for 1 semester (P1), and three students enrolled in the course for 2 or more semesters (P2). Successful completion of national examinations was then compared between the three groups. In addition, forty-four LSC undergraduate students sat for national certification examinations from 2009 to 2011. Two students sat for the HFS, 15 for the CSCS, and 27 for the NSCA-CPT examinations. Pass-Rates (percentages of students passing the exams) were recorded and compared to national averages.

RESULTS: Students in the P2 group showed trends towards more certifications compared to students in the NP and P1 groups (p = 0.051). The pass-rate for LSC students was 100% on the HFS (national average 59%), 60% on the CSCS (national average 65%), and 67% on the NSCA-CPT (national average 57%) examinations.

CONCLUSION: Students enrolled in multiple semesters of the elective practicum course showed trends towards more certifications than those enrolled in one semester or less of the course. In addition, LSC Exercise Science student pass-rates on two national examinations were higher than current national averages. Future research will focus on self-report graduate preparedness and employer satisfaction.

939 Board #4 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Ability Of A CoAES Accredited Exercise Science Program To Prepare Students For A Variety Of Internships

Jeff Lynn, Patricia Pierce, FACSM. Slippery Rock University, Slippery Rock, PA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The Slippery Rock University Exercise Science program is designed to prepare students for a diverse array of careers and graduate studies related to exercise and/or health. The purpose of this study was to determine whether students could demonstrate mastery of the program’s learning goals during their capstone experience, a 480-hour internship, regardless of the internship setting.

METHODS: At the completion of the internship, students and intern supervisors completed surveys assessing whether the student demonstrated mastery of the Exercise Science program’s learning goals including “Professional Interaction/Communication,” “Professional Competence,” “Professional Ethics and Conduct,” Professional and Personal Development,” and “Professional Decision Making (Problem Solving).” Data were analyzed over a three year period (2008, 2009 and 2010; N=250). Internship sites were diverse and included such settings as corporate fitness, sports performance, cardiac rehabilitation, and personal training.

RESULTS: The table below displays the percentage of intern supervisors and students who “strongly agreed” or “agreed” (scores of 5 or 4 on a 5-point Likert scale) that mastery of the program’s learning goals was demonstrated during the internship.


CONCLUSION: Across a wide variety of internship experiences, students enrolled in a CoAES accredited Exercise Science program successfully demonstrated program learning goals as assessed by self-report and intern supervisors’ evaluations.

940 Board #5 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Assessment of Undergraduate Exercise Science Programs: What Constitutes Success?

Susan M. Muller, John J. LaManca. Salisbury University, Salisbury, MD. (Sponsor: Shala Davis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Across the United States, undergraduate programs in Exercise Science are growing rapidly. To sustain this growth evidence must be provided that these programs are successfully preparing graduates for employment or graduate studies in allied-health professions.

PURPOSE: To determine an accredited undergraduate Exercise Science program’s level of success, as defined by the Committee on the Accreditation of the Exercise Sciences (CoAES).

METHODS: Data from exit surveys, employer satisfaction surveys, internship evaluations, and certification examinations were collected over a five year period. Test scores and responses to the most comprehensive questions of satisfaction were used for data analysis. Percentages were compared to the benchmarks for success as established by the CoAES.

RESULTS: On-site internship supervisor responses (n=162) to the question regarding the interns preparation for placement in the field were as follows: outstanding=33%, above average=49%, average=17%, and below average=1%, unacceptable=0%. Graduate responses (n=76) to the exit survey question about overall satisfaction with the preparation received in the program of study were as follows: strongly agree (SA) =47.4%, agree (A)=47.4%, neutral (N)=3.9%, disagree (DA)=1.3% and strongly disagree=0%. Employer satisfaction responses (n=72; response rate=66.1%) concerning whether graduates were adequately prepared for an entry-level position yielded the following: SA=83.3%, A=11.1%, N=2.8%, and DA=2.8%. During this period, 96.9% (n=191) of students passed the ACSM Health Fitness Specialist (HFS) examination and 77.8% (n=18) passed the Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist (CSCS) test.

CONCLUSION: The program’s survey results and certification exam pass rates met or exceeded the benchmarks established by the CoAES for the successful preparation of undergraduates.

941 Board #6 MAY 30 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Qualitative Analysis of Professional Preparation in a CoAES Accredited Program That Requires an Internship

Scott C. Swanson, Sara L. Terrell. Ohio Northern University, Ada, OH. (Sponsor: J. C. Baldi, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine professional preparation by a CoAES accredited Exercise Science program. To ensure adequate professional preparation of students, CoAES requires completion of a culminating experience such as an internship. Assessment of professional preparation by established professionals and student assessment of academic preparation efficacy are important measures of professional preparation. Responses from these two groups were used to measure the professional preparation of undergraduates in a CoAES accredited program.

METHODS: Professional preparation of students from 2007-2011 was obtained from student internship preceptor surveys (N=53). The internship survey data measured 22 attributes assessing 3 major areas: employee attributes; application and implementation of knowledge/professional skills; and communication/organizational skills. Internship sites included hospitals, rehabilitations centers and commercial health and fitness sites. Student assessment of professional preparation from 2007-2010 was obtained by a voluntary, CoAES graduate survey completed 6-12 months after graduation (N=23). The CoAES graduate survey data measured professional preparation by academic program coursework, clinical/practical experiences, and certification exam preparation.

RESULTS: Internship preceptors assessment of professional preparation of students was better than average. The mean rating was “very good” or “excellent” in 86% of the students and over 92% of the students were ranked as “good”, “very good” or “excellent” on all 22 attributes surveyed. Less than 1% of the preceptor responses rated students as “needs improvement” on any of the 22 attributes. Students also agreed that they were adequately prepared for their current position after graduation. Nearly all graduates surveyed (91-100%) “strongly agreed” or “agreed” that their coursework and clinical/practical experiences adequately prepared them for their present position and that they were prepared to take a national certification exam.

CONCLUSION: Students enrolled in a CoAES accredited Exercise Science program requiring an internship as the culminating experience are professionally prepared.

B-15 Thematic Poster - Injection Therapies

MAY 30, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3020

942 Chair: Erik Adams, FACSM. Midwest Inst. of Sports Medicine, Middleton, WI.

(No relationships reported)

943 Board #1 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect Comparisons Of Prolotherapy To Normal Saline Injection On Balance Performance Of The Patients With Coccydynia

Yu-Tsai Tu1, Li-Wen Tu1, Cheng-Hsiu Lai2, Yin-Chou Lin1, Wei-Han Chang1, Shih-Wei Chou1. 1Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taoyuan, Taiwan. 2Taipei Physical Education College, Taipei City, Taiwan. (Sponsor: Chia-Hua Kuo, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Coccydynia is pain in the region of coccyx and commonly results from trauma.

PURPOSE: To compare the balance performance and flexibility of sit-to-reach between prolotherapy with 25% glucose and control therapy with normal saline (NS) injection in patients with coccydynia.

METHODS: Thirty eight patients with coccydynia were recruited and randomly assigned into two groups as prolotherapy group (34.7 ± 16.4 years of age; 165.6 ± 9.0 cm of body height; 64.3 ± 13.6 kg of body weight) and NS group (32.7 ± 15.8 years of age; 166.3 ± 9.8 cm of body height; 67.3 ± 17.2 kg of body weight). Prolotherapy or NS was injected 1 ml per injection site over para-sacrococcygeal maximal tender points. Balance performance was assessed before and one week after prolotherapy and NS injection. Balance performance was determined by the sensory organization test (SOT) of the Smart Balance Master (Neurocom International Inc., USA). Flexibility of sit-to-reach was measured by the HELMAS II physical fitness diagnosis system (SEWOO SYSTEM CO., LTD, USA).

RESULTS: Injection improved the SOT significantly in the more challenging conditions, i.e., conditions 5 and 6. In sensory analysis, Injection significantly improved the vestibular ratio. The injection significantly improved also the flexibility of sit-to-reach. There is no significant difference in acute effect between the prolotherapy group and the NS group in both the SOT of balance and flexibility of sit-to-reach.

CONCLUSION: Balance performance of the patients with coccydynia was improved one week after prolotherapy and NS injection, especially in more challenged conditions of the SOT and the vestibular ratio in sensory analysis. Prolotherapy and NS injection seemed to be equivalent in acute effect on balance of coccydynia patients.

944 Board #2 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Adhesive Capsulitis. The Effect Of 1 Ultrasound Guided Injection Of 20 Mg Triamcinolone Into The Rotator Interval

Niels Gunnar Juel1, Gunnar Oland2, Synnøve K. Kvalheim1, Ole M. Ekeberg3, Siri A. Kristiansen2, Tormod Løve2. 1Oslo university hospital, Oslo, Norway. 2Telemark hospital, Porsgrunn, Norway. 3Helse Fonna, Stord, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Adhesive capsulitis bothers patients with pain and stiffness giving functional disability. External rotation is always limited and thickening of the rotator interval may correspond with this. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect on function and range of motion (ROM) of 1 ultrasound (US) guided injection into the rotator interval.

METHODS: Patients with shoulder pain between 1 and 12 months and loss of 30 degrees passive ROM in two directions were included. Informed consent. Unbiased observers. Treatment consisted of 1 injection of 1 ml (20mg) triamcinolone in 3ml 2% xylocain into the rotator interval medial to the long head of the biceps tendon. SPADI (0-100), active and passive ROM (deg) were primary outcome measures. Paired samples T-tests were used.

RESULTS: 39 patients (12 men, 30%), age 55(7) were included, 36 at follow-up. Changes from baseline to 3 months were; SPADI(SD): -42(26); PROM external rotation +17(14) and abduction +33(24); AROM external rotation +17(14) and abduction +45(28). All results were highly significant, p<0,001. No complications were registered.

CONCLUSION: 1 US guided injection into the rotator interval with 20 mg triamcinolone improved all outcome measures significant after 3 months. Our results equaled change in SPADI in a previous RCT from our hospital administering 3 x-ray guided intraarticular injections with 60 mg triamcinolone (Tveitå 2009). PROM and AROM seemed to benefit more with the present technique. A RCT comparing a US guided injection into the rotator interval with an intraarticular injection is needed.

945 Board #3 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Efficacy of an Ultrasound Guided Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection for Chronic Lateral Epicondylopathy

John J. Wilson, David Rabago, Kenneth S. Lee, Mary E. Sesto, Michael Ryan, Amrish O. Chourasia. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Chronic lateral epicondylopathy (CLE) is common, expensive and debilitating. There is no definitive cure for refractory patients. Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is an injection therapy for chronic tendinopathy but has not been definitively assessed for CLE. We assessed the efficacy of PRP for CLE in a pilot-level study.

METHODS: Design: Prospective non-randomized controlled clinical trial. Group 1: Ultrasound guided PRP injection; Group 2: Conservative therapy only control group. Setting: Outpatient. Participants: 20 adults with at least 3 months of symptomatic clinically diagnosed CLE in 25 elbows refractory to conservative therapy. Intervention: Subjects received PRP injections under ultrasound-guidance at baseline (week 0). Control subjects were encouraged to continue with previously employed conservative treatments, while avoiding any new therapies. Outcome Measures: Primary: Patient-Rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE, pain and function subscales (100 points each) assessed at 4, 8 and 16 weeks). Secondary: Dynamometer-assessed pain-free grip strength, participant satisfaction.

RESULTS: No significant baseline differences existed between the groups in gender, duration of elbow pain, prior therapy or baseline PRTEE scores. The PRP treated group (n=13 elbows) reported improved PRTEE composite scores compared to control group (n=12 elbows) (p<0.01) at 16 weeks. Similarly, the PRP treated group showed greater improvement in PRTEE pain and function subscale scores at all follow-up time points, including at 16 weeks, compared to controls in pain (p<0.01) and function (p<0.01). Subjects in the PRP group reported improvement in composite PRTEE scores at 16 weeks of 21.07±3.49 (47.9%) points, versus only 9.33±10.95 in controls (18%). Grip strength improved in both groups without significant differences within or between groups. Satisfaction with PRP injection was high and there were no adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided PRP injection resulted in safe, significant, sustained improvement of PRTEE-based elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and control subjects. The results of this pilot study suggest the need for a definitive trial.

FUNDING: Univ. of WI Dept of Orthopedics Research Grant

American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation Stimulus Grant (G0810)

946 Board #4 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Review Of Athletic Pubalgia And Role Of Ultrasound-guided Corticosteroid Injections As A Treatment Modality

Alex Fokin, Ross Wodicka, Bryson Lesniak, Jean Jose, Clifton Page, Lee Kaplan. University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, FL.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to investigate ultra-sound guided corticosteroid injections as a viable treatment option for patients with athletic pubalgia. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first report of corticosteroid use in treatment of sportsman’s hernia. Given the potential morbidity and prolonged return to sports-related activity associated with surgical treatment of athletic pubalgia corticosteroid injections present a minimally invasive and effective treatment option.

METHODS: Twelve patients diagnosed with athletic pubalgia were evaluated at University of Miami Hospital between 9/2009 and 11/2010, and treated with U/S-guided corticosteroid injections. The average patient age was 31 years with a range between 16 and 63 years. All twelve patients underwent targeted ultrasound of their painful groin which revealed attenuation, tendinosis or complete tear around the insertion site of the rectus abdominis and/or the adductor longus tendons. Under direct sonographic visualization, a 22-gauge spinal needle was advanced into the area of degeneration or fraying of the rectus abdominis and/or adductor longus aponeurosis. At this location, a 2 cc steroid and anesthetic mixture containing 1 cc (40 mg) of Kenalog and 1 cc of 0.5% Bupivacaine were injected. All injections were performed by the same fellowship-trained musculoskeletal radiologist. All twelve patient treated completed a WOMAC hip score questionnaire in order to evaluate the effectiveness of their treatment.

RESULTS: Follow up evaluation was conducted at an average of 8.7 months (range of 6-19 months). 8 of the 12 patients reported no current symptoms with resultant WOMAC scores of 100. Of the remaining 4, the average score was 72.8. The overall average WOMAC score among all 12 patients was 90.9. Specific diagnoses of these patients included 1 unilateral adductor longus strain and 3 adductor longus with ipsilateral rectus abdominis strains. Common symptoms among these patients were pain and stiffness while ascending stairs, at night, and while running.

CONCLUSION: Numerous treatment options have been utilized for the treatment of athletic pubalgia with various success rates. This study shows that based on objective outcome scores, U/S-guided corticosteroid injections are a viable treatment option for patients with athletic pubalgia.

947 Board #5 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Efficacy Of Prolotherapy For Lateral Epicondylosis: A Pilot-level Randomized Controlled Trial

David Rabago, Ken Lee, Michael Ryan, Amrish Chourasia, Mary Sesto, Aleksandra Zgierska, Daniel Miller, John Wilson, Richard Kijowski. University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Chronic lateral epicondylosis (CLE) is common, expensive and debilitating. There is no definitive cure for refractory patients. Prolotherapy (PrT) is an injection therapy for tendinopathy but has not been well assessed for CLE. We assessed the efficacy of PrT for CLE in a pilot level study funded by the American Academy of Family Physicians Foundation (G0810).

METHODS:Design: 3-arm randomized controlled trial. Group 1: PrT using 20% dextrose (PrT-D), Group 2: PrT using a combined dextrose and morrhuate sodium solution (PrT-M); Group 3: waitlist control (WL). Subjects in Groups 1 and 2 were blinded to injection type. Participants-Intervention: 26 outpatient adults with at least 3 months of symptomatic CLE in 32 elbows refractory to prior care received PrT-D or PrT-M injections under ultrasound-guidance at baseline, 4, and 8 weeks. WL subjects were discouraged from starting new care. Outcome Measures: Primary: Patient-rated Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE, pain and function subscales (100 points each) assessed at 4, 8 and 16 weeks). Secondary: Dynamometer-assessed pain free grip strength, participant satisfaction.

RESULTS: No significant baseline differences existed between the groups in gender, duration of elbow pain, prior therapy or baseline PRTEE scores. Both PrT-D (n=10) and PrT-M (n=10) groups, but not WL (n=12), reported improved pain PRTEE scores compared to baseline status (p<0.05) at 16 weeks. PrT-D and PrT-M scores showed greater improvement in PRTEE scores compared to WL in pain and/or function subscale scores at all follow-up time points (p<.05). Subjects in PrT-D and PrT-M groups reported improvement in composite PRTEE scores at 16 weeks of 18.7±9.63 (47.9%) and 17.9±11.64 (49.7%) points respectively, in excess of the 11-point minimal clinical important difference on the PRTEE. There was no difference between the two active injection therapies in PRTEE scores at 16 weeks. Grip strength improved in all groups without significant difference between groups. Satisfaction with prolotherapy was high; there were no adverse events.

CONCLUSIONS: Prolotherapy resulted in safe, significant, sustained improvement of PRTEE-based elbow pain and function compared to baseline status and waitlist control subjects. The results of this pilot study suggest the need for a definitive trial.

948 Board #6 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Multiple Platelet-Rich Plasma Lateral Epidondylitis Injections With No Greater 2 Month Positive Effect Than A Single Platelet-Rich Plasma Injection (PRPLE)

Wais N. Arsala, Frances E. Sharpe. Kaiser Permanente Fontana, Fontana, CA. (Sponsor: Robert Sallis, MD, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: Treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) remains a clinical challenge. Steroid injections, long held to be the gold standard of tennis elbow treatment have been shown to be toxic to tendons (Kennedy, 1976) and many patients continue to find themselves in pain and impaired in their activities of daily living. Platelet-rich plasma has been shown to be rich in growth factors which promote increased blood flow and healing necessary to heal tendons (Molloy, 2003). Recently, a very good randomized double-blinded controlled prospective study showed the use of a PRP injection to be superior to a single corticosteroid injection for the healing of lateral epicondylitis, as measured by improvement in pain and reduction of disability at both 1 and 2 year endpoints (Peerbooms, 2011). We know one PRP injection is beneficial but no one has proven more PRP injections will result in even less pain. The ideal regimen of platelet-rich plasma for healing the injured tendons of tennis elbow has yet to be determined (Mishra, 2009).

PURPOSE: To determine the ideal treatment regimen for the treatment of chronic lateral epicondylitis(tennis elbow). This will be done comparing pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores of patients receiving 2 PRP injections compared with patients receiving a single PRP injection after a 2 month followup.

METHODS: The study was conducted at Kaiser Fontana involving 11 patients who met strict criteria for chronic lateral epicondylitis (including greater than 3 months of chronic lateral epicondylitis and failing at least one other treatment modality). Patients were nonrandomly divided up between two groups: 8 patients chose a single injection and 3 chose two injections. Participants of both groups received their first injection on their initial visit and the Multiple PRP group patients received another again in one month. Results were measured using the VAS on the initial and 2 month followup visits. Successful treatment of lateral epicondylitis was defined as a 25% reduction in visual analog score (VAS) after 2 months. The Wilcoxon rank sum and Fisher’s exact tests were used in the data analysis.

B-16 Thematic Poster - Parkinson’s Disease

MAY 30, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3022

949 Chair: Li Li, FACSM. Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA.

(No relationships reported)

950 Board #1 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Hoehn And Yahr-defined Severity Of Parkinson’S Disease Does Not Affect Gait Initiation Variability

Jared W. Skinner. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

Previous research has shown that increased step variability during walking and gait initiation (GI) is related to postural instability and increased risk of falling in older adults. In addition, we have previously shown that patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) showed increased GI step variability when compared to healthy elderly adults. However, it is unknown whether an increase in step variability is related to disease severity.

PURPOSE: To evaluate if the variability in GI step length and time was different among patients at various stages of PD as defined by the Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y) scale.

METHODS: 55 participants with PD were included. 18 patients (64.38.9yr, 173.27.1cm, 91.8216.6kg) were classified as level 2 (HY2), 15 (66.69.2yr, 168.47.5cm, 81.114.2kg) patients were classified as level 2.5 (HY2.5), and 22 patients (697.76yr, 1698.9cm, 78.914.4kg) were classified as level 3 (HY3). Patients with PD were tested while clinically “ON” approximately one hour after taking their medication. Patients initiated walking while standing in a quiet, static position. On average patients performed five walking trials at a self-selected pace. Kinematic data were collected using a 3D Optical Capture System. The length of the first step for each trial was calculated as the displacement of the heel marker from initial heel-off to the subsequent heel-strike. Step time was measured as the time from initial heel off to subsequent heel strike. Step length and step time variability of step limb across trials within each subject were evaluated using the coefficient of variation. A one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni pairwise comparison were performed to evaluate difference in GI variability among groups.

RESULTS: No significant difference (p>.05) in either the variability of the first step length [HY2: .47m (7%), HY2.5: .45m (8%), and HY3: .45m (9%)] or in the variability of step time [HY2: .58s (10%), HY2.5: .58s (9%) and HY3: .52s (9%)] were observed.

CONCLUSION: A higher H&Y scale does not reflect greater variability in the spatiotemporal components of the first step of GI in individuals with PD. It appears that H&Y scale may be insensitive to detect the subtle deterioration in GI performance. Further research is needed to examine the relationship among GI variability, disease severity and fall history in this population.

951 Board #2 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Deep Brain Stimulation is Associated with Reduced Ranges of Motion during Gait in Parkinson’s Disease

Douglas W. Powell1, Heidi Bastin1, Nicholas J. Hanson2, Rebecca Reed-Jones3. 1Fairmont State University, Fairmont, WV. 2The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. 3University of Texas at El Paso, El Paso, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease associated with motor impairment. PD-related motor impairment reduces a patient’s capacity to perform activities of daily living including gait, resulting in a lower quality of life and greater caregiver burden. A common treatment with progressive PD is deep brain stimulation (DBS); however, few studies have quantitatively investigated the effect of DBS on the dynamism of gait.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of DBS on improving gait kinematics during treadmill walking.

METHODS: Four individuals with PD participated in the current study. Two 60-second treadmill walking trials were collected with the patient’s DBS turned on (DBS) and 30 minutes after withdrawal from DBS treatment (NO DBS). Walking trials were completed at 0.8 m/sec while kinematics were recorded using a 6-camera motion capture system (240 Hz; ViconPEAK). Joint kinematics and events were calculated using Visual 3D (C-Motion, Inc.). A repeated measures ANOVA was used to determine the effect of DBS treatment (DBS vs. NO DBS). Alpha level was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: In individuals with PD, NO DBS condition was associated with significantly larger ranges of motion than the DBS condition at the ankle (NO DBS: 17.7±4.2; DBS: 14.4±4.1; p=0.032), knee (NO DBS: 47.0±7.3; DBS: 42.2±6.0; p=0.029) and hip joints (NO DBS: 26.6±4.7; DBS: 23.9±4.4; p=0.017). Greater peak dorsiflexion angles were observed in the NO DBS compared to DBS condition (NO DBS: 5.9±4.2; DBS: 3.7±5.0; p=0.023) while no differences were observed in peak plantarflexion angles (NO DBS: 17.4±10.4; DBS: 16.4±13.4; p=0.592). At the hip, peak flexion angles were significantly different between the NO DBS and DBS conditions (NO DBS: 28.6±12.8; DBS: 21.2±10.2; p=0.014) while no differences were observed in peak hip extension angles (NO DBS: -12.5±6.9; DBS: -11.3±3.7; p=0.710).

CONCLUSIONS: These data show that the DBS condition was associated with smaller ranges of motion. However, a limitation of the current study is that treadmill velocity was maintained in the DBS and NO DBS conditions, though mechanical capacity was greater in the DBS condition. A future direction of this line of research pertains to quantifying the changes in mechanical capacity with anti-PD treatments, including DBS.

952 Board #3 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Improvements In Interlimb Coordination Due To Subthalamic Nucleus Stimulation In People With Parkinson’s Disease.

Jonathan M. Elrod1, Ryan Roemmich1, Srikant Vallabhajosula2, Chris Hass, FACSM1. 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE.

(No relationships reported)

Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has proven to be a successful treatment in ameliorating the motor symptoms of Parkinson’s disease (PD) including improvements in gait velocity along with other spatiotemporal measures of gait. PD has deleterious effects on coordination of the upper and lower extremities during overground walking in comparison to healthy adults. Yet, the effects of DBS on interlimb coordination (ILC) in PD remain unknown.

PURPOSE: We sought to investigate the effectiveness of subthalamic nucleus (STN) DBS on ILC parameters during overground gait in PD.

METHODS: Seventeen individuals with bilateral STN DBS were recruited for participation in the study. Participants withheld antiparkinsonian medication for the duration of the testing session and DBS stimulation was inactivated 12 hours prior to data collection. Stimulators were activated following the completion of off-stimulation tests. The kinematics of overground walking trials were captured using a motion capture system (Vicon Nexus, Oxford, UK). Participants performed 5 self-selected walking trials over an 8 meter walkway in two separate conditions, off-stimulation and on-stimulation. Upper and lower extremity coordination was quantified by cross-covariance measures using a customized MATLAB program.

RESULTS: The data was analyzed using a 2×2 (side vs. condition) repeated measures ANOVA. The side factor consisted of either the most affected side (MAS) or less affected side (LAS) as reported by the patients. The condition factor consisted of stimulators on and off. The results of the ANOVA failed to show any significant interactions between side and condition. However, activation of stimulators led to an increase in range of motion (ROM) of the MAS shoulder by 5.4° (p=0.004). Also, an increase of 2.5° was seen in the LAS hip (p=0.043). In addition to the changes in ROM the cross-covariance measures between the MAS shoulder and both hips were found to be significant (ipsilateral p=0 .007 & contralateral p=0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that DBS allows for improved coordination of the extremities during gait in people with PD. Additionally, the results may imply that STN DBS improves gait through other means than the standard spatiotemporal parameters that are frequently studied.

953 Board #4 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effect Of Tai Chi On Postural Control In Parkinson’s Disease: A Pilot Study

Shinichi Amano1, Joe Nocera2, Srikant Vallabhajosula3, Chris J. Hass, FACSM1. 1University of Florida, Gainesville, FL. 2Brain Rehabilitation Research Center, Gainesville, FL. 3University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE.

(No relationships reported)

Balance dysfunction is a disabling feature of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (PD). Postural control in PD worsens when attention is averted, such as when performing a concurrent cognitive or motor task. Tai Chi (TC) exercise interventions, which have a dual-task component, have resulted in increased physical fitness and postural stability and reduced risk of falling in older adults. However, few studies have quantified the improvements in motor coordination after TC in persons with PD, particularly when examined during a dual task paradigm.

PURPOSE: To determine whether TC training can improve postural control under secondary cognitive/motor task conditions in persons with PD.

METHODS: Sixteen persons with idiopathic PD (65.4±9.7 yrs, 167.0±10.1 cm, 74.8±12.7 kg) participated. Randomly selected 11 participants (TC) were provided with the 16-week TC training, and five participants (Control) were assigned to a non-exercising control group. During baseline testing, each participant was asked to stand for 10 seconds on a force platform, holding a set of two cylinder-shaped objects stacked together. The center of pressure excursion under the feet was collected at 360Hz under three task conditions: static (holding objects with precision grip), secondary cognitive (a digit subtraction while holding objects), and secondary motor (pulling the top cylinder apart). All participants underwent the same tests following the 16-week period. The change score after 16 weeks in Approximate Entropy (ApEn) on anteroposterior (A/P) and mediolateral (M/L) directions and 95% confidence ellipse (Area95) were evaluated using independent t-test in each of three secondary task conditions. The level of significance was set at α=0.05.

RESULTS: In the static condition, TC reduced their Area95 (-.05±.57cm2) when compared to Control (+.73±.78cm2, p<.05). On the other hand, change in ApEn in TC (A/P: +.12±.35, M/L: -.01±.23) did not significantly differ from Control (A/P: +.07±.23, M/L: +.10±.23). No significant differences were observed in any of two secondary task conditions.

CONCLUSIONS: TC appears to be effective in improving postural stability for persons with PD under less cognitively challenging condition. However, this benefit could not be reflected in postural control while performing a more demanding secondary task.

954 Board #5 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Interval Active Assisted Cycling Improves Motor Function in Individuals with Parkinson’s disease

Kayla A. Wilson, Emily J. Fickes, Corey A. Peacock, Megan L. Williamson, Angela L. Ridgel. Kent State University, Kent, OH. (Sponsor: Ellen L. Glickman, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that results in tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia and postural instability. Research has shown that exercise can improve tremor and motor function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease. However there is still little consensus about the duration or frequency of the exercise that is required.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of a four week interval active-assisted cycling program on upper body tremor and motor function in individuals with Parkinson’s disease.

METHODS: Individuals were counterbalanced into two groups: a control group and an exercise group. Participants in the exercise group completed 30 minutes of interval active-assisted high-rate cycling with 5 minutes of warm-up and cool-down, three times a week for four weeks. Motor function of the upper extremity was assessed using the Kinesia Motor Assessment System (Cleveland Medical Devices, Cleveland, OH). Kinesia provides quantitative scores for the degree of tremor, bradykinesia and quality of upper extremity movement. Subjects worked through seven upper extremity motor tasks while wearing the device. Unified Parkinson’s disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) Motor III was also administered to compare with the Kinesia scores. UPDRS is a clinical score that assesses upper and lower extremity tremor, bradykinesia and rigidity, walking, posture and balance. Each of the fourteen tests was scored on a scale from 0-4. A score of 0 indicates normal and a score of 4 indicates high severity of Parkinson’s disease. All participants (exercise and control groups) were tested at baseline, 2 weeks and 4 weeks.

RESULTS: Repeated-measures ANOVA analysis showed a slight, but non-significant, improvement in rest (p = 0.726; 1.22 ± 0.71 pre, 1.04 ± 0.79 post) and postural (p = 0.148; 1.76 ± 1.09 pre, 0.84 ± 0.12 post) tremor. However, there were significant improvements in UPDRS Motor III scores (p = 0.004; 43.2 ± 13.1 pre, 33.4 ± 10.4 post).

CONCLUSION: A four week interval active-assisted cycling intervention resulted in significant improvements in motor function, as measured by the UPDRS score and slight improvements in upper body tremor, as measured with Kinesia.

955 Board #6 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Eight Week Exercise Intervention Improves Physical Fitness in Healthy Elderly and Those with Parkinson’s disease

Corey Peacock, Duane Corbett, Gabe Sanders, Emily Fickes, Kayla Wilson, Yoong Seo, Ellen Glickman, FACSM, Angela Ridgel. Kent State University, Kent, OH. (Sponsor: Ellen Glickman, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The Administration on Aging predicts that the US population of individuals over 65 will increase from 40 million in 2010 to 55 million in 2020. In anticipation of this trend, there is increased interest in the role of exercise to slow the decline in physical fitness in older adults and prevent age-related diseases such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). PD is a progressive neurological disorder results in impaired neuromuscular function, strength, endurance, and flexibility.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of an eight week exercise intervention on muscular strength, muscular endurance, cardiovascular fitness, and flexibility in elderly adults with and without PD.

METHODS: Ten elderly adults with PD and seven age-matched healthy controls participated in 24 exercise sessions over an eight week period. The program included total-body exercise, as recommended by ACSM, including static stretching, multi-joint resistance training using 50-80% of the one-repetition maximum for a total of 8-15 repetitions, and cycle ergometry at moderate intensity. Fitness testing sessions were administered before (Pre) and after (Post) the intervention. Testing sessions included the YMCA 3-minute step test to determine both resting (RHR) and exercised heart rate (EHR). Seated Chest Press (SCP) and the Seated Leg Press (SLP) were used to determine upper and lower muscular strength. Sit and Reach (SR) was used to test flexibility and muscular endurance was measured with the curl-up test (CU).

RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.002) improvement in RHR (73 beats·min-1 pre, 65 beats·min-1 post), EHR (105 beats·min-1 pre, 94 beats·min-1 post), SCP (67.8±37.6 lbs. pre, 89.2±45.1 lbs. post), SLP (151.8±68.5 lbs. pre, 206.4±86.7 lbs. post), CU (22 repetitions pre, 37 repetitions post), and SR (8.3±2.7 inches pre, 11.2±2.98 inches post). There were no significant main or interaction effects for group (PD, elderly control).

CONCLUSION: Patients with PD tolerated the exercise intervention well and exhibited significant improvements in multiple aspects of fitness that were similar to healthy, elderly controls.

Supported by The Foundation of Aging Studies and Exercise Science Research and the Kent State University EHHS Seed Grant

B-17 Thematic Poster - Respiratory - Injury, Disease and Aging

MAY 30, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2000

956 Chair: Tony G. Babb, FACSM. University of Texas Southwestern Med Ctr at Dallas, Dallas, TX.

(No relationships reported)

957 Board #1 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect of Aging and Cardiopulmonary Fitness on Non Invasive Determined Pulmonary Arterial Capacitance during Exercise

Alexander J. Kasak, Bryan J. Taylor, Andrew D. Miller, Thomas P. Olson, Bruce D. Johnson. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

(No relationships reported)

Pulmonary arterial capacitance (PCAP) is the ability of the pulmonary artery/arterioles to accept a volume of blood for a given pressure. With aging, there is remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature that is characterized by increases in pulmonary vascular stiffness, pressures and resistance and a decrease in pulmonary capillary density and ultimately capillary blood volume. In theory, these age-related changes may diminish the ability of the pulmonary vasculature to distend and recruit during exercise thus reducing PCAP, potentially limiting gas exchange.

PURPOSE: To determine the influence of aging and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) on a non invasive estimate of PCAP during exercise.

METHODS: 7 young moderately fit (YNG MF; 26±3 yr, VO2max ∼105% predicted), 6 young highly fit (YNG HF; 27±3 yr, VO2max ∼150% predicted), 5 old moderately fit (OLD MF; 72±4 yr, VO2max ∼112% predicted) and 6 old highly fit (OLD HF; 64±4 yr, VO2max ∼160% predicted) subjects cycled at 25, 50, 75 (6 min) and 90% (to exhaustion) of peak power. PCAP was estimated during the final 30s of each exercise bout via gas exchange parameters [GXCAP = O2pulse x PETCO2].

RESULTS: At rest, GXCAP was lower in OLD MF vs. all other groups (P<0.05). With exercise, there was a steady rise in GXCAP before it reached a plateau at ∼90% VO2max in all groups. At peak-exercise, GXCAP was lower in OLD MF but greater in YNG HF compared to all other groups (P≤0.002). GXCAP was not different in YNG HF vs. OLD HF at end-exercise (590±81 vs. 725±153, P = 0.079). Similarly, at a given VO2 (∼2 L/min), GXCAP was lower in OLD MF vs. all other groups (P≤0.002), but greater in YNG HF vs. OLD MF (870±105 vs. 406±49, P<0.01) and vs. OLD HF (618±85, P=0.001). GXCAP was not different in YNG HF vs. OLD at this level of exercise (719±156 vs. 618±85, P=0.188). Despite these differences, there was no change in SaO2 from rest throughout exercise in any of the experimental groups (P>0.05).

CONCLUSION: Noninvasively estimated pulmonary arterial capacitance during exercise is diminished with age but improved with greater CRF. These data suggest that healthy aging is associated with a reduction in the ability of the pulmonary arterioles to distend and recruit during exercise. Despite this, there was no evidence of exercise-induced arterial hypoxia, indicating that alveolar gas exchange was maintained.

958 Board #2 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Limitations To Exercise In Centenarians: Evidence That Muscular Efficiency Tempers The Impact Of Failing Lungs

Massimo Venturelli1, Federico Schena1, Renato Scarsini2, Ettore Muti2, Russell S. Richardson, FACSM3. 1University of Verona, Verona, Italy. 2Mons Mazzali Foundation, Mantova, Italy. 3University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

Centenarians are an outstanding model of successful aging, with genetics and a healthy life-style certainly being key-factors responsible for their longevity.

PURPOSE: Exercise capacity has been identified to play an important role in healthy aging, but a comprehensive assessment of the limitations to maximal exercise in this population is lacking.

METHODS: Following, health histories and physical examination, lung function, and anthropometric measures, 8 Centenarians (98-102yrs) and 8 young controls (18-22yrs) performed a series of graded maximal exercise tests on a cycle ergometer that facilitated both absolute and relative work rate comparisons.

RESULTS: Despite no smoking history, the Centenarians revealed a dramatically attenuated lung function, as measured by spirometry, (FEV1/FVC: 55±10 %) compared to the young (FEV1/FVC: 77±5 %). During exercise, although the Centenarians relied heavily on respiratory rate which yielded an ∼35% increase in dead space/tidal volume, minute ventilation was similar to that of the young at all but maximal exercise and alveolar PO2 was maintained in both groups. In contrast, the arterial PO2 of the Centenarians fell steadily from the normal range of both groups to yield a large A-a gradient (57±6 mmHg). Remarkably, the metabolic cost of a given absolute work rate was consistently lower, being ∼46% less than the young at maximal effort.

CONCLUSIONS: Centenarians have significant limitations to gas exchange across the lungs during exercise, but this limited oxygen transport is tempered by improved skeletal muscle mechanical efficiency that may play a vital role in maintaining physical function and therefore longevity in this population.

959 Board #3 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Leg Strength Is Associated With Ventilatory Inefficiency In Older Women

Joaquin U. Gonzales1, Steven H. Tucker2, Martha J. Kalasky2, David N. Proctor, FACSM2. 1Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. 2Penn State University, University Park, PA.

(No relationships reported)

The “muscle hypothesis” suggests that skeletal muscle dysfunction results in abnormal muscle afferent activation leading to excessive ventilatory drive.

PURPOSE: To determine if leg function is associated with ventilatory efficiency during exercise in healthy older adults since loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength is a characteristic of normal aging.

METHODS: Twenty-four women and 18 men aged 60-80 years performed graded treadmill exercise to maximal exertion for calculation of ventilatory efficiency using the ratio of ventilation to carbon dioxide at the anaerobic threshold (VE/VCO2@AT). On a separate day, participants performed leg strength testing and single-leg knee extension exercise.

RESULTS: The VE/VCO2@AT was higher in women than men (33 ± 3 vs. 30 ± 3; p=0.03). After adjustment for age and cardiorespiratory fitness, leg strength (absolute knee extensor isometric force) was inversely associated with VE/VCO2@AT in women (r=-0.44, p=0.03) while no relationships were found for men. Strength-matched women and men had similar VE/VCO2@AT (p>0.05) indicating that the correlation between leg strength and VE/VCO2@AT was strength- but not sex-specific. During knee extensor exercise, women with lower leg strength had increased VE/VCO2 slope across 0-15W as compared to higher strength women (38 ± 8 vs. 31 ± 3; p<0.05), while no differences were found between men with lower and higher leg strength.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that variation in leg strength can influence ventilatory responses to exercise in healthy older women, a finding that might be related to lower leg strength in women as compared to men.

Study was funded in part by grant R01 AG018246 (Proctor) from the National Institutes of Health and grant M01 RR10732 (GCRC) from the Division of Research Resources.

960 Board #4 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

No Evidence of Exercise-induced Pulmonary Edema in Healthy Older Adults

Bryan J. Taylor, Alex R. Carlson, Andrew D. Miller, Thomas P. Olson, Bruce D. Johnson. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN.

(No relationships reported)

Fluid flux across the lung vasculature is determined by a balance between vascular and oncotic pressures relative to the intersitial space. Increased pulmonary vascular pressures during exercise secondary to pulmonary vascular remodeling and LV stiffening with aging may make older adults more susceptible to exercise-induced increases in interstitial fluid. Whether exercise contributes to pulmonary edema in older adults, however, remains unknown.

PURPOSE: To determine if older adults are more susceptible to the development of exercise-induced interstitial pulmonary edema than younger adults.

METHODS: 13 young (YNG; 27±2 yr, VO2max=3.84±0.70 L/min) and 14 old (OLD; 67±6 yr, VO2max=2.69±0.68 L/min) healthy males cycled at 25, 50, 75 (each 6 min) and 90% (to exhaustion) of peak power output (Wpeak) with 4 min rest between exercise bouts. Lung diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DLCO), alveolar-capillary conductance (Dm), pulmonary capillary blood volume (Vc) and cardiac output (Q) were measured pre- and 15 min post-exercise by rebreathing CO, NO and C2H2 gas.

RESULTS: Resting DLCO, Dm and Vc were greater in YNG vs. OLD subjects (P<0.05). Time to exhaustion at 90% of Wpeak was 8.87±1.85 and 8.31±1.91 min for the YNG and OLD subjects, respectively. In the YNG group, exercise caused an increase in Dm (5±4%, P=0.03) that was offset by a reduction in Vc (-7±8%, P=0.01). Accordingly, DLCO was not different pre- vs. post-exercise (30.4±3.7 vs. 29.7±2.9 ml/min/mmHg, P=0.44). Conversely, DLCO increased from pre- to post-exercise in the OLD group (18.4±3.7 vs. 21.2±4.1 ml/min/mmHg, P<0.01); this was due to an increase in Dm (4±3%, P<0.01) as there was no change in Vc (51±18 vs. 51±23 ml, P=0.52). Dm/Vc was greater after vs. before exercise in the YNG (0.75±0.20 vs. 0.61±0.13) and OLD subjects (0.77±0.25 vs. 0.66±0.22) (P≤0.02), suggesting that exercise promoted a loss of interstitial fluid in both groups.

CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of exercise-induced pulmonary edema in either young or old healthy humans. In fact, our data imply that exercise decreased interstitial fluid in both experimental groups. We speculate that that the rise in catecholamines with exercise along with large fluctuations in intrathoracic pressure enhances fluid clearance mechanisms at a rate that meets or exceeds fluid production.

961 Board #5 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Oxygen Uptake of Respiratory Muscles in Individuals with Spinal Cord Injury

Andrée-Anne A. Parent, Alain-Steve Comtois. Université du Québec à Montréal, Montréal, QC, Canada. (Sponsor: Jean P. Boucher, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) are at increased risk of pulmonary complications. Moreover, the respiratory muscle (RM) function is dependent on the level of injury. Although, spirometry is routinely conducted with spinal cord injured persons, the RM oxygen uptake (VO2RM) in relation to the level of spinal cord injury is unknown. Thus, the goal of this study was to develop a RM incremental threshold loading test that can allow routine assessment of RM function.

METHODS: Fifteen volunteers (10 healthy participants (CTL) and 5 SCI participants, C4-C7) were asked to perform a breathing incremental test using a modified Hans-Rudolph valve. Before beginning, the maximal expiratory and inspiratory pressures (MEP and MIP, respectively) were measured and then the participants were instructed to breathe through the modified valve. During the incremental test, the inspiratory mouth pressure (Pmo) was measured and increased every 2 min by applying a 50g (∼8 cmH2O) load on the inspiratory port of the valve till exhaustion. VO2RM was measured with a portable oxygen gas analyzer (K4b2 Cosmed, It). Breathing frequency was set at 12 breaths per minute. The study received institutional ethics approval.

RESULTS: The peak %MIP (%Pmo/MIP) and VO2RM (mean±SD) reached at 200g was 28±13 and 21±10% (p=0.34, P=0.151) and 342±48 and 404±66 ml*min-1 (p=0.06, P=0.474) for SCI and CTL, respectively. In both groups VO2RM increased linearly as a function of %MIP (SCI, r=0.98, p=0.001 and CTL, r=0.98, p=0.001) and appeared lesser in SCI participants when compared to CTL (y intercept, 269±6.9 and 312±8.6 ml*min-1, and slope, 2.5±0.4 and 4.3±0.6 ml*min-1*%MIP-1, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS: It seems that incremental threshold loading with two min stages till exhaustion permits the determination of progressive VO2RM and may be useful in respiratory rehabilitation assessment. Furthermore, the lower VO2RM with SCI participants indicates less RM mass use than healthy participants to achieve similar minute ventilation.

962Board #6 MAY 30 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Comparison Of Respiratory System Responses To Exercise In Asthmatic Vs. Non-asthmatic Humans

Hans C. Haverkamp, Dustin Berry, Andrew Klansky, Susan Nader. Johnson State College, Johnson, VT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Most studies investigating ventilation during exercise in asthmatic subjects have failed to include control groups of non-asthmatics, limiting the interpretation of exercise responses in the asthmatic. The purpose of this study was to compare the ventilatory and lung mechanical responses to exercise in asthmatic vs. non-asthmatic adults.

METHODOLOGY: Ten asthmatic and eight non-asthmatic subjects completed cycle exercise-to-exhaustion on four separate occasions: 1) following a eucapnic hyperpnea challenge (EVH), 2) a sham to the EVH (SHAM), 3) following administration of β-agonist (BD), and 4) a control trial (CON). Pulmonary function was assessed at baseline and following each intervention. Exercise measurements included ventilation, inspiratory capacities, and calculated pulmonary resistance via the esophageal balloon technique.

RESULTS: In the control group, post-intervention FEV1.0 was similar during the four studies (mean, 4.3 ± .9 L). In the asthmatics, post-intervention FEV1.0 increased during BD and decreased during EVH (CON, 3.6 ± 1 L; BD, 4.4 ± 1.3 L; SHAM, 3.7 ± 1 L; EVH, 3.0 ± .6 L, p < 0.05). Additionally, post-intervention FEV1.0 was lower in the asthmatic compared with the control group during the EVH trial (3.0 ± .6 vs. 4.3 ± .8 L, p =0.002; 78 ± 16 vs. 101 ± 10 percent predicted FEV1.0). Both within each group and between groups, no differences were observed in minute ventilation, ventilatory equivalent for CO2 production, tidal volume, or breathing frequency during the four trials. Pulmonary resistance during exercise was also comparable in asthmatic and control subjects (1.9 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.6 cmH2O·L-1·sec-1, respectively). Similarly, neither inspiratory capacity nor tidal volume:inspiratory capacity (VT/IC) differed between control and asthmatic subjects during the four studies.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite variable airway function prior to exercise in asthmatics, exercise ventilation, operating lung volumes, and airway resistance during exercise were similar in asthmatic and non-asthmatic subjects during the four studies. These findings demonstrate a remarkable capacity for normalization of airway function during exercise in asthmatic subjects. FUNDING: Vermont Genetics Network, P20 RR16462 from the INBRE Program of the National Center for Research Resources, NIH.

B-61 Thematic Poster - Blood Flow Restriction

MAY 30, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3020

963 Chair: M. Harold Laughlin, FACSM. Univ. of Missouri Health Activity Ctr., Columbia, MO.

(No relationships reported)

964 Board #1 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects of Cuff Width on Arterial Occlusion: Implications for Blood Flow Restricted Exercise.

Jeremy P. Loenneke, Christopher A. Fahs, Lindy M. Rossow, Vanessa D. Sherk, Robert S. Thiebaud, Takashi Abe, Debra A. Bemben, FACSM, Michael G. Bemben, FACSM. The University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the cuff pressure at which arterial occlusion occurs with two different types of cuffs commonly used in blood flow restriction (BFR) research. Another purpose was to determine what factors (i.e. leg size, blood pressure, limb composition) should be accounted for when prescribing the restriction cuff pressure for this technique.

METHODS: One hundred and sixteen (53 male, 63 female) subjects visited the laboratory for one session of testing. Mid-thigh muscle (mCSA) and fat (fCSA) cross sectional area of the right thigh were assessed using peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography. Following the mid-thigh scan, measurements of leg circumference, ankle brachial index, and brachial blood pressure were obtained. Finally, in a randomized order, arterial occlusion pressure was determined using both narrow (5 cm) and wide (13.5 cm) restriction cuffs applied to the most proximal portion of each leg. Arterial occlusion was detected using a hand-held bidirectional Doppler probe placed on the posterior tibial artery. Two different models of hierarchal linear regression were used (Wide vs. Narrow cuffs). For each individual cuff, two separate models examined whether leg size or composition (mCSA and fCSA) would serve as a better predictor of arterial occlusion pressure. A paired sample t-test was used to determine differences in arterial occlusion pressure between the narrow and wide cuffs. The effect size for the paired sample t-test was determined with Cohen’s D. All variability is represented using standard deviation (SD). Statistical significance was set at p ≤ 0.05.

RESULTS: Significant differences were observed between cuff type and arterial occlusion pressure (Narrow 235 (42) mmHg vs. Wide 144 (17) mmHg; p=0.001, Cohen’s D= 2.52). Thigh circumference or mCSA/fCSA with ankle blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure explained the most variance in the cuff pressure required to occlude arterial flow

CONCLUSIONS: Wide BFR cuffs occlude leg arterial blood flow at a lower pressure than narrow BFR cuffs which suggests that future studies should account for the width of the cuff used. In addition, our findings indicate that restrictive cuff pressures should be largely based on thigh circumference and not on brachial systolic pressure as is often done in the literature.

965 Board #2 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Elastic Band Resistance Training Combined with Blood Flow Restriction in Postmenopausal Women

Robert S. Thiebaud, Jeremy P. Loenneke, Christopher A. Fahs, Lindy M. Rossow, Eon Kim, Xin Ye, Daeyol Kim, Takashi Abe, Mark A. Anderson, Michael G. Bemben, FACSM. University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Resistance training minimizes declines in age-related loss of muscle mass and function, but traditional high resistance training may not be practical for some of the elderly. Elastic bands (EB) offer a safe and affordable alternative. When combined with muscular blood flow restriction (BFR), low-intensity EB resistance training could be an effective way to improve muscle strength and size.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of low-intensity EB resistance training combined with BFR on muscle strength and thickness in postmenopausal women.

METHODS: Postmenopausal women (61 ± 5 years) were assigned to a moderate-intensity EB group (MI, 50-60% 1RM, n=8) or a low-intensity EB group (LI, 20-30% 1RM, n=6) combined with BFR. Each group performed seated chest press, seated row, and seated shoulder press EB exercises 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The MI group did 3 sets of 10 repetitions while the LI group performed 1 set of 30 repetitions and 2 sets of 15 repetitions for each exercise. EB colors progressed in each group by having participants maintain a rating of 7-9 on the OMNI scale (0-10) throughout training. In the LI group, BFR pressure progressed during the first 4 weeks of training (60 to 120 mmHg) after which EB colors were progressed. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA determined differences between groups and time. Percent changes in muscular strength (1 repetition maximum; 1-RM) and ultrasound-measured muscle thickness from pre to post were determined using independent t-tests. Significance was set at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: Both groups increased in strength (p=0.006) and muscle thickness (p=0.259) after training. However, no significant differences were observed in percent changes of 1-RM between groups for supine chest press (MI 21% vs. LI 9%, p=0.178), shoulder press (MI 5% vs. LI 5%, p=0.875), and seated row (MI 8% vs. LI 4%, p=0.405). Also, no significant differences in percent changes in muscle thickness were observed between groups for biceps brachii (MI 2% vs. LI 3%; p=0.942), triceps (MI 7% vs. LI 8%; p=0.948), deltoid (MI 3% vs. LI 5%; p=0.716), and upper chest (MI 12% vs. LI 18%; p=0.633).

CONCLUSIONS: Low-intensity EB training combined with BFR may result in similar increases in muscle strength and size that occur during moderate-intensity EB training, although intensity and volume of training were different between groups.

966 Board #3 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects Of High-load Versus Low-load Blood Flow Restricted Resistance Training On Strength And Hypertrophy

Summer B. Cook, Katherine E. LaBarbera, Bethany G. Murphy. University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH.

(No relationships reported)

Engaging in high-load (HL) resistance training is regarded as the most effective way to improve muscle strength and mass. Low-load resistance training coupled with a blood flow restriction (LLBFR) may be an effective alternative to HL training.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 6 weeks of HL or LLBFR resistance training on muscle size and strength in the knee extensors.

METHODS: Nine male and 9 female subjects (18-22 years old) were randomized to one of three groups: HL (70% of 1 repetition maximum (1-RM)); LLBFR (20% 1-RM with a vascular restriction set to ∼180 mmHg); and a control group (CON) that did not exercise. Subjects performed 3 sets of bilateral LE and leg press exercises (HL=10 repetitions in sets 1 and 2 and to failure on set 3; LLBFR=25 repetitions in sets 1 and 2 and to failure on set 3; rest period between sets was 30 seconds) 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Exercise volume (load x repetitions), unilateral isometric torque, bilateral leg extension (LE) 1-RM, and cross-sectional area via magnetic resonance imaging were assessed in the knee extensors before and after training. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA were performed. Significant differences were followed with Tukey post hoc tests or paired t-tests with Bonferroni adjustments. The data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation.

RESULTS: The LE exercise volume was similar between HL (4486 ± 1776) and LLBFR (6319 ± 2391) at the first training session (P=0.13) and increased 69% in the LLBFR group and 20% in the HL group at the final session (P=0.02). Isometric peak torque was similar in the three groups prior to training (HL: 203 ± 64, LLBFR: 273 ± 58, CON: 227 ± 53 Nm; P = 0.15) and did not change following the training (HL: 239 ± 92, LLBFR: 267 ± 55, CON: 232 ± 60 Nm; P = 0.13). A significant interaction in the LE 1-RM indicated statistically similar improvements in the HL and LLBFR groups with no changes in the CON group (34 ± 20%, 14 ± 5 %, 0.6 ± 8%, respectively, P=0.02). CSA was similar at pre-training among the groups (P = 0.51) and increased significantly (P = 0.001) in the HL and LLBFR groups only (HL: 62.3 ± 10.7 vs 65.6 ± 12.8 cm2; LLBFR: 71.5 ± 14.5 vs 73.2 cm2; CON: 68.7 ± 15.6 vs 69.4 ± cm2).

CONCLUSIONS: LLBFR resistance training appears to be almost as effective as HL training at increasing 1-RM strength and CSA of the knee extensors but a higher volume of LLBFR resistance exercise is required.

967 Board #4 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Neuromuscular Responses during Knee Extension Exercise in Combination with Different Blood Flow Restriction Initial Pressures

Jose A. Leal Jr.1, Sonio D. Garcia1, Yoshiaki Sato2, Michael G. Bemben, FACSM3, Murat Karabulut1. 1University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX. 2University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 3University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Specifications of blood flow restriction training technique have been widely discussed to create a valid and reliable protocol. One of the unexplored variables is the effect of different initial restrictive pressures (tightness of cuffs, IRP) in combination with resistance exercise on neuromuscular responses and strength.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine any differences in amplitude (RMS) and median frequency (MDF) of electromyography (EMG) signals, as well as changes in strength during knee extension exercises with IRPs of 40-45 mmHg and 60-65 mmHg.

METHODS: Twenty male subjects (age = 25.7 ± 4.3 yrs), participated in this study. They were required to attend the lab on 3 different occasions, with the first one being a familiarization session. On the subsequent sessions, participant’s upper leg was measured starting from the lateral epicondyle to the greater trochanter of the femur. An EMG electrode was placed at one-third the distance over the longitudinal axis of the vastus lateralis (VL) after shaving, abrading and cleaning with isopropyl alcohol. Initial restrictive pressure was randomly selected and participants completed a pre-exercise maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) test to determine their torque. For dynamic exercises, load was set at 20% MVC and each participant performed one set of 30 repetitions and three sets of 15 repetitions, separated by one minute rest. Post-exercise MVC was performed to assess the changes in leg strength following exercises.

RESULTS: Results showed significant main effects (p<0.01) in leg strength for condition (40-45 mmHg vs. 60-65 mmHg) and trial (pre vs. post MVC). A significant main effect was observed for condition for MVC EMG amplitude (p<0.01). In addition, there were significant main effects for contractions (p<0.01) in both EMG amplitude and MDF during dynamic exercises.

CONCLUSIONS: The significant decreases in knee extension strength at IRP of 60-65 mmHg compared to IRP of 40-45mmHg from pre- to post-exercise suggest that subjects experienced more fatigue at 60-65 mmHg because of the decreased availability of oxygen to the working muscle. The use of different IRP will affect the level of blood flow and oxygen supply to skeletal muscle possibly causing variation in neuromuscular adaptation due to changes in total and type of muscle fiber recruitment.

968 Board #5 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Tissue Oxygenation and Blood Lactate Concentration during Knee Extension Exercises Combined with Blood Flow Restriction

Murat Karabulut1, Jose A. Leal Jr.1, Charity Cavazos1, Sonio D. Garcia1, Yoshiaki Sato2, Michael G. Bemben, FACSM3. 1University of Texas at Brownsville, Brownsville, TX. 2University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 3University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Little is known about the blood flow restriction (BFR) training protocol and the discrepancies in the literature regarding the effectiveness of BFR training might be due to the use of different equipment and methods; therefore it is necessary to examine the factors such as initial restrictive pressure (IRP; the tightness of cuffs before inflation with air) that might affect the efficiency of this novel training method.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate if different IRPs affect tissue oxygenation and lactate production, even when the final exercising restrictive pressures remain unchanged.

METHODS: Twenty healthy males (age = 25.7 ± 4.3 yr) were screened and familiarized with the protocols before returning to the lab on two separate days to perform the study procedure. After standard skin preparation, the sensor of tissue spectrometer system was placed on the right quadriceps to observe the amount of tissue oxygenation during each bout of applied pressure. The BFR cuffs were placed on the upper most portion of the thigh, and initial pressures of 40-45 mmHg or 60-65 mmHg were applied in random order during the two separate visits (at least 48 hours separating each test session). Following assessment of the right knee extension strength on the Biodex, subjects then performed isotonic lifts at 20% MVC for 4 sets (30, 15, 15, 15 reps) with 1 minute rest between sets. A drop of blood from a finger prick was obtained to analyze blood lactate levels at baseline, during 60 sec rest period between second and third sets, post, 5 min-post, 10 min-post, and 20 min-post exercise.

RESULTS: There was a significant interaction (p<0.01) and main effects (p<0.01) for condition (40-45 mmHg vs. 60-65 mmHg) and time for tissue oxygenation values. For lactate concentration, the only significant changes detected were for time (p<0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in IRP affected the level of tissue oxygenation indicating that variations in IRP may also cause differences in the amount of byproduct accumulation and afferent signals from metaboreceptors resulting in changes in hormone release, such as growth hormone, possibly leading to inconsistencies in physiological adaptation. Therefore, proper equipments and IRP should be used to increase the efficacy of this training technique and obtain desired training-related outcomes.

969 Board #6 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Acute Effects Of Resistance Exercise With Blood Flow Restriction On HSP70 Response In Humans

Kristoffer T. Cumming. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. (Sponsor: Carl Foster, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Exercise with high mechanical stress has been shown to induce myofibrillar disruptions. In consequence of this; heat shock proteins (HSPs) translocate to the damaged myofibrils as part of the recovery and stabilization process in the disrupted areas. In contrast, low load -blood flow restricted (BFR) resistance exercise induces little mechanical stress, but considerable metabolic stress in myofibers. Little is currently known concerning the acute HSP response to blood flow restricted exercise.

PURPOSE: To study the acute HSP70 response to low load BFR resistance exercise.

METHODS: Eight young healthy subjects performed unilateral knee-extensions at 30% of 1RM. One leg was exercised with partial blood flow restriction induced by a pressure cuff (90-100 mm Hg), while the other leg was exercised with normal blood flow. The exercise consisted of 5 sets to failure in the BFR leg and the corresponding number of repetitions in the free-flow leg (45 sec rest between sets). Muscle biopsies were sampled at pre, 1h, 24h and 48h post exercise. Muscle biopsies were fractionated into cytosol- and cytoskeletal fractions. Homogenates were analyzed for HSP70 by western blotting.

RESULTS: Relative to pre-values, the cytosolic HSP70 levels were higher in the BFR leg than the free-flow leg at 24h (149±88 % vs. 95±34 %, p=0.04). In the cytoskeletal fraction a significant increase was found at 24h for the BFR leg (296±217 %, p=0.04). Furthermore, this increase showed a tendency to be different compared to the free-flow leg (296±217 % vs. 146±68 %, p=0.07).

CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that low load BFR resistance exercise induces an increase in the HSP70 levels, especially in the cytoskeletal fraction 24h after exercise. Although the exercise was performed with low loads, the myofibrillar structures seemed to be highly stressed, as indicated by the increased HSP70 level in the cytoskeletal fraction.

B-62 Thematic Poster - Chronic Ankle Instability

MAY 30, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3022

970 Chair: Ray Browning, FACSM. Colorado State University, Fort Collins, FL.

(No relationships reported)

971 Board #1 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Chronic Ankle Instability Alters the Kinematic Control Strategy of Ankle Joint Motions

Kristof Kipp1, Riann M. Palmieri-Smith2. 1Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI. 2University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI. (Sponsor: Sandra Hunter, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Chronic ankle instability (CAI) is thought to alter the kinematic control strategy of ankle joint motions. Kinematic control relies on coordinating the degrees of freedom of a system. Insight into the control of degrees of freedom can be gained by extracting and examining the variance proportions of eigenvalue-eigenvector pairs of kinematic time-series data. In particular, the greater the variance proportion explained by the first extracted eigenvalue-eigenvector pair, the simpler the control strategy.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of CAI on the kinematic control strategy of ankle joint motions.

METHODS: Kinematic data were collected from 11 people with CAI and 11 healthy matched controls (CON)as they performed a single-leg land-and-cut maneuver. Five trials were collected for each person. Three-dimensional ankle joint angles were calculated from 100ms before, to 200ms after landing. Fifteen time-series(3 joint rotations × 5 trials) were pooled into a single matrix for each person. Eigenvalue-Eigenvector pairs were extracted from the co-variance matrix of these matrices. The eigenvalues of the first eigenvalue-eigenvector pair were used to calculate the variance proportion (%) that the first eigenvector explained in the kinematic data. These variance proportions were then compared between the CAI and CON group. Data are presented as mean±SD.

RESULTS: The variance proportion explained by the first eigenvalue-eigenvector pair was smaller in the CAI (78.1±11.0 vs. 89.7±6.8; p = 0.010) than the CON group.

CONCLUSION: The difference in the variance proportion explained by the first eigenvalue-eigenvector pair points to an altered kinematic control strategy in the CAI group when compared to CON group. A smaller value of explained variance proportion in the first eigenvalue-eigenvector pair is considered to be associated with a more complex kinematic control strategy. People in the CAI group therefore used a more complex strategy to control the kinematic degrees of freedom at the ankle joint during a single-leg land-and-cut maneuver. The more complex control strategy may be associated with recurring episodes of ankle instability in the CAI group. Targeted rehabilitation protocols may therefore be needed to restore proper kinematic control in people with CAI. Supported by NIH Grant T-32 HD007422-15.

972 Board #2 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Kinesthetic Awareness Is Related To Ankle Inversion Stiffness

Alan R. Needle, Thomas W. Kaminski, FACSM, C Buz Swanik. University of Delaware, Newark, DE.

(No relationships reported)

The prevention of “rollover” events at the ankle is dependent on complex neuromechanical integration for joint stiffness regulation. However, the relationship between perceiving a potentially injurious inversion perturbation and ankle joint stiffening responses are not well understood.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relationship between kinesthetic awareness (KA) and joint stiffness under multiple reaction conditions during ankle inversion.

METHODS: Eighty-one subjects (22.4±3.3yrs; 172.3±10.0cm; 72.9±17.3kg) were tested for KA and stiffness on a custom-built device. KA testing consisted of slowly inverting the ankle at a rate of 0.5/sec. Under randomized conditions, subjects indicated when they could perceive any motion (detection) and when they could initially sense the direction of movement (recognition). Higher scores indicate less KA. Ankle stiffness was assessed during rapid inversion (20) perturbations under 3 conditions: passive (PS), actively contracted (30% effort) (AS), and pre-contracted with subjects’ reactively stiffening (RS) the joint. The relationship between KA and stiffness variables for each condition was investigated with correlation coefficients.

RESULTS: KA values were 1.31±.99 for detection and 1.71±1.1 for recognition of motion direction. Overall stiffness values were .10±.04 in-lb/°/kg (short-range) and .03±.01 in-lb/°/kg (total). Short-range stiffness was negatively correlated with detection for PS and RS conditions (r = -0.23 to -0.40, p<.05) and with recognition for PS, AS, and RS conditions (r = -0.24 to -0.38, p<.05). Total stiffness was negatively correlated with detection for PS and RS (r from -0.23 to -0.37, p<.05). The number of errors in recognition was positively correlated with short-range stiffness in PS, and total stiffness in RS.

CONCLUSION: These findings reaffirm a synergism whereby nervous system functions appear to optimize joint stiffness regulation based on the mechanical properties of musculoskeletal tissue. Our data also suggests that increased short range stiffness may be beneficial to heightening KA. Lastly, the detection of impending roll-over events should be assessed using separate KA tests based on divergent neurological pathways for the initial detection of movement and recognition of motion direction.

Funded by EATA

973 Board #3 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Influence of Lower Extremity Kinematics on Dynamic Stability in Patients with Chronic Ankle Instability

Phillip A. Gribble, Michelle M. McLeod, Brian G. Pietrosimone. University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Previous studies suggest that chronic ankle instability (CAI) is associated with feed-forward central nervous system alterations that may affect motor control at joints throughout the lower extremity. Identifying the kinematic manifestations of these neuromuscular alterations may improve therapeutic intervention selection.

PURPOSE: To compare how feed-forward movement patterns (prior to landing) affect dynamic stability after landing in those with and without CAI.

METHODS: Twenty-seven participants with self-reported CAI (12M, 15F; 21.0±1.9 years; 172.0±10.9cm; 68.9±11.3kg) and eighteen healthy control participants (4M, 14F; 21.5±2.4 years; 169.4±9.1cm; 68.6±11.9kg) volunteered. Time to stabilization (TTS) was used to assess dynamic stability. Participants performed a single-limb jump-landing task from a height of 50% of their maximum jump height onto a force plate, and obtained and maintained a stable position for 5 seconds. Ground reaction forces were used to calculate TTS values, with smaller values indicating better dynamic stability. Anterior/posterior and medial/lateral TTS values were combined into a single measure, resultant vector TTS (RVTTS; seconds). Sagittal plane kinematics of the ankle (plantar flexion), knee (flexion) and hip (flexion), measured with an electromagnetic tracking system, were collected 1 second prior to ground impact. Separate stepwise regression analyses were used to determine the variance in RVTSS explained by the three kinematic variables in the CAI and control groups. Significance was set a priori at p < 0.05.

RESULTS: In the CAI group, the variance in hip flexion explained 21% of the variance in RVTTS (R2 =0.206; p=0.03). In the control group, the variance in ankle plantar flexion and knee flexion together explained 34% of the variance in RVTTS (R2 =0.34; p=0.12).

CONCLUSION: During a single-limb landing, CAI and Control subjects exhibited different predictors of dynamic stability, with the CAI subjects demonstrating a pattern that emphasized more hip flexion. This supports the existing evidence that CAI subjects have altered proximal joint neuromuscular control. Focus on proximal joint alterations may be important in the development of effective interventions for CAI.

974 Board #4 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Examining Biomechanical Factors Related to Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in Individuals with Chronic Ankle Instability

Masafumi Terada, Brian G. Pietrosimone, Charles W. Armstrong, Phillip A. Gribble. University of Toledo, Toledo, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Previous literature has reported that chronic ankle instability (CAI) may be associated with biomechanical alterations in the lower extremity. However, it is not known if the observed alterations in the proximal and distal limbs associated with CAI could share factors that increase the risk of future injuries to proximal joints. Interestingly, a potential link between the risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and ankle sprain history has been proposed.

PURPOSE: To examine biomechanical characteristics in individuals with CAI that have been associated with increased risk of ACL injury.

METHODS: Twenty participants with self-reported CAI (10M, 10F; 20±2 years; 176±9cm; 74±17kg) and 20 healthy control participants (10M, 10F; 21±4 years; 170±8cm; 70±15kg) performed five vertical stop-jump tasks onto a force plate. Peak proximal tibia anterior shear force (TASF) and time to peak TASF were calculated during the landing phase of the stop-jump. Lower extremity kinematics and posterior ground reaction force (pGRF) were examined at the point of peak TASF. The control participants were matched by sex, age, height and mass with a CAI participant, and designated a matched limb for the data analysis. Independent t-tests were used to assess differences in each dependent variable between groups, while bivariate Pearson correlation coefficients assessed the relationship between peak TASF and biomechanical variables among both groups.

RESULTS: The CAI group demonstrated significantly less knee flexion angle at peak TASF compared to the control group (CAI=25.56±7.93, control=30.51±9.71, t38=-2.122, p=0.04, Cohen’s d=0.67, 95% confidence interval; -1.29, -0.02). No group differences were found for peak TASF, time to peak TASF, pGRF, or other kinematic variables. Peak TASF was significantly and moderately correlated with pGRF in the CAI (R2=0.442, p=0.001) as well as with knee flexion angle in the CAI (R2=0.312, p=0.01) and control groups (R2=0.307, p=0.01).

CONCLUSION: Decreased knee flexion angle during landing associated with CAI indicates that the CAI group may exhibit one of the conditions necessary for increasing peak TASF. Altered knee kinematic patterns observed in the CAI group may provide insight regarding future proximal joint injury mechanisms. Supported by a 2009 NATAREF Osternig Masters Grant.

975 Board #5 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Altered Hip And Knee Kinematics During Walking In Subjects With Chronic Ankle Instability

Matthew C. Hoch1, David R. Mullineaux2, Jeon Kyoungyu3, Patrick O. McKeon4. 1Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA. 2University of Lincoln, Lincoln, United Kingdom. 3University of Incheon, Incheon, Korea, Republic of. 4University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. (Sponsor: Robert Spina, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Individuals with chronic ankle instability (CAI) have demonstrated kinematic alterations during gait associated with the shank, ankle and rearfoot. Alterations in hip and knee kinematics have not been extensively examined throughout the entire gait cycle (GC) and their changes with CAI are unknown.

PURPOSE: To compare hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics throughout the GC in subjects with and without CAI.

METHODS: Twelve adults with CAI (7 males, 5 females) and 12 adults with no history of ankle sprain (7 males, 5 females) participated. The CAI group reported 9.2 ± 5.5 previous ankle sprains, 5.7 ± 5.4 episodes of instability in the past 3 months, and Foot and Ankle Ability Measure Sport scores of 66.5 ± 16.5%. Subjects walked on a treadmill instrumented with force plates at speeds that were gradually increased to 1.5 m/s. Three-dimensional hip and knee kinematics were captured for 30s using a 15 camera motion analysis system. The GCs were time normalized to 101 points from initial contact (0%) to the subsequent initial contact of the same limb (100%) identified from the force plate data. Hip and knee flexion-extension angles were calculated and averaged for 5 nonconsecutive GCs for each subject, and then at each percent of the GC presented as group means ± standard error (SE) intervals. Periods of non-overlapping SE intervals were averaged for each subject and group means compared using independent t-tests (α ≤ 0.05).

RESULTS: Non-overlapping SE intervals were identified in hip kinematics from 0-43% (CAI: 5.5 ± 3.9°, Healthy: 7.7 ± 3.4°, p = 0.16) and 70-100% (CAI: 13.4 ± 3.6°, Healthy: 16.6 ± 3.1°, p = 0.01) of the GC. Non-overlapping SE intervals were identified in knee kinematics from 7-38% (CAI: 13.4 ± 3.4°, Healthy: 15.6 ± 4.4°, p = 0.18) and 68-100% (CAI: 36.4 ± 3.5°, Healthy: 41.6 ± 5.5°, p = 0.01) of the GC.

CONCLUSION: Individuals with CAI exhibited proximal deviations in mid- to terminal-swing phases. The decreased hip and knee sagittal plane kinematics prior to initial contact in CAI may contribute to functional deficiencies in lower extremity positioning. This may include impaired attenuation of forces and maintenance of a stable base of support when transitioning from swing to stance phases. The role of proximal alterations during walking gait in the etiology and pathomechanics of CAI requires further investigation.

976 Board #6 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Comparison of the Effectiveness of Two Four-Week Balance Training Programs for Chronic Ankle Instability

Michelle A. Sandrey, Benjamin M. Anguish. West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV.

(No relationships reported)

Throughout current research there has been evidence that balance training programs have been reported as being beneficial for those with chronic ankle stability (CAI). However, it is not known whether a dynamic balance or traditional training program may be more beneficial in regard to function, postural control and joint position sense (JPS).

PURPOSE: To investigate the affects of a dynamic balance training program compared to a traditional balance rehabilitation program on self reported function, dynamic postural control, and JPS with subjects who experience CAI.

METHODS: Twenty-six subjects (19.65±2.91yrs, ht=175.56±7.27cm) with CAI as determined by a self-report instability questionnaire volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to the Dynamic Balance-Training program (DBTP), Traditional Rehabilitation program (TRP) or control group. The DBTP and TRP groups used two different 4wk programs 3× a week. The DBTP group performed a battery of dynamic hop to stabilization exercises while the TRP group performed a series of single leg balance exercises. Exercises were advanced throughout the 4-weeks for both groups based on error free performance. Pre- and post-test measurements included the Foot and Ankle Ability Measures-ADL (FAAM-ADL), FAAM Sport, Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT) directions of anterior (A), posteromedial (PM), and posterolateral (PL), and JPS as determined by the weight bearing sloped surface block method for dorsiflexion (DF), plantar flexion (PF), inversion (INV), and eversion (EV).

RESULTS: There was a significant time by group interaction for FAAM (P<.001), FAAM Sport (P=.006) and SEBT directions for A (P<.001), PM (P<.001), and PL (P<.001) as post-test improved for the DPTP and TRP groups in relation to the control group (P<.001). Post-test scores for time improved with FAAM-ADL (P=.002), FAAM Sport (P<.001), SEBT (A, PM and PL; P<.001), and JPS (DF, P=.002; PF, P=.002; INV, P=.003). FAAM Sport (P<.001) was the only significant group result as DBTP improved in relation to the control group (P<.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Either a four-week DBTP or TRP can be used for athletes with CAI as both programs resulted in similar gains compared to the control.

B-63 Thematic Poster - Correlates of Physical Activity

MAY 30, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2000

977 Chair: Jennifer Sacheck. Tufts University, Boston, MA.

(No relationships reported)

978 Board #1 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Salient Beliefs Held by Obese Youth Regarding Physical Activity

Elizabeth A. Mooradian, Michelle K. Miller, Priscilla A. Weaver, Jeanne D. Johnston. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN. (Sponsor: Georgia Frey, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Many children, especially obese children, fail to meet the Center for Disease Control’s recommendation of engaging in 60 minutes of daily physical activity. In order to change behavior it is important to understand what drives behavior. The Theory of planned Behavior (TPB) predicts behavior via three weighted global constructs: attitude towards the act, perceived norm, and perceived behavioral control that lead to intention to perform the behavior.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to use the TPB to identify salient beliefs about being active in a group of obese children.

METHODS: Fifteen children aged 7 - 14 years (Mean age 11.3±2.4; 2 male, 13 female) participated in individual, face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. All children were Caucasian, obese and were part of a physician-referred weight loss intervention program. Seven open-ended questions from the TPB were asked about consequences, social referents, and facilitators of being active to which subjects provided their top-of-mind response (i.e. salient belief elicitation). These questions determine the three constructs that predict behavior. All responses were recorded verbatim and a content analysis was performed to create categories for individual responses. A frequency analysis (PASW version 19.0, Chicago, IL) identified the most salient categories for each of the seven questions.

RESULTS: The children identified fun (26.7%), being with friends (26.7%), and being outside (20%) as the most salient facilitators of being active; whereas being unmotivated to move/tired was the top barrier (26.7%) followed by other obligations/activities (13.3%) and not being able to go outside (13.3%). The most mentioned benefit of being active was losing weight (66.7%) and the possibility of injury (53.3%) was the principal disadvantage. While participants felt no one (66.7%) would disapprove of them being active, mom (86.7%) was most frequently mentioned as the approving group. Mom was also mentioned the most (60%) as the person the child could go to for advice about being active.

CONCLUSIONS: The use of salient belief elicitation helped reveal common behavioral beliefs of obese youth regarding physical activity. These findings can be used for targets of behavioral interventions and messaging to help increase physical activity behavior in this population.

979 Board #2 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Assessment Of Coping With High-risk Situations For Exercise Slip And Lapse Among Japanese Exercise Adherents

Koji Takenaka1, Megumi Saito2, Takashi Shimazaki1. 1Waseda University Faculty of Human Sciences, Tokorozawa, Japan. 2Waseda University Graduate School of Human Sciences, Tokorozawa, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

The Relapse Prevention Model (RPM) has provided a framework in successful long-term maintenance of some types of health behavior.

PURPOSE: to identify high-risk situations for inducing exercise slip and lapse, which may lead to real relapse, and to clarify the coping strategies in this regard for Japanese regular exercisers, from the viewpoint of the RPM.

METHODS: examined 677 regular exercisers were by obtaining open-ended responses about 1) their typical high-risk situations as immediate determinants interfering with their planned exercise, 2) their coping responses to those situations, and 3) subsequent patterns of exercise outcome.

RESULTS: High-risk situations included fatigue, bad weather, bad conditioning or injury, work or academic obligation, troubles in a personal life, interpersonal relationship, and getting into a groove, although the frequency orders were differed according to gender. Females were more aware that interpersonal relationship were associated with a higher incidence of exercise slip and lapse than did males (13.7% vs. 5.3%, p<.001), whereas males identified fatigue as the highest risk. Positive coping strategies as problem solving and behavior strategies as execution of routine work were most commonly employed, and were associated with positive exercise outcome for both females and males (Task/problem solve: 86 did exercise vs. 22 didn’t exercise; Positive reappraisal: did exercise 92 vs. didn’t exercise 58; Pre-exercise rituals: did exercise 152 vs. didn’t exercise 18; Social support: 24 did exercise vs. 4 didn’t exercise, p<.01 for each). On the other hand, the usage of negative coping strategies tended to lead to slip and lapse (Rationalization: 89 did exercise vs. 178 didn’t exercise; Procrastination/avoid: 33 did exercise vs. 149 didn’t exercise, p<.01 for each).

CONCLUSION: results suggest that adoption of coping strategies regarding the high-risk situations is associated with exercise outcome, although the effects differ between males and females. These data demonstrate the importance of coping strategy for exercise and suggest that slip and lapse may result from ineffective coping with high-risk situations.

Supported by Japanese Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 21300249.

980 Board #3 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Psychosocial Predictors of Objectively Measured Sedentary and Physical Activity Behavior Among Female College Freshmen

Jill M. Lucas1, Michael D. Schmidt1, Matthew P. Thorpe2, Mina C. Mojtahdei2, Dolores D. Guest3, Bhibha M. Das1, Emily L. Mailey2, Ellen M. Evans, FACSM1. 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA. 2University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL. 3University of Southern Illinois, Springfield, IL.

(No relationships reported)

The freshmen year of college is an important transitional time for many young adults, when numerous life habits are established. Self-perceived psychosocial factors may coincide with health behaviors, including participation in physical activity (PA), especially among females.

PURPOSE: To identify psychosocial predictors of objectively measured sedentary behavior (SED) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) levels and changes of these outcomes over one academic year among a group of female college freshmen.

METHODS: Participants (n=239) wore an Actigraph model 7164 accelerometer for 7 consecutive days; the 3 days with the most wear hours were used for analyses. Surveys addressed students’ perceptions of their body image and attractiveness, PA expectations, self-esteem, anxious or depressed feelings, and PA, life, and social capabilities. Psychosocial variables were converted to standardized scores and multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify psychosocial characteristics significantly associated with SED and MVPA at baseline and changes over one academic year. An alpha level of <0.10 was used to determine variable inclusion in the final models. Variables included in each final model are presented in descending order of strength.

RESULTS: PA self-regulation (PAR), body attractiveness esteem, weight-related physical appearance anxiety, body mass index (BMI), and depressed mood were associated with baseline SED (R2=0.12). Lifestyle self-efficacy (LSE), PAR, physical health status, and BMI were associated with baseline MVPA (R2 = 0.15). Changes in SED were associated with extraversion and physical expectations for exercise (R2 = 0.23). Changes in MVPA were associated with PAR, social physique anxiety, and LSE (R2 = 0.46).

CONCLUSION: Several psychosocial factors significantly predicted baseline SED and MVPA and changes of these outcomes over the course of one academic year among female college freshmen. Interestingly, different psychosocial constructs were related to SED versus MVPA, suggesting that certain psychosocial characteristics may predispose some women to inactivity during their freshman year of college. SED was found to be more strongly associated with body image constructs while MVPA was more strongly related to traits influencing one’s perceived capabilities.

981 Board #4 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Characteristics Of Individuals Perceiving Weather As A Barrier To Outdoor Physical Activity

Dana L. Wolff, Eugene C. Fitzhugh, David R. Bassett, Jr., FACSM, Christopher Cherry. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Weather-related factors (i.e., temperature, precipitation, wind) are commonly reported as barriers to physical activity (PA). However, there is limited research examining whether the characteristics of individuals who perceive weather as a barrier to outdoor PA differ from those that do not perceive this barrier.

PURPOSE: To determine if the perception of weather is related to different characteristics of adults.

METHODS: A trail intercept survey on two urban greenways in Knoxville, TN was administered to 611 adults from September to November, 2010. The survey included questions which assessed individuals outdoor PA over the past week and determined if hot or cold temperatures, precipitation, or wind were perceived as barriers to PA. Individuals indicating weather-related factors were a barrier to outdoor PA were asked to quantify the threshold at which the weather condition became a barrier. Logistic regression was conducted to determine the demographic characteristics and PA behaviors of individuals that perceive weather as a barrier to outdoor PA. T-tests and chi-squared tests assessed the thresholds at which weather was reported as a barrier to outdoor PA between genders.

RESULTS: Gender was found to be the best predictor of individual’s perceptions of hot temperature, cold temperature, and precipitation as barriers to outdoor PA. Adults indicating hot or cold temperature as a barrier to PA were 2.4 and 1.75 times more likely to be female, respectively. Women were also 54% more likely than men to report precipitation as a barrier to outdoor PA. When examining the threshold at which hot and cold temperatures and precipitation were perceived to be barriers to PA; no significant differences were found between men and women.

CONCLUSION: Results of this study indicate that women may be more sensitive to weather conditions than men when choosing to perform outdoor PA. Therefore, when designing programs to promote PA, providing women with indoor opportunities to accumulate PA and additional education relating to transitioning from indoor to outdoor PA environments should be considered.

982 Board #5 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Differential Influence of Recent Contact with Family & Friends on Physical Activity

Britta A. Larsen, David Strong, Sarah E. Linke, Bess H. Marcus. UC San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Given the importance of physical activity (PA) to health, understanding the low rates of PA in the US is critical. One contributing factor could be poor social integration, which predicts lower levels of PA. Most measures of integration, however, conflate family and peer interactions, and thus may obscure relationships between these social roles and PA.

PURPOSE: To explore how differences in family and peer integration were differentially related to adherence to US physical activity guidelines.

METHODS: Data from the 2001 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS), which asked about the frequency and mode of contact with family and friends in the past two weeks, were analyzed. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between recent contact with family and friends and whether or not participants met US physical activity guidelines (≥150 minutes per week), controlling for marital status, education, and income (N = 28,548).

RESULTS: Phone contact with family (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.29, p <.001) and friends (OR=1.16, 95% CI: 1.06-1.27, p <.001) were both associated with greater odds of meeting PA guidelines. In-person contact with friends had the largest association with PA: those who saw friends were 70% more likely to meet activity guidelines (OR=1.70, 95% CI: 1.58-1.83, p <.001), while in-person contact with family was not associated with PA (OR=1.02, 95% CI: 0.96-1.09, p = 0.46). When assessed simultaneously, in-person contact with friends remained significant, (OR=1.63, 95% CI: 1.50-1.76, p <.001), whereas in-person family contact was associated with reduced odds of meeting PA guidelines (OR=0.89, 95% CI: 0.83-0.95, p <.001). Separate analyses showed that in-person family contact was associated with lower odds of meeting PA guidelines in those who also had in-person friend contact (51.6% vs. 56.8%, χ2(1, N = 25821) = 35.6, p <.001), but not in those without in-person friend contact. Gender differences will also be discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: In-person contact with friends predicts greater physical activity, whereas in-person family contact actually predicts reduced activity, particularly among those with greater in-person friend contact. The data emphasize the need to distinguish between family and friend contact when predicting effects of social integration on health behaviors.

983 Board #6 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Does Perceived Environment Matter for Children in the Context of Social Cognitive Variables?

Claudio R. Nigg1, Alana D. Steffen1, Katie Amato1, Mahabub-Ul Anwar1, Eve Kutchman2, Melanie Mainar2, Raymond C. Browning, FACSM3, Lois Brink2, James Hill2. 1University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI. 2University of Colorado, Denver, CO. 3Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO.

(C.R. Nigg:Consulting Fee; PAI.)

Social cognitive variables like self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support lead to children’s physical activity (PA). However, the influence of perceived environment on children‘s PA above and beyond these variables is less well known.

PURPOSE: This study investigated if various PA environment conceptualizations predicted PA above and beyond self-efficacy, enjoyment and social support.

METHODS: Perceived PA environment was conceptualized as: a) how often there is equipment (e.g., balls, jump ropes) provided during recess/lunch; b) presence of playground structures (e.g., swing sets, foursquare, etc); and c) the condition of the playground structures. A self-report questionnaire assessed demographics, psychosocial variables, perceived environment, and moderate and vigorous PA in 4th and 5th grade children (n=257; mean age = 10.2 [±.8]; 49.4% female; 46.5% Hispanic, 26.6% White, 26.9% other) from 4 Denver, Colorado, elementary schools.

RESULTS: Overall, the self-efficacy mean was 3.18±0.76 (range=1-5; Cronbach’s alpha=.58); PA enjoyment was 4.31±0.73 (range=1-5; Cronbach’s alpha=.80); and social support was 6.20±1.53 (range=0-8; Cronbach’s alpha=.56). Regression analyses with maximum likelihood estimation for missing data (14% of total sample) controlled for gender, ethnicity, and age. Step 1 entered the social cognitive variables and explained 20% of PA (F(7, 246.2)=9.93, p<.01). All social cognitive variables were significant predictors (self-efficacy β=.21, p<.01, enjoyment β=.18, p<.01, social support β=.20, p<.01). Step 2 entered the perceived environment conceptualizations and explained an additional 1.9% of PA (F(3,243.2)=3.00, p<.05). Presence of equipment (β =.123, p<.05) and number of playground structures (marginally: β =.102, p=.08) were significant perceived environmental predictors.

CONCLUSIONS: Social cognitive variables were confirmed as important predictors of children’s PA. Perceived environment added a relatively small amount to the explanation of PA above and beyond social cognitive variables in these children. Children may only start to perceive the PA environment as important at this developmental stage. Future research should also investigate the influence of the actual environment on children’s PA.

Supported by NICHD/NCI/NIDDK R01HD0572

B-64 Thematic Poster - Occupational Fitness Assessment

MAY 30, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2009

984 Chair: Christopher M. Hearon, FACSM. Texas A&M University-Kingsville, Kingsville, TX.

(No relationships reported)

985 Board #1 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Reliability of a Test Battery Designed to Assess Soldier Occupational Task Performance

Barry A. Spiering, Leila A. Walker, Kathleen Simpson, Peter N. Frykman, Reeshemah C. Ward, Marilyn A. Sharp. United States Army Research Institute of Environmental Medicine, Natick, MA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To determine the reliability of a test battery designed to assess Soldier occupational task performance.

METHODS: Sixteen enlisted Soldiers (15 men and 1 woman; 24 ± 4 y; 1.74 ± 0.07 m; 77.6 ± 12.6 kg) completed a battery of occupational task tests on four occasions, each separated by at least one week. The battery consisted of the following tests, in order: 1) 30-m grenade throw (GT) for accuracy; 2) running long jump (LJ) while wearing a 20.5-kg fighting load; 3) one-repetition maximum box lift (BL) performed from the ground to the height of 155 cm; and 4) 3.2-km load carriage (LC) time-trial while wearing a 33-kg approach load. Raw scores were examined to determine the reliability of each individual test. Additionally, raw scores were converted to z-scores and then summed across the four tests to generate a composite score that reflected overall performance on the test battery.

RESULTS: Repeated measures analysis of variance indicated significant (p < 0.05) improvements in performance from Trial 1 to Trial 2 for the BL and LC, while GT and LJ demonstrated non-significant improvements (p = 0.66 and p = 0.29, respectively). There were no significant changes in performance between Trial 2 and Trial 3 for any test; therefore, these two trials were compared to determine the reliability of the individual tests. The intraclass correlation coefficient for GT, LJ, BL, and LC was 0.75, 0.88, 0.95, and 0.93, respectively; and the standard error of the measurement (% of mean) was 0.73 m (45%), 0.10 m (5%), 2.3 kg (4%), and 0.73 min (3%), respectively. For the composite score, the Spearman correlation coefficient was 0.78 when GT was included and 0.90 when GT was excluded.

CONCLUSIONS: Soldiers must perform this occupational task test battery at least twice to obtain statistically stable values for all individual tests. Excluding the first testing session, the LJ, BL, and LC tests demonstrated excellent reliability (SEM = 3-5% of mean value), while the GT test demonstrated relatively poor reliability (SEM = 45% of mean value). The reliability of the composite score (Spearman rho = 0.79) indicated that rank-ordered results were relatively well-maintained between trials.

986 Board #2 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Physical Fitness and Stress Reactivity in Real-Life Fire Fighting Simulations

Jens-Peter Gnam, Simone-Nadine Loeffler, Sascha Haertel, Hans Schmidt, Stefan Hey, Ulrich Ebner-Priemer, Klaus Boes. Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Karlsruhe, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine stress reactivity during real-life firefighting simulations and to check if there exist potential stress-reducing effects of physical fitness.

METHODS: Different physiological stress parameters - cortisol, heart rate, heart rate variability (SDNN) - of 52 male fire fighters (28.6 ± 7.1 years, 180.4 ± 7.1 cm, 88.7 ± 17.2 kg) were recorded during firefighting exercises in a real-life simulation facility. Additionally, the activity intensity during the exercises was measured via an accelerometer to correct heart rates from activity influences. Furthermore, mood state was measured with the negative part of the PANAS scale (ranging from 10 to 50) and cognitive appraisal of the exercises was assessed with a stress index ranging from 2 to 10. Baseline values were determined for cortisol, heart rate, heart rate variability and mood state a few days prior to the firefighting exercise. To examine potential differences between baseline and stress recordings, paired T-tests were calculated and the significance level was corrected by using the Bonferroni adjustment. Maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max), as a measure of physical fitness, was assessed via a spiroergometric treadmill protocol. Correlations between VO2max and the different stress parameters were examined by calculating a general linear model.

RESULTS: The results showed no significant changes from baseline to stress in mood state (17 ± 5 vs. 18 ± 4, p= 0.097) and heart rate variability (55.4 ± 25.9 ms vs. 51.8 ± 19.8 ms, p= 0.346), whereas heart rate (76.2 ± 10.7 bpm vs. 132.1 ± 16.0 bpm, p< 0.05) and cortisol (4.8 ± 2.4 nmol/l vs. 10.0 ± 5.3 nmol/l, p< 0.05) differed significantly. The cognitive appraisal of stress was rather middle-rated (6.6 ± 0.9). VO2max did not correlate significantly with any of the stress parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the subjects obviously perceived only moderate stress during the firefighting exercises, heart rate and cortisol seem to be strongly affected, whereas heart rate variability and mood state are not influenced by these stress scenarios. Physical fitness does not seem to be a stress-reducing factor.

987 Board #3 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Reliability and Validity of a New Treadmill Test for Screening Prospective Military Recruits

Anders Aandstad, Rune Hageberg. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

For the last 15-20 years, no objective evaluation of physical fitness has been carried out on Norwegian men and women prior to being enrolled for military service. However, from 2012 the conscription board examination will include testing of aerobic fitness and upper/lower-body isometric muscle strength in ∼25.000 prospective recruits/year. The new fitness tests have been developed exclusively for this purpose, and it is therefore needed to evaluate reliability and validity of these new fitness tests.

PURPOSE: To examine reliability and validity of the new treadmill test in military recruits.

METHODS: 84 army recruits (71 males and 13 females) aged 19.1 ± 0.8 years volunteered to participate. The following aerobic fitness tests were carried out: 1) 3000 m run, completed in groups running at an outdoor course, 2) the new treadmill test (and retest), consisting of 6 minutes of walking, with a subsequent increase in speed by 1 km·h-1every minute until exhaustion (10 % inclination), 3) directly measured maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) from treadmill running. There was allocated at least 24 hours between each running test for the individual recruit, and all tests were carried out within two weeks.

RESULTS: Mean (± SD) results for test and retest of the new treadmill test, the 3000 m run and VO2max test were 686 ± 95 sec, 693 ± 93 sec, 826 ± 113 sec and 52.1 ± 6.4 ml·kg-1·min-1. Reliability in terms of mean difference ± 95% limits of agreement between test and retest of the new treadmill test was 7 ± 58 sec, while test-retest correlation was r = 0.95 (P <0.001). Correlations between the new treadmill test vs. the 3000 m run and vs. directly measured VO2max were r = 0.89 (P < 0.001) and r = 0.88 (P < 0.001), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The new treadmill test seems to be sufficient reliable and valid for a basic evaluation of aerobic fitness in military recruits, and we believe the results could be generalized to young men and women who meet for conscription board examination.

988 Board #4 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Laboratory Measures Of Physical Fitness Correlate With Performance Of Military Tasks In Active Duty Soldiers

Leila A. Walker, Barry A. Spiering, Kathleen Simpson, Peter N. Frykman, Reeshemah C. Ward, Marilyn A. Sharp. USARIEM, Natick, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Active duty Soldiers must be physically fit in order to perform military tasks and maintain combat readiness. Their ability to complete these tasks can determine mission success.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the relationship between standard laboratory measures of physical fitness and tests designed to assess Soldier readiness.

METHODS: Sixteen active duty Soldiers (15m, 1f; 174.0±7.5 cm; 77.8±12.5 kg, 24.1±3.9 y) performed lab tests of physical fitness, to include peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), one-repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and leg press (LP), bench throw using 30% 1RM (BT), medicine ball put (MBP), standing long jump (SLJ), and vertical jump (VJ). Subjects also completed a battery of military task tests, which consisted of a 30m grenade throw for accuracy (GT), a running long jump while wearing a 20.5kg load (LJ), 1RM box lift performed from the ground to 155cm (BL), and a 3.2km road march while wearing a 33kg approach load (LC) four times over a 5-week period. The mean of the last 3 trials was calculated to correlate with the lab tests using Pearson correlations (α = 0.05).

RESULTS: Absolute VO2peak (L·min-1) and tests of upper body power (MBP and BT) correlated with GT, BL and LC, while tests of lower body power (VJ and SLJ) correlated with LJ. Tests of upper and lower body strength (BP and LP) correlated only with BL. We found no significant correlations between relative VO2peak (ml·kg-1·min-1) and any of the military task tests.


CONCLUSION: Laboratory measures of physical fitness are predictive of military occupational task performance, and therefore could be used to assess combat readiness and develop training programs to effectively prepare Soldiers for physically demanding military tasks.

989 Board #5 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Allometric Scaling Of Air Force Fitness Test Performances In Men

Guy D. Leahy1, Todd A. Crowder2, Jerry L. Mayhew3. 1Davis-Monthan Air Force Base, Tucson, AZ. 2United States Military Academy, West Point, NY. 3Truman State University, Kirksville, MO.

(No relationships reported)

Branches of the military utilize selected physical fitness tests to assess combat readiness, indicate health status, and determine promotion. Air Force tests include push-ups, sit-ups, and a 1.5-mile run. These tests are converted to point values and summed to produce a fitness score. Traditionally, the tests have been scored in absolute terms, disregarding the influence of body size on performance. Allometric scaling has been suggested to correct the bias in raw scores and provide fairness in evaluation along the body mass continuum.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the use of allometric scaling for assessing the differences among BMI groups for performance on the Air Force Fitness Test (AFFT).

METHODS: Air Force men (n = 553, age = 18 to 50 y, BMI = 15.5 to 38.2 kg/m2) were evaluated for 1.5-mile run (RUN), push-ups (PU), and sit-ups (SU). Performance scores were allometrically scaled for body mass (BM) using RUN/BM0.33, PU/BM-.033, and SU/BM-0.33. BMI groups were underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2, n = 7), normal weight (BMI = 18.5 - 24.9 kg/m2, n = 214), overweight (BMI = 25.0 - 29.9 kg/m2, n = 252), and obese (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2, n = 80). The underweight group was eliminated from the analysis.

RESULTS: BM was significantly correlated (p<0.001) with RUN (r = 0.28), PU (r = -0.13), and SU (r = -0.09), and total score (r = -0.52). Analysis of standardized beta weights from linear regression indicated RUN made the greatest contribution (79%) to total score, followed by SU (20%) and PU (2%). Allometrically scaling each test component eliminated the significant correlation of BM with PU (r = 0.07, p>0.11) but not with RUN (r = -0.18, p<0.001) or SU (r = 0.16, p<0.005). Total score produced from the sum of scaled scores revealed a nonsignificant correlation with BM (r = 0.07, p =0.10). Analysis of standardized beta weights from linear regression to estimate scaled total score produced a more equitable weighing of test results RUN (17%), PU (48%), and SU (34%). Allometrically scaling AFFT scores eliminated the difference among BMI groups for RUN (p =0.14) and PU (p = 0.47) but not for SU (p = 0.004) or scaled total score (p = 0.05).

CONCLUSION: Despite the difference noted in scaled total score, allometric scaling of AFFT components may be a more equitable way of comparing performance scores among men of varying body size.

990 Board #6 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

“Pre-Fatigue” Simulated Casualty Evacuation Task: The Role of Body Composition, Fitness and Physical Performance Grades

Todd A. Crowder. US Military Academy, West Point, NY.

(No relationships reported)

Functional combat performance skills (casualty evacuation) and external weight carriage (body armor) demand specific work capacities.

PURPOSE: Examine the impact of body composition, overall fitness and physical performance grades on a “Pre-Fatigue” Simulated Casualty Evacuation Task (PFSCET) in United States Service Academy (USSA) male subjects.

METHODS: Male, (n= 27 ) USSA, college-age, general population, male students were tested during a one-day controlled, supervised field environment on a PFSCET and on body composition and overall fitness within a 4-week period surrounding the PFSCET. Physical Performance Grades (Military Movement (MM), Boxing (BX)) were attained in a 19-lesson course during the subject’s tenure at the USSA. Body composition and overall fitness testing included: 5-site skinfold analysis and Army Physical Fitness Test, (APFT). The PFSCET in Combat Uniform, Boots, and Helmet (CUBH’s), consisted of: 1600-Meter Run (1600 M), transition 1 (65 meters; down 22 stairs), two round trips up/down cascading stairway run {(Stair); total = 476 stairs; total 214.4 meters horizontal, total 83.2 meters vertical} transition 2, (142 meters and up 86 stairs and down 10 stairs) finally still in CUBH’s plus adding a 19.1 kg weighted vest, and dummy weapon, traverse 414 meters, then simulate evacuation by carry or drag method a 45.5 kg dummy 138 meters.

RESULTS: A 2-variable (MM, 2MR) multiple regression equation offers the best predictive ability, yet only accounts for ∼39% of the PFSCET variance. Boxing a surrogate measure for “warrior ethos,” and PU and SU, common fitness tests, had no impact on PFSCET performance. ANOVA on top fastest two groups to the slowest third group regarding PFSCET revealed MM grade point of 3.12 vs. 2.02 was significant (p = .0003) while 2MR (secs) was marginally significant 773.9 vs. 816.1 (p = .06).

CONCLUSIONS: For USSA-age men, typical Army fitness measures of PU, SU and body composition measures of % fat, LBM fail to explain much variance of PFSCET performance. A combination MM grade and 2MR offers the greatest predictive value, however, yielding only ∼39% of the PFSCET’s variance. PFSCET is a unique assessment requiring a multitude of abilities to garner success and may assist in training for functional combat performance skills demanding high work capacities.

B-65 Thematic Poster - Warm-up, Stretching, and Performance

MAY 30, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2011

991 Chair: Andrea Fradkin. Bloomsburg University, Bloomsburg, PA.

(No relationships reported)

992 Board #1 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

The Effects of Three Different Stretching Routines on Running Economy in Female Distance Runners

Kelley Henry, David Nichols, FACSM, Sally Ford, Vic Ben-Ezra. Texas Woman’s University, Denton, TX. (Sponsor: David Nichols, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of the current investigation was to determine the effects of three different stretching routines on running economy (VO2), lactate, and stride length in female distance runners.

METHODS: Twelve trained female participants completed five testing sessions. A VO2peak test was administered in the first session. Sessions 2 - 5 were administered during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle. The sessions began with a 10 min warm up on a treadmill at a self-selected speed, flexibility measures (sit and reach, ankle dorsiflexion), stretching routine, reassessment of flexibility measures, and a 10 min run at 80% VO2peak. Stride mechanics were assessed during the final 10 min run and blood lactate concentration was sampled at completion of the final 10 min run. The stretching routines were randomly assigned and included a control (CON) consisting of a 10 min sit; active isolated stretching (AIS) involving 2 sets of 30 s of 5 stretches that were held for 1-2 s and repeated for the 30 s period; static stretching (SS) involving 2 sets of 30 s of 5 stretches that were held for the 30 s time period; and, dynamic flexibility (DF) involving a series of 10 running specific drills repeated for 2 sets of 30 s. Differences in VO2 (ml·kg-1·min-1), lactate, and stride length for each condition (control, DF, SS, AIS) were analyzed via a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance with an alpha level of .05.

RESULTS: Participants were aged 20 - 42 years (mean ± SD = 26.8 ± 7.3) and reported having normal menstrual cycles. The average VO2peak was 52.1 ± 3.8 ml·kg-1·min-1. The average miles run per week was 19.1 ± 12.3 miles with a maximum of 40 and a minimum of 2 miles/week. The stretching routines did not have a significant effect on VO2, lactate and stride length. The average VO2 for CON, AIS, SS and DF were 42.1 ± 4.7, 42.4 ± 4.0, 42.1 ± 4.1, and 42.7 ± 4.6 ml·kg-1·min-1, respectively. The average lactate values for CON, AIS, SS and DF were 4.1 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 1.2, 3.7 ± 1.4, 4.6 ± 1.6 mmol·L-1, respectively. The average stride length was 2.2 ± .13 m for all trials.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, stretching prior to running, with any of the three stretching routines (AIS, SS, and DF) did not alter running performance variables possibly due to the submaximal nature of running.

993 Board #2 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Static Stretching Does Not Effect Time To Completion In 20 Km Time Trials

Jamie L. Donkin, Rick T. Bradley, Max Polin, Raymond Martinez, Jr, Roberto Quintana, Daryl L. Parker. Irvin Faria Exercise Physiology Research Laboratory, CSU Sacramento, Sacramento, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Recent research has identified static stretching as a potential detriment to short term ballistic exercise. Further, pre-exercise static stretching has been shown to decrease exercise economy. However it is unclear if this has a negative effect on endurance performance.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of pre-exercise stretching on cycling time trial (TT) performance when compared to an active warm-up and no warm-up.

METHODS: Eight male and female cyclists volunteered to participate in this study (n=1 female, age = 33 ± 7 years, BMI = 22.5 ± 1.7 cm, VO2max = 62.3 ± 7.2 mL/Kg/min). After baseline testing to determine VO2max and maximal aerobic power (Wmax), subjects completed 3 different warm-up protocols (Stretch = S, Warm-up = WU, No Stretch = NS) prior to a cycling bout of 576 kJ (∼20 km). The stretching protocol consisted of five positions that each targeted one of the major muscle groups for cycling. Each stretch was held for 25 seconds and repeated four times on each leg. The warm-up protocol consisted of 15 minutes of sub-maximal cycling with 5 minutes at 20, 35, 50% Wmax. The no warm-up protocol consisted of 15 minutes of sitting on the cycle ergometer prior to beginning the TT. During each TT HR and RPE were recorded every 28.8 kJ (∼1Km), while VO2 was recorded every 144 kJ (∼5Km). Order was determined using Latin squares and athletes were given a minimum of 48 hours of rest between trials to prevent soreness. A two-way ANOVA with repeated measures was used to assess changes in the study. An alpha level of 0.05 was used to establish significance in the data.

RESULTS: No significant differences was found in time to completion (S= 41.34 min ± 7.166, WU = 41.31 ± 7.61, NS = 40.92 ± 7.18, p= 0.993) for the three trials. Power output every 28.8 kJ was not significantly different between treatments or time (p=0.88, p=0.07). Similarly, VO2 was also not significantly different between trials (p=0.981) or over time (p=0.61). HR and RPE were not significantly different between trials (p=0.09, 0.43), but increased significantly over time (p=0.00)

CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that static stretching as a part of the pre-exercise routine is neither beneficial nor detrimental to the subsequent endurance performance.

994 Board #3 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

The Effects of Static Stretching Warm-up Versus Dynamic Warm-up on Sprint Swim Performance.

James R. Whitehead, FACSM, Michael P. Moran, Joshua D. Guggenheimer, Ronald H. Brinkert. University of ND, Grand Forks, ND.

(No relationships reported)

Recent research has revealed that static stretching (SS) warm-ups may attenuate power performance compared to other warm-up protocols, but most studies have focused on dry land modalities.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of an SS warm-up versus a dynamic warm-up (DW) on sprint performance in competitive swimmers. Specifically, it was hypothesized that SS prior to a 50-meter sprint would attenuate results compared to DW.

METHODS: Sixteen NCAA Division 1 swimmers (5 female, 11 male) participated. These swimmers had recently completed their collegiate season. In a randomized order crossover design, the participants swam a 50-meter freestyle sprint after two different warm-up protocols that were designed to mirror typical practice among competitive swimmers, while allowing any practically significant experimental effects from the SS versus DW contrasts to occur: Specifically, the warm-ups were Static Stretch + Swim (SS/S), and Dynamic Warm-up + Swim (DW/S). In each case the contrasting experimental warm-up exercises (nine static stretches versus nine dynamic movements) were immediately followed by a typical swimming warm-up (about 20-minutes). The two timed 50-meter sprints took place 5-minutes after the SS/S and DW/S warm-ups were completed, and they were conducted three days apart under simulated competitive conditions using standard starting commands, and electronic timing equipment.

RESULTS: Separate analyses (paired t-tests) were conducted to test for treatment effects over the first 25 meters, the second 25 meters, and the overall 50-meter sprint time. There were no significant differences between mean times in any of those comparisons. Examination of individual data revealed that the number of swimmers who were slower after SS/S was approximately equal to the number slower after DW/S.

CONCLUSION: Unlike the detrimental effects shown in other performance modalities, SS in warm-up did not attenuate sprint swimming performance in this study. It is possible that the swimming warm-up done subsequently to the SS or DW component may have blunted any effects of the SS. Thus, future research might minimize the swimming component of warm-up to allow any effects of SS versus DW to emerge, and it might be preferable to conduct the study during the swimmers’ competitive season.

995 Board #4 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

The Effects of Combined Precooling and Warm-up on 5km Time Trial Performance in Male Runners

Lindsey Avery1, Abigail Klaus2, Molly Winke1. 1East Stroudsburg University, East Stroudsburg, PA. 2Skidmore College, Saratoga Springs, NY. (Sponsor: Patricia Fehling, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Precooling (PC), reducing core temperature (Tc) prior to exercise, has previously been shown to improve endurance performance. However, in practice athletes still rely on warm-up (WU) bouts.

PURPOSE: To compare two combinations of PC and WU to a control condition during 5km time trial performance on the treadmill.

METHODS: Seven trained male runners (VO2= 66.35±8.6 ml/kg/min) ran four 5km time trials after completing the following treatments in randomized balanced order: a familiarization trial, WU/PC, PC/WU, and control (CON). Warm-up consisted of 10 min at a predetermined self-selected speed, PC consisted of 30-min cold water immersion (241C) to waist level, and CON consisted of 30 min of sitting. Core temperature, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured during both the pretreatment and 5km run.

RESULTS: Run time was significantly faster in the WU/PC condition when compared to PC/WU condition (mean improvement 15.5 ± 0.51 sec, p=0.01). In addition, 5 of 7 participants completed the WU/PC condition as their fastest time trial. Core temperature was lowest in the PC/WU condition; however Tc differences were dissipated after 9 min of running. The highest Tc values were observed in the CON condition. Contrary to previous research, the lowest Tc was not observed in the trial with the fastest 5km time.


CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that when an active WU is completed preceding a PC protocol, as compared to PC preceding WU, 5km running time trial performance was improved. Findings suggest there is an optimal combination for WU with PC applicable to performance enhancement.

996 Board #5 MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Warm-up Protocol Effects on Cycle Time Trial Performance

Chris Eschbach1, Jennifer Bunn2, Meir Magal, FACSM1, Roxanne Vogel3, Rebecca Yow3. 1North Carolina Wesleyan College, Rocky Mount, NC. 2Campbell University, Buies Creek, NC. 3Meredith College, Raleigh, NC. (Sponsor: Meir Magal, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Performance has been shown to be enhanced when warm-up precedes an event. During some competitive events athletes may have limited time immediately prior to the event that prevents or shortens a warm up session.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of warm-up protocol on cycling time trial power output and time.

METHODS: Sixteen trained cyclists (41.0 ± 7.7 years, 1.75 ± 0.11 m, 76.5 ± 13.5 kg, 50.50 ± 11.70 ml/kg/min, 2.96 ± 0.63 W/kg at LT) completed preliminary assessment for cardiovascular fitness (VO2max and lactate threshold) and a familiarization trial of the simulated 5-km course on their own bike on a stationary ergometer. Following preliminary assessment, participants completed, in random order, one of three protocols: no warm up (NWU), short warm up (SWU) consisting of 3 min at 60% of maximal power output, and long warm up (LWU) consisting of 10 min at 60% of maximal power output on their own bike. During the time trial, time to completion, average power (APW), and average relative power (WKG) were recorded for the 1-km split and the 5-km complete trial.

RESULTS: There was no significant difference between any of the warm up protocols on time trial performance (p > 0.05). Data are summarized in the table below (mean ± SD):


CONCLUSION: Although not statistically significant, as warm up duration increased there was a trend of performance related advantages when compared to NWU. Future research should examine longer duration warm up with alternate intensities.

997Board #6MAY 30 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects of Static and PNF Stretching On Knee Peak Torque in Aerobically Trained Female Athletes

Kent D. Johnson, FACSM, Jiajia Sun, Ruth N. Henry, Autumn Marshall. Lipscomb University, Nashville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Stretching before physical activity is a common practice among athletes because many believe that stretching improves performance. However, there is no compelling scientific evidence that supports this hypothesis. Recently it has been suggested that certain types of stretching may reduce muscle efficiency and negatively affect muscular power.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of static and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) stretching on knee peak torque in female athletes.

METHODS: Seventeen aerobically trained female athletes (21.6±2.45 years) were recruited for the study. Knee flexion and knee extension peak torque were measured isokinetically in the dominant lower limb under three conditions (randomized): no stretching (NSC), post static stretching (SSC) and post PNF stretching (PNF). The stretching protocol for SSC and PNF included 3 stretching sets, 30 seconds each (10 seconds rest between sets) for knee flexors and extensors (6 sets total for SSC and PNF, respectively). Immediately following the stretching protocol, knee flexion and extension peak torque were measured using a calibrated Biodex System II dynamometer (180°·sec-1).

RESULTS: These results demonstrated that the SSC (95.23±9.06 N·m) and PNF (96.59±7.27 N·m) knee extension peak torque were significantly lower (p<0.05) when compared with NSC (101.77±6.43 N·m) peak torque values. The knee flexion peak torque results for SSC (59.98±9.49 N·m) and PNF (60.62±7.35 N·m) were also significantly less (p<0.05) when compared with NSC (68.18±9.53 N·m) peak torque.

CONCLUSION: The results demonstrate that static and PNF stretching can significantly reduce peak torque values for both knee flexion and extension and may possibly negatively compromise athletic performance.

C-12 Thematic Poster - Children and Exercise

MAY 31, 2012 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

ROOM: 3020

998 Chair: Thomas W. Rowland, FACSM. Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA.

(No relationships reported)

999 Board #1 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Development Of Treadmill And Over-ground VO2 Prediction Equations For Walking In Youth.

Rebecca W. Moore1, Karin A. Pfeiffer, FACSM1, James M. Pivarnik, FACSM1, Stewart G. Trost, FACSM2. 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. 2Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

(No relationships reported)

Previously established prediction equations (Walker, 1999; Morgan, 2002) for walking in youth have underestimated VO2 (ml/kg/min) in an independent sample (Moore, 2010).

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to develop treadmill and over-ground VO2 prediction equations for walking for children and adolescents.

METHODS: Participants (n=199; 102 males and 97 females) ages 6-16 years were involved in this study. Height, weight, and sitting height were measured using standard procedures, and percent body fat was determined by skinfolds. Each participant walked over-ground at a self-selected pace using a course of known distance for five minutes. A research assistant walked with each participant to ensure consistent pacing among laps. Lap speeds were noted in order to determine overall pace. Participants also walked at a self-selected brisk walk pace on a treadmill for five minutes. VO2 (ml/kg/min) was measured using a portable metabolic analyzer, and stride frequency was determined by step count for both trials. Forward stepwise regression was used to determine the prediction equations for over-ground and treadmill walking. Predictor variables included age (yrs), gender (1=male, 2=female), height (cm), leg length (cm), percent body fat, speed (m/min), speed2, and stride frequency (steps/30sec). The best equations were validated using the press error sum of squares (PRESS) statistic.

RESULTS: Gender, height, and speed2 were found to be significant predictor variables (p<0.05). The best prediction equation for treadmill was VO2 (ml/kg/min)= 46.356-(1.343*gender)-(0.223*height)-(0.057*speed)+(0.002*speed2) (Adjusted R2=0.67 Root Mean Square Error (RMSE)=2.60). For over-ground the best prediction equation was VO2 = 45.930-(1.320*gender)-(0.194*height)-(0.124*speed)+(0.002*speed2) (Adjusted R2=0.75 RMSE=2.35)

CONCLUSION: We undertook this study because the two previously developed prediction equations under-estimated VO2 (Moore, 2010). Although R2 was lower in the current equation compared to the previous equations (Walker, 1999 and Morgan, 2002), RMSE was comparable or better. The current equations may be more generalizable and better suited for a larger age range.

Funded by NICHD (RO1 HD055400-02)

1000Board #2MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

The End Of VO2max In Children–Using Submaximal Slopes As Biomarkers Of Fitness

Szu-Yun Leu, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Pietro Galassetti, Dan M. Cooper. University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: A child’s ability to engage in physical activity is a measure of overall health, and cardiorespiratory responses to exercise are useful as biomarkers of disease and its progression. Most exercise testing relies on measurement or estimation of VO2max, a highly effort dependent variable not typically achieved in children. We hypothesized that potentially useful biomarkers could be derived from analysis of submaximal domains of progressive exercise in children. An allometric analysis of these variables led us to hypothesize that the slope of key exercise parameters (ΔWR/ΔHR, ΔVO2/ΔHR) would correlate strongly with lean body mass; and predict peak VO2.

METHODS: To test this, we performed ramp-type progressive exercise tests (gas exchange measured breath-by-breath) and DXA assessment of lean body mass (LBM) in 744 volunteers (age 8-18, 57% female). VO2max was defined using standard criteria. Linear regression assuming the equation y=a·x + b was used to calculate key slopes (a) during submaximal exercise. Pearson’s correlation coefficients were obtained among various variables of interest.

RESULTS: VO2max, ΔWR/ΔHR, and ΔVO2/ΔHR were all significantly (p<0.0001) more correlated with LBM (0.81, 0.83, and 0.81, respectively) than with body weight (0.54, 0.65 and 0.61, respectively). The correlations with LBM were all significantly (p<0.0001) higher in boys (0.85-0.87) than in girls (0.65-0.71). The correlations among the size dependent variables were very robust (0.79 between ΔWR/ΔHR and VO2max, 0.89 between ΔVO2/ΔHR and VO2max, and 0.93 between ΔWR/ΔHR andΔVO2/ΔHR).

CONCLUSIONS: In children who perform progressive exercise tests in which gas exchange is measured breath-by-breath, key slopes from submaximal portions of the exercise test may be as useful as maximal values as biomarkers of fitness in health and disease. Potential advantages of slopes are their less dependence on voluntary effort compared with maximal values and their utilization of larger datasets than the few data points typically used to measure VO2max. While muscle mass is a major determinant of size-dependent cardiorespiratory exercise values, the mechanisms of variability in children remain unknown.

Supported by NIH Grant P01HD048721 and UL1RR031985.

1001 Board #3 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

The Impact Of Short-term Aerobic Interval Training On Fitness And Vascular Risk In Overweight Adolescents

Kevin R. Short, Lauren V. Pratt, April M. Teague. University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, Oklahoma City, OK.

(No relationships reported)

The rise of childhood obesity and sedentary lifestyle portends a future increase in cardiometabolic disease and requires effective lifestyle solutions. High-intensity exercise has been shown to be effective and efficient for improving health in adult clinical patients. We determined whether high-intensity exercise is feasible and would elicit health and fitness benefits in overweight adolescents.

PURPOSE: To compare effects of short-term aerobic interval training (AIT) to continuous moderate intensity exercise (CME) on vascular function, meal glucose tolerance and markers of inflammation.

METHODS: 15 males and 7 females (15±1 y, BMI 94±1 %ile, 36±2% body fat) not performing regular exercise performed supervised sessions of either AIT or CME twice per week for 5 weeks. CME = 45-min walking or cycling at 70% HRmax. AIT = 4 × 4-min at 90% HRmax with 3-min recovery intervals at 60% HRmax plus 5-min warm up and cool down. Energy expended was similar in the two programs. Post-test measures were performed 40 hours after the final exercise session.

RESULTS: Body mass and composition were unchanged in either group. Peak aerobic cycling power increased 11% (17±5 watts; p < 0.01) in the AIT group but was unchanged in CME. Blood pressure was unchanged in both groups but small artery compliance, measured by radial artery tonometry, increased 12% (1.3±0.6 ml/mmHgx10, p =0.07) only in the AIT group; this change was correlated (r = 0.50) with a 30% increase in plasma nitric oxide (total nitrate assay, 6.9±1.8 µmol/l, p<0.01). Glycemic regulation was measured in response to a mixed meal. Fasting and 3-hour integrated post-meal glucose, insulin and c-peptide were unchanged by training in both AIT and CME groups, as were fasting lipids. However, several inflammatory proteins were reduced following training, including c-reactive protein (41%), vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (-6%), visfatin (-9%) [all p <0.03, no diff between groups], and myeloperoxidase (-19%, p <0.03 in AIT group only).

CONCLUSION: For habitually sedentary, overweight adolescents a modest amount of exercise training induces positive changes in circulating inflammatory proteins. The benefits of exercise on fitness and vascular risk factors are enhanced, however, by incorporating vigorous activity. Supported by NIH Grant P20 RR024215

1002 Board #4 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Measured And Estimated Cardio-respiratory Fitness In Obese Pre-pubertal Children Using Modified Shuttle Run Test

Albane BR Maggio, Xavier E. Martin, Gérôme Martin, Maurice Beghetti, Nathalie J. Farpour-Lambert, FACSM. University Hospitals and University of Geneva, Geneva, Switzerland.

(No relationships reported)

Obese children have generally low cardio-respiratory fitness and exercise tolerance; therefore maximal exercise testing may be difficult to perform. In healthy children, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) can be estimated using the 20-meter shuttle run test (Leger test). However, we found in practice that the initial speed is too high (8 km·h-1) and not adapted to obese children.

PURPOSE: To validate a modified version of the Leger test against a standardized treadmill test.

METHODS: We performed both tests in 63 pre-pubertal obese children aged 9.6 ± 1.1 years (range: 7.5-12). Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was assessed by direct gas analysis during a multi-stage treadmill test. The modified Leger test was performed with a starting speed of 4 km·h-1 and the VO2max was estimated using the validated equation.

RESULTS: The mean (±SD) VO2max by treadmill test was 36.9 ± 6.2, compared to 38.7 ±3.7 using the 20-meter Leger test. The following Bland-Altman plot shows that the 20-m shuttle test overestimated the VO2max value by 1.82 ± 6.0 (95% CI: 0.3 - 3.3), compared to the treadmill test, with a percentage error of 9.8%. However, limits of agreements were large (95% confidence limit = -13.9-10.3

CONCLUSIONS: The modified Leger test is an acceptable and inexpensive method to estimate the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) in pre-pubertal obese children. It can be used to assess the cardio-respiratory fitness in clinical setting and in therapeutic group programs; however caution must be taken when a follow-up is considered, due to a large variability of results.

1003 Board #5 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Ability Of The Pacer To Elicit Peak Exercise Responses In Youth

Stacy N. Scott, David R. Bassett, Jr., FACSM, Dixie L. Thompson, FACSM, Dawn P. Coe. University of Tennessee Knoxville, Knoxville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

A graded exercise test (GXT) is the standard method of determining peak aerobic fitness (VO2peak). The FITNESSGRAM’s Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) test is commonly used to estimate VO2peak in youth; however, little research has determined whether the PACER elicits a peak exercise response.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare peak physiological variables and peak ratings of perceived exertion (RPEpeak) during a treadmill GXT and the PACER in 10-15 year old youth.

METHODS: The study included 43 participants (20 boys, 23 girls; 12.7+1.7 y) who visited the lab twice. Participants completed the PACER, a progressive, multistage, 20-meter shuttle run and a treadmill GXT protocol (Children’s Mercy Hospital Max protocol; Sabath et al., 2010) in which intensity was gradually increased by speed or grade at 1-minute intervals. Assessments were completed in a randomized order, separated by a minimum of 24 hours. Physiological variables including VO2peak and peak respiratory exchange ratio (RERpeak) were measured using a portable metabolic system (Oxycon Mobile, CareFusion, Inc.), and peak heart rate (HRpeak) monitored via telemetry. At the end of each test, participants reported RPEpeak using the Children’s OMNI Scale. Paired samples t-tests were used to compare outcome variables between the PACER and GXT.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found between PACER and GXT HRpeak (195 vs. 197 bpm; P= 0.497), RERpeak (1.12 vs. 1.13; P= 0.560), VO2peak (46.0 vs. 45.2 mL/kg/min; P= 0.285), and RPEpeak (8.3 vs. 8.4; P= 0.375).

CONCLUSIONS: It appears that the PACER protocol elicits similar peak exercise responses compared to a treadmill GXT.

C-13 Thematic Poster - Exercise with Neuromuscular Limits (Clinical Exercise Physiology Association)

MAY 31, 2012 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

ROOM: 3022

1004 Chair: Duncan J. Macfarlane, FACSM. The University of Hong Kong, Pokfulam, Hong Kong.

(No relationships reported)

1005 Board #1 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Case Study Of An Elite Runner With Cerebral Palsy

Peter CM Wolters, Leonie F. Prins, Erika Casolino, Dana Zimmerman, Jos J. de Koning, FACSM, John P. Porcari, FACSM, Carl Foster, FACSM. University of Wisconsin-La Crosse, La Crosse, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Running performance is widely understood in terms of the Joyner Model (VO2max, ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max, running economy). An interesting test of this model is to evaluate runners where one element of the model is systematically abnormal.

PURPOSE: We report the case of an elite runner (1996 & 2000 Paralympics in 800m, 1500m, 5000m; silver medal in 1500m in 2000) with cerebral palsy (T37 class).

METHODS: He was studied 11 years after his Olympic medal, although he still trained systematically, and at his racing weight. Incremental and steady state treadmill runs were completed to define VO2max, VT & RCT ,the oxygen cost of running and the blood lactate accumulation. Simulated competitions were organized to characterize his present running ability, compared to 1999-2000.

RESULTS: VO2max=64.2, VO2VT=52.8 & VO2RCT=60.8 ml*kg-1. His vMax=4.58, vVT=3.58, vRCT=4.25, v4mmol=3.39 & vVO2max=4.33 m*s-1. His cost of running (1% grade) was 257 vs 228, 211 & 188 ml*kg-1*km-1 vs ACSM norms, elite Europeans and elite East Africans, respectively. His best contemporary 1500m=296s vs his PR=269s (5.07 vs 5.58 m*s-1, representing 71.1 vs 77.2 of world leading performance). His contemporary race was run at 111% vVO2max, requiring an estimated 115% VO2max.

CONCLUSIONS: This case study of an elite runner with CP demonstrates that performance differences relative to able bodied individuals are largely attributable to an increased cost of running.

1006 Board #2 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Maximal Aerobic And Anaerobic Exercise Responses In Children With Cerebral Palsy And Typically Developing Children

Astrid C.J. Balemans1, Leontien van Wely1, Susan J.A. de Heer1, Janneke van den Brink1, Jules G. Becher1, Jos J. de Koning, FACSM2, Annet J. Dallmeijer1. 1VU University Medical Centre, Research Institute MOVE, EMGO+ Institute for Health and Care, Amsterdam, Netherlands. 2VU University, Research Institute MOVE, Amsterdam, Netherlands.

(No relationships reported)

Cerebral palsy is the most common cause of physical disability in childhood and is associated with a decreased physical fitness. It is unknown how different levels of motor impairment, classified with the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), might affect responses during exercise.

PURPOSE: To compare maximal aerobic and anaerobic exercise responses, and muscle strength across children with cerebral palsy (CP) with different levels of motor impairment, and with typically developing children (TD).

METHODS: 31 TD and 68 CP walking without (GMFCS I: n=35, or II: n=22) and with (GMFCS III: n=11) walking aids between 7 and 14 years old performed an incremental continuous maximal aerobic exercise test, a 20 s anaerobic Wingate test on a cycle ergometer, and isometric muscle strength tests. Respiratory gas analysis, heart rate, power output and strength were measured. An ANOVA was performed to determine differences between TD and the GMFCS levels, adjusted for age, length, weight and/or gender.

RESULTS: Analysis revealed a lower VO2max (ml/kg/min) and anaerobic threshold (ml/kg/min) for CP (I:35.3±1.8(SE), 19.3±1.3; II:33.8±2.1, 19.2±1.6; III:28.2±2.7, 15.1±2.0) compared to TD (41.0±1.3, 24.1±1.0, p<0.003). VEmax (L/min) and oxygen pulse (ml/beat) were also lower in CP compared to TD (p<0.05), while VE/VO2 was similar between groups. No association with GMFCS level was found for these variables. Maximal aerobic power output (W/kg) was lower for CP versus TD, and decreased significantly with increasing GMFCS levels (p<0.001). Mean anaerobic power (W/kg) was also lower in CP (I:4.67±0.19; II:3.27±0.24; III:2.5±0.33, p<0.001) compared to TD (TD:6.37±0.2) and with increasing GMFCS levels. The same trend was found for isometric muscle strength (Nm/kg) of the knee extensors and the hip abductors in CP (I:1.30±0.07, 0.96±0.04; II:1.07±0.09, 0.79±0.06; III:0.98±0.1, 0.6±0.07, p<0.001) and TD (TD:1.79±0.05, 1.42±0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: Children with CP have decreased fitness levels compared to TD. Maximal aerobic exercise responses showed a weaker association with motor involvement than aerobic and anaerobic power output and muscle strength. This might indicate that both motor impairment and inactivity affect the aerobic fitness, providing opportunities for training interventions.

1007 Board #3 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Cardiovascular Response in Submaximal Activities in Patients With Parkinson’s Disease

Arlène D. Speelman, Jan T. Groothuis, Marlies van Nimwegen, George F. Borm, Bastiaan R. Bloem, Maria T.E Hopman, Marten Munneke. Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen, Netherlands.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are physically less active than controls. Autonomic dysfunction, in particular an altered cardiovascular response during the performance of physical activities may play a role in a sedentary lifestyle. To examine whether PD patients have altered cardiovascular responses to submaximal activity, we compared PD patients with a control group of healthy controls.

METHODS: 546 sedentary PD patients and 29 sedentary healthy controls performed a submaximal cycle exercise test. The maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) was estimated from the Astrand-nomogram and compared between PD patients and controls. Variables that may affect the submaximal exercise test in PD patients were recorded, including motor symptoms, workload, demographics and level of physical activity.

RESULTS: Less than half (46%) of the sedendary PD patients had an adequate heart rate increase during submaximal exercise. This proportion was significantly lower than the proportion in sedentary controls (86%). Estimated VO2max of PD patients completing the test was significantly (p<0.001) lower than controls (21.9 (5.4) ml/min/kg in PD versus 33 (8.5) ml/kg/min in controls). Multivariate regression analyses demonstrated that weight, systolic blood pressure, resting heart rate and maximal workload were associated with the lack of an adequate heart rate increase during submaximal exercise (R2=27%).

CONCLUSIONS: Half of the PD patients lacks an adequate heart rate increase during submaximal exercise. Most likely due to attenuated sympathetic activity as a result of autonomic dysfunction. Those PD patients that had an adequate heart increase during the submaximal exercise test had a lower estimated VO2max compared to controls. (Funded by ZonMw (The Netherlands Organization for Health Research and Development (75020012)); The Michael J Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s research; VGZ; Glaxo Smith Kline; and National Parkinson Foundation)

1008 Board #4 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Psychometric Properties of Maximal Exercise Testing in Stroke: a Systematic Review

Charles Olivier, Désirée B. Maltais, Jean Doré. Université Laval, Québec, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Stoke is the leading cause of physical disability in the developed world. Although most (84%) stroke survivors have daily living activity limitations, improved aerobic capacity following aerobic exercise training is associated with a reduction in these limitations. Despite the importance of aerobic capacity for this population, however, there is no agreement in the literature as to the best method to evaluate it.

PURPOSE: To identify psychometrically robust aerobic capacity tests appropriate for stroke survivors.

METHODS: Potentially relevant articles published from June 1972 to June 2011 were identified from the PubMed, Embase and CINAHL databases using the following search terms: cerebrovascular disorders, cerebrovascular disease, peak, maximal, maximum, oxygen, capacity and fitness. Articles were selected by two independent reviewers based on the following criteria: 1) stroke survivors were the main population studied, 2) a maximal aerobic capacity exercise test was performed, and 3) at least one psychometric property was evaluated. Articles were excluded if: 1) the exercise test was performed with only one limb, 2) the article was a review, or 3) the study sample size was small (< 11 participants). The references of selected articles were also checked for other appropriate articles.

RESULTS: Of the 346 articles initially identified, eight articles, representing four different aerobic capacity tests, using four different ergometers (upright cycle, semi-recumbent cycle, semi-recumbent stepper and treadmill), were retained. Face validity, based on test protocols and results, has been established for all four tests. An acceptable evaluation of test-retest reliability [intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) > 0.80] was available for one test (upright cycle). This test was also the only one for which information was available on the minimal detectable difference at an individual level (≈16%). All but one test (treadmill) have been shown to be responsive to change at a group level. No information on clinically important difference(s) has been published for any test.

CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights the lack of published psychometric information on aerobic capacity tests suitable for stroke survivors, especially information that can help clinicians interpret change in individual patients.

1009 Board #5 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Effects Of Intensive Exercise On Muscular Strength And Gait Outcomes For Individuals With Incomplete SCI

Nicholas Evans1, Candy Tefertiller2, Michael Jones1. 1The Shepherd Center (A Catostrophic Care Hospital), Atlanta, GA. 2Craig Hospital, Denver, CO.

(No relationships reported)

Spinal cord injury (SCI) results in immediate and often permanent disability. Current evidence suggests that daily exercise can improve physiological function and health outcomes in individuals with SCI. However, the effects of intensive exercise training on muscular strength and recovery of walking function have not been fully investigated.

PURPOSE: To determine if combined resistance and locomotor training can improve lower extremity muscular strength and walking ability among individuals with chronic, incomplete SCI.

METHODS: This study is part of an ongoing trial investigating the effects of activity-based exercise on neurological recovery following SCI. Twenty-nine subjects (14 AIS C, 15 AIS D; 18-65yrs) participated in three, 3 hour training sessions per week for 24 weeks. Daily training included free-weight and machine-based resistance training, overground gait training, and body-weight supported treadmill training. Pre- and post-tests were completed for the 6 minute walk (endurance), 10M walk (gait speed), 1RM leg press (LP), 1RM leg extension (LE), and 1RM leg curl (LC).

RESULTS: Strength increased in LP, LE, and LC following 24 weeks of training averaging 20.17lbs +/- 47.2 (mean+/-SD), 14.40lbs +/- 29.5 (mean+/-SD), and 16.48lbs +/- 16.5 (mean+/-SD), respectively. Significant differences in LE and LC strength (p=.02) were observed between subjects with lower extremity motor scores (LEMS) ≥25 and LEMS<25. Individuals with LEMS≥25 demonstrated significantly greater improvement in strength compared to those with LEMS<25. Mean changes in 10M walk and 6 minute walk were 0.0804m/sec +/- 0.161 (mean+/-SD) and 96.60ft +/- 157.9ft (mean+/-SD), respectively. There were no significant differences in 6 minute walk and 10M walk between subjects with LEMS≥25 and LEMS<25 indicating that both groups experienced similar changes in gait outcomes following training. No significant correlations were observed between changes in LP, LE, and LC strength and changes in 6 minute and 10M walk tests.

CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that intensive exercise training can lead to improvements in both lower extremity strength and walking endurance among individuals with incomplete SCI. However, changes in walking ability appear to be multi-factoral and not purely a function of enhanced lower extremity strength.

1010 Board #6 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Differential Associations Between Inflammation, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Persons with Multiple Sclerosis and Controls

Tracy Baynard1, Melissa A. Linden2, Christie L. Ward3, Robert W. Motl2, Ellen M. Evans, FACSM3, Bo Fernhall, FACSM1. 1University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL. 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL. 3University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Multiple sclerosis (MS) and obesity share 2 common features: chronic inflammation and low physical activity (PA). Yet, the synergistic relationships among MS, obesity and inflammation are not well established, especially as these factors relate to PA.

PURPOSE: To determine the associations between anthropometrics, markers of systemic inflammation, and PA in MS vs. controls.

METHODS: Persons with (n=30) and without MS (CON) (n=30) were matched for body mass index (BMI) and had serum analyzed for interleukin-6 (IL-6) and C reactive protein (CRP) as markers of inflammation, body composition assessed by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, and walk capacity measured by a 6 min walk test (6MWT). The participants further completed 7 d of accelerometer and pedometer measures. IL-6 and CRP values were log transformed.

RESULTS: Both groups were similar in BMI, percent trunk and body fat, CRP and IL-6, whereas the MS group had lower accelerometry and pedometer counts, and less distance on the 6MWT (p<0.01) (Table). To control for alpha inflation significance was set at p<0.01. There was a significant correlation within the MS group between logIL-6 and average accelerometry counts (r = -.55). Within the MS group, there were no significant correlations between inflammation and body composition or between inflammation and the 6MWT. In contrast, the control group showed significant associations between logCRP and BMI, percent trunk and body fat, and 6MWT distance (r = .48, .64, .55, and -.49, respectively), but not mean accelerometer counts.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest inflammation may exert differential effects depending on disease status, with markers of inflammation not interacting as strongly with obesity in MS as it does in a control population.


C-14 Thematic Poster - Muscle Fatigue

MAY 31, 2012 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

ROOM: 2000

1011 Chair: Jane Kent-Braun, FACSM. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

1012 Board #1 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Cellular Studies of Low Frequency Fatigue in Rat Skeletal Muscle

Robert H. Fitts, FACSM1, James R. Peters1, James L. Bain2, Danny A. Riley2. 1Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI. 2Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Muscle fatigue, defined as a loss of force and power, is problematic particularly in the elderly and those suffering from heart disease. Despite considerable progress, the causes of muscle fatigue are not yet resolved.

PURPOSE: To elucidate the cellular mechanisms responsible for low frequency fatigue (LFF), a condition characterized by selective loss of force at low frequencies of activation.

METHODS: Following anesthesia (Nembutal 50mg/kg body wt.), the EDL was set-up in situ, and low frequency fatigue (LFF) produced using the protocol of Westerblad and Allen (J.Gen.Physiol. 98: 615-635, 1991). The low to high frequency ratio (20/150 Hz) was 0.45 for pre and 0.30 for post fatigue. Post-fatigue muscles were immersed in paraffin oil, single fibers isolated, and the surface membrane peeled back. The peeled fiber was connected to a force transducer, and peak force elicited by maximal electrical stimulation at 120 Hz, by ion substitution in which the K+ was replaced by Na+, and with direct application of Ca2+. To determine the endogenous SR Ca2+ content, fibers were equilibrated in high EGTA relaxing solution, washed, and placed in 30 mM caffeine releasing solution. To assess SR Ca2+ re-uptake fibers were incubated in Ca2+ loading solution for 10 s up to 2 min and SR content determined by caffeine release. SR pump leak was also determined.

RESULTS: Peak isometric force was similar in control vs LFF fibers with all three activation methods, but LFF greatly prolonged the relaxation transient (reflective of the Ca2+ transient). The endogenous SR Ca2+ content in LFF fibers (N = 11) was 75% that of the controls (N = 15), and peak force (30 ± 5 g) was 35% lower than control (46 ± 7 g). While substantial Ca2+ leak through the SR pump was observed, the leak was not affected by LFF. The reduced SR Ca2+ load in the LFF fibers was entirely explained by a significant decrease in the rate of SR Ca2+ reloading.

CONCLUSIONS: The etiology of LFF has been suggested to be caused by a reduced SR Ca2+ release. Our data confirms this and shows that the reduced release is at least in part caused by a decline in the rate of SR Ca2+ re-uptake producing a reduced endogenous SR Ca2+ load. The low SR Ca2+ load would reduce release and selectively depress force at low frequencies where the Ca2+-force relationship is steep.

Supported by Way Klinger Fellowship to RHF, Marquette University

1013 Board #2 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

pCa-Force Relationship in Single Muscle Fibers: Effects of Acidosis and Exercise Training at Physiological Temperatures

Cassandra R. Nelson, Robert H. Fitts, FACSM. Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Muscle fatigue is a loss of muscle power that results from a decline in both force and velocity. Intense exercise induces high rates of ATP hydrolysis and glycolysis which correspond to increases in inorganic phosphate (Pi), H+ and ADP. These factors are thought to induce fatigue by interfering with key steps in the cross bridge cycle, including ATP hydrolysis and rate and extent of transition from low- to high-force states. At saturating Ca2+, low pH was found to have less dramatic effects on peak force and peak power at physiological (30°C) temperatures. This has led some to question the importance of H+ as a fatiguing agent. However, the effects of low pH on force at suboptimal Ca2+ concentrations observed with fatigue are unknown. PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of acidosis and exercise training on the pCa-force relationship on chemically skinned skeletal muscle fibers at physiological temperatures (30°C).

METHODS: Fibers isolated from the soleus (slow) and gastrocnemius (fast) muscles of Sprague-Dawley rats were subject to a series of solutions with increasing free Ca2+ concentration at neutral (7.0) and acidic (6.2) pH at both low (15°C) and high (30°C) temperatures. Myosin heavy chain composition to type the fibers as slow type I, fast type IIa, IIx or IIb was determined by SDS Page gel electrophoresis. For exercise trained rats, the training protocol was six weeks of voluntary wheel running.

RESULTS:At both low and high temperatures, acidic conditions (pH 6.2) significantly increased the amount of Ca2+ required to elicit force. While all fiber types showed a decreased Ca2+ sensitivity at low pH, the most dramatic effect was in type IIx fibers at 30°C, where pCa50 values were 6.56±0.02 at pH 7.0 and 5.36±0.02 at pH 6.2 (p<0.01). Exercise training slightly increased Ca2+ sensitivity in fast IIx fibers at 15°C and pH 7.0 (pCa50 values: control 5.84±0.08 and trained 6.11±0.06, p=0.02).

CONCLUSIONS: At submaximal calcium levels characteristic of muscle fatigue, high H+ (pH 6.2) is a significant contributor to reduced force at physiological temperatures. Similar to high Pi, with low pH, the force-pCa curve was shifted more to the right (i.e. increased Ca2+ to elicit a given force) at physiological temperatures compared to low temperatures.

Supported by Way Klinger Fellowship Award (Marquette University).

1014 Board #3 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Sex Differences in Fatigue during Dynamic Contractions Differs between Arm and Leg Muscles

Jonathon Senefeld, Tejin Yoon, Marie Hoeger Bement, Sandra K. Hunter, FACSM. Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

The sex difference for maximal velocity contractions is not understood for upper arm muscles, nor compared to that for a lower limb muscle.

PURPOSE: This study compared the muscle fatigue in men and women during repeated submaximal dynamic load contractions at maximal velocity (MVDC) in arm and leg muscles.

METHODS: 14 men (22 ± 3 years) and 19 women (21 ± 2 years) attended two separate sessions to test dynamic fatigue of the elbow flexor muscles and knee extensor muscles on the Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer. For each MVDC, the subject moved their limb concentrically through a 90° range of motion at maximal velocity with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force. This cycle was repeated every 3 seconds for 3 sets of 30 contractions. MVICs were performed at the start of the session and immediately after the set of 30 contractions.

RESULTS: Men were stronger than women for both elbow flexion (90.0 ± 23.4 vs. 57.7 ± 8.3 Nm, P < 0.05) and knee extension (190.9 ± 46.5 vs. 160.3 ± 38.0 Nm, P = 0.05). MVIC decreased with the dynamic fatiguing contractions in both sessions (P < 0.05). The relative decline was greater for the elbow flexors than the knee extensors (28.4 ± 8.7 vs. 13.5 ± 11.4 %, P < 0.05) and was greater for men in knee extension (17.9 ± 11.8 vs. 10.0 ± 10.1 %, P < 0.05). There was no sex difference in MVIC decline for the elbow flexors. Initial contraction speed (maximal) was faster for men than women in elbow flexion (400 ± 136 vs. 307 ± 40 °/s, P < 0.05), but similar in knee extension (385 ± 49 vs. 400 ± 56 °/s, P > 0.05). Maximal contraction speed decreased during the repeated MVDC in both sessions (P < 0.05). The relative decline was greater for the elbow flexors than the knee extensors (13.5 ± 11.4 vs. 6.3 ± 10.5 % %, P < 0.05). Maximal speed declined similarly for men and women with the elbow flexors but was greater for women than men with the knee extensors (9.2 ± 10.3 % vs. 2.5 ± 9.9, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: When fatigue was induced by a dynamic contraction at maximal voluntary speed: (1) the elbow flexor muscles were more fatigable than knee extensors; (2) in contrast to sustained isometric contractions there was no sex difference in fatigue for elbow flexor muscles, and (3) the sex difference in knee extensor muscles varied depending on the measurement task.

1015 Board #4 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Age Differences In Fatigue During Dynamic Contractions In Arm And Leg Muscles

Tejin Yoon, Jonathon Senefeld, Marie Hoeger Bement, Sandra Kay Hunter, FACSM. Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Repeated lower limb maximal velocity contractions can elicit greater fatigue with advanced age, but whether this occurs with upper limb muscles is not understood.

PURPOSE: This study compared the muscle fatigue in young and old adults during repeated maximal voluntary dynamic contractions with a submaximal load at maximal velocity (MVDC) in arm and leg muscles.

METHODS: 28 young adults (15 men & 13 women, 22 ± 3 years) and 7 old adults (4 men & 3 women, 76.5 ± 5 years) attended two separate sessions to test dynamic fatigue of the elbow flexor and knee extensor muscles on the Biodex System 4 Pro dynamometer. For each MVDC, the subject moved their limb concentrically through a 90° range of motion at maximal velocity with a load equivalent to 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) force. This cycle was repeated every 3 seconds for 3 sets of 30 contractions. MVICs were performed at the start of the session and immediately after each set of 30 contractions.

RESULTS: Young adults were stronger than old adults in both elbow flexion (74.9 ± 23.9 vs. 53.1 ± 15.4 Nm, P < 0.05) and knee extension (180.8 ± 44.5 vs. 121.2 ± 28.4 Nm, P < 0.05). The relative decline in MVIC was greater for young adults than old adults in elbow flexion (28.9 ± 9.7 vs. 20.6 ± 8.4 %, P= 0.05), but similar in knee extension (P > 0.05). The relative decline in MVIC was greater in the elbow flexors than the knee extensors (26.1 ± 7.5 vs. 15.1 ± 11.7 %, P < 0.05). Maximal contraction speed was faster for young adults than old adults in knee extension (387 ± 55 vs. 280 ± 48 °/s, P < 0.05), but similar in elbow flexion (356 ± 112 vs. 80 ± 33 °/s, P = 0.085). Maximal contraction speed during MVDC decreased with the fatiguing contractions in both sessions (P < 0.05). The relative decline was greater for old adults in knee extension (14.7 ± 8.2 vs. 4.7 ± 10.5 %, P < 0.05), but similar in elbow flexion (15.1 ± 13.5 vs. 21.8 ± 15.0 %, P > 0.05). The relative decline was greater for the elbow flexors than the knee extensors (15.2 ± 13.3 vs. 6.8 ± 10.7 %, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: When fatigue was induced by a dynamic contraction at maximal voluntary speed with a submaximal load: (1) the age difference in the fatigue of the elbow and knee extensor muscles varied depending on the measurement task; (2) the elbow flexor muscles were more fatigable than knee extensors.

1016 Board #5 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Muscle Fatigue and Performance in Young, Older And Older Mobility-impaired Women

Jessica L. Fay, Damien M. Callahan, Stephen A. Foulis, Jane A. Kent-Braun, FACSM. University of Massachusetts- Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

The connection between muscle fatigue and physical performance has not yet been clarified for the aging neuromuscular system. This point may become particularly important for older adults with mobility impairments, where a fatigue-induced drop in absolute torque below some functional threshold may exacerbate the loss of mobility.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of age and mobility function on fatigue, absolute torque production and functional performance of the knee extensor muscles.

METHODS: Baseline peak torque (Nm and Nm/kg body mass) and measures of physical function (chair rise, stair ascent and descent times) were made in 8 young (25±4 years, mean±SD), 9 healthy older (70±3), and 7 older women with mild-moderate mobility impairments (74±3). Subjects then performed 4 min intermittent maximal knee extensions, once every 2 s at 120°/s over a 60° range of motion. Fatigue = [average torque from final 5 contractions/baseline torque]. Peak torque at the end of the protocol (average of final 5 contractions, Nm) also was determined. Performance was quantified as the sum of all peak torques (total torque, TT) produced during the protocol.

RESULTS: Chair rise, stair ascent, and stair descent times were slower for Oi than Y and O (p<0.05, all). At baseline, Y were stronger than O and Oi on both an absolute basis (120±26, 72±11, 58±12 Nm, respectively, p<0.001) and after adjusting for body mass (1.79±0.46, 1.11±0.19, 0.87±0.21 Nm/kg, respectively, p<0.001). Fatigue was not different between groups (p=0.66), but the absolute torque produced at the end of the protocol was higher in Y (51±13 Nm) than O (29±7) and Oi (23±8; p<0.01). Likewise, TT was higher in Y (8280±1780 Nm) than O (4877±881) and Oi (3340±1112; p<0.01), and there was a trend for higher TT in O than Oi (p=0.07). In O and Oi combined (n=16), stair descent time was inversely associated with TT (r=-0.49, p=0.05).

CONCLUSION: Despite the lack of difference in fatigue across groups, which is consistent with previous studies, total torque production was markedly and progressively lower in the O and Oi groups. The measure of TT, which captures both absolute performance and changes in torque production due to fatigue, may provide insight into the relationship between fatigue and functional mobility in our aging population.

NIH R01 AG21094

1017 Board #6 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Muscle Mass And Peripheral Fatigue: Implications For The Role Of Afferent Feedback

Matthew J. Rossman1, Massimo Venturelli2, John McDaniel1, Markus Amann3, Russell S. Richardson1. 1University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. 2University of Verona, Verona, Italy. 3George E. Whalen VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

Feedback from group III and IV muscle afferents has been implicated in regulating central motor drive (CMD) such that a critical threshold of peripheral fatigue is not surpassed during whole body exercise. Accordingly, the voluntary termination of exercise is thought to occur once a sensory tolerance limit, dependent upon the magnitude of ensemble afferent feedback from skeletal muscle, is reached.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to reduce the amount of muscle mass engaged during dynamic leg exercise to constrain the source of muscle afferent feedback to one muscle group, and examine the effect on peripheral quadriceps fatigue. We tested the hypothesis that dynamic, small muscle mass exercise (knee extensor - KE) would result in a greater degree of end exercise quadriceps fatigue, in comparison to the equivalent challenge utilizing a much greater muscle mass (cycling - BIKE).

METHODS: Eight healthy males (24±1 years, 83±6 kg, 178±4 cm) performed exhaustive BIKE and KE exercise at 85% of the modality-specific maximal workload. Pre- vs post-exercise maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and potentiated twitch forces (Qtw,pot) evoked by supramaximal magnetic femoral nerve stimulation were used to quantify the degree of peripheral quadriceps fatigue.

RESULTS: Significant quadriceps fatigue was evident following both exercise trials; however, the exercise-induced changes in MVC (-28%±1% vs -16±2%, p<0.05) and Qtw,pot (-53±2% vs -34±2%, p<0.05) were far greater following KE compared to BIKE exercise, respectively. The greater degree of quadriceps fatigue following KE exercise was in proportion to the greater exercise time (9.1±0.4 vs. 6.3±0.5 min, p<0.05), indicating a similar rate of peripheral fatigue development.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that at task failure, the sensory tolerance limit was reached by a strong local signal, elicited by a greater intramuscular disturbance in the quadriceps, during KE exercise. This contrasts with the sum of the more diffuse signals (of equal ensemble magnitude) following BIKE exercise. Therefore, the CNS likely tolerates a greater magnitude of peripheral fatigue when the source of skeletal muscle afferent feedback is confined to a small muscle mass, and this may facilitate greater exercise-induced muscular adaptation.

C-15 Thematic Poster - Sedentary Behavior: From Assessment to Impact

MAY 31, 2012 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

ROOM: 2009

1018 Chair: Charles E. Matthews, FACSM. National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD.

(No relationships reported)

1019 Board #1 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Sedentary Behavior And Biomarkers Of Cardio-metabolic Risk By Level Of Physical Activity In Older Adults

Keith P. Gennuso1, Keith M. Thraen-Borowski1, Charles E. Matthews, FACSM2, Lisa H. Colbert, FACSM1. 1University of Wisconsin - Madison, Madison, WI. 2National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Sedentary behavior (SB) has been associated with higher cardio-metabolic risk factors, independent of moderate-vigorous physical activity (PA). Less clear, however, is whether the relationship is modified by level of PA. The purpose of the current study was to examine the linear relationship between hours spent in sedentary behavior and various cardio-metabolic risk factors in those who are sufficiently (SA) and insufficiently active (IA).

METHODS: Data for adults aged ≥ 65 years were obtained from the 2003-2006 US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. An Actigraph accelerometer was used to objectively measure SB (<100 counts per min) and PA (≥1952 counts per minute). An accumulation of ≥150 minutes of PA per week was defined as SA. Cardio-metabolic biomarkers included waist circumference, BMI, blood pressure, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, HbA1c, and plasma glucose. Linear regression analyses were used to examine the relationship between hours of SB and cardio-metabolic biomarkers by level of PA (SA or IA), with adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, education, income, marital status, alcohol consumption, current smoking status, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, BMI, and accelerometer wear time.

RESULTS: In a sample of 1960 participants (aged 74.6 years) with complete data, each one hour increase in time spent in sedentary behavior was associated with increased BMI (B=0.75 kg/m2, p<0.001), waist circumference (B=2.20 cm, p<0.001) and CRP (B=0.08 mg/dL, p<0.001), and decreased HDL-cholesterol (B=-1.12 mg/dL, p<0.001) in the IA group (n=1699) but not the SA group (n=261). Similarly, in a sub-sample of 818 participants (aged 74.5 years) with fasting blood samples, increasing time spent in sedentary behavior was associated with increased plasma triglycerides (B=6.25 mg/dL, p<0.05) and glucose (B=1.87 mg/dL, p<0.05) in the IA group (n=707) but not the SA group (n=111).

CONCLUSION: Increasing time spent in SB was significantly associated with several cardio-metabolic biomarkers in the IA group, but not in the SA group. These data suggest participation in the recommended amount of moderate to vigorous PA might be protective against the deleterious effects of SB on cardio-metabolic risk in older adults.

1020 Board #2 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Sedentary Behavior and Risk of Excessive Gestational Weight Gain in Hispanic Women

Kristine E. Lynch1, Glenn Markenson2, Penny Pekow1, Lisa Chasan-Taber, FACSM1. 1University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. 2Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Excessive gestational weight gain (GWG) is associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, postpartum weight retention, as well as subsequent obesity in both the mother and her offspring. Hispanics are the most physically inactive ethnic group in the US and are disproportionately affected by overweight and obesity. Therefore, the need to identify modifiable risk factors for excessive GWG is critical.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of sedentary behavior on gestational weight gain in a cohort of Hispanic women.

METHODS: We used data from Proyecto Buena Salud, a prospective cohort study of 1620 prenatal care patients of Puerto Rican and Dominican descent. Sedentary behavior was assessed by bilingual interviewers using the Pregnancy Physical Activity Questionnaire (PPAQ) in early (<18 wks gestation), mid (19-26 wks gestation), and late pregnancy (>26 wks gestation). Women were asked to report the frequency and duration of sitting per day (e.g., sitting at work or home, reading, watching TV, and driving). Gestational weight gain was abstracted from medical records and categorized according to 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) guidelines. Multinomial logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between sedentary behavior and odds of exceeding IOM guidelines while adjusting for age and parity.

RESULTS: One third of women gained within the IOM Guidelines for GWG, 46% exceeded IOM guidelines, and 20% did not meet guidelines. Mean±SD GWG was 30.54±15.9 lbs. Mid pregnancy sedentary activity was positively associated with odds of exceeding IOM guidelines (p-trend<0.01). Specifically, those in the highest quartile of mid pregnancy sedentary activity had 2.6 times the odds (95% CI: 1.36, 5.06) of exceeding IOM guidelines compared to those in the lowest quartile. Early (OR=1.57, 95% CI: 0.94, 2.59) and late pregnancy (OR=1.05, 95% CI: 0.55, 1.99) sedentary activity were not statistically significantly associated with exceeding IOM guidelines.

CONCLUSION: Findings that mid pregnancy sedentary activity was positively associated with GWG could inform intervention studies in this high risk population of Hispanic women.

1021 Board #3 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Longitudinal Study Of The Relationship Between Sedentary Screen Time And Bmi: Adolescence To Adulthood

David A. White, Kristi L. Storti, Vincent C. Arena, Robert J. Robertson, FACSM, Nagle F. Elizabeth, FACSM, Laurel Chiappetta, Andrea M. Kriska, FACSM. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

Sedentary screen time (SST) has been associated with obesity in adults and adolescence. Additionally, sedentary behaviors as a youth have been found to track into adulthood.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between SST (i.e. time spent watching TV or videos, and playing computer/video games) in youth and Body Mass Index (BMI) in adulthood.

METHODS: 368 youth participated in the Epidemiology of Physical Activity from Adolescence to Adulthood study. Participants were assessed for both SST and BMI at 3 time points from youth to adulthood over an 18-year period (12-16yrs/old; 22-25 yrs/old; and 27-30 yrs/old). SST was measured by self-report hours per day (hr/d) of time spent watching TV/videos and playing computer/video games. SST was categorized into ≤2 hr/d and &gt2 hr/d. Jonckheere-Terpstra tests were used to examine linear trend in mean BMI across categories of SST during adolescence.

RESULTS: At time point I, 13.3% of subjects reported spending more than 2 hr/d in SST, at time point II 73.4% of subjects reporting spending more than 2 hr (p&It0.01) and at time point III, 81.7% of subjects reporting spending more than 2 hr/d of SST (p&It0.01). Progressing from the lowest category (which includes those always reporting ≤2 hr/d of SST) to the highest category (including those always reporting &gt2 hr/d of SST) during adolescence, mean BMI in adulthood (time point III) increased from 24.2kg/m2 to 27.7kg/m2 (p&It0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Time spent in SST as a youth was related to both SST and BMI in adulthood. Reducing time spent in SST to &gt2 hr/d during adolescence may be beneficial for preventing an increase in BMI in adulthood.

1022 Board #4 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Markers of Sedentary Behavior and Physical Function in Older Adults

Christopher Dondzila, Ann Swartz, Nora Miller, Kevin Keenan, Kristi Finco, John Hawkins, Scott Strath. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: As the proportion of older adults in the total population increases, a number of health care considerations pertinent to older adults become more prominent. Impaired physical functioning (PF) levels, in particular, can have detrimental effects on health care expenditures, quality of life, and independence. Physical activity has been shown to have a favorable impact on PF, but such associations are not as clear with the inclusion of markers of sedentary behavior.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sitting/lying (S/L) time and the number of sit to stand (S-S) transitions with PF, as assessed by the short physical performance battery (SPPB) and 400m walk test, in older adults.

METHODS: Sixty-five participants wore the activPAL™ (Glasgow, Scotland) accelerometer for seven consecutive days on the midline of their right thigh, measuring mean S/L time and S-S transitions. Participants completed the SPPB, receiving a cumulative score from 0-12 to categorize their functioning level, and the 400m walk test, reporting speed (m/sec). Spearman’s rho correlation coefficients were performed to test the association between S/L time and S-S transitions with total SPPB score and 400m speed.

RESULTS: The mean age and body mass index (BMI) for participants was 66.6 ± 8.3 years and 26.2 ± 4.3 kg/m2, respectively. On average, participants spent 17.9 ± 2.4 hours S/L, and averaged 45.9 ± 14.7 S-S transitions. Mean results for the SPPB and 400m walk test were 10.5 ± 1.2 and 1.6 ± 0.3 m/sec, respectively. Mean S/L time was inversely related to SPPB score (r=-0.33, p<.05) and 400m walk speed (r=-0.35, p<.05). Mean S-S transitions were positively related to SPPB score (r=0.48, p=.001) and 400m walk speed (r=0.30, p<.05).

CONCLUSION: Decreasing the time spent in sedentary behaviors and increasing transitions to the upright position were correlated with more favorable PF outcomes. Future interventional efforts should seek to increase disruptions of sedentary behaviors to promote benefits in PF.

1023 Board #5 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Patterns Of Objectively-Measured Prolonged Sedentary Time And Physical Activity At Work.

Alicia A. Thorp1, Genevieve N. Healy1, Elisabeth A.H. Winkler2, Bronwyn K. Clark2, Paul A. Gardiner2, Neville Owen1, David W. Dunstan1. 1Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia. 2The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. (Sponsor: Charles Matthews, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Prolonged sitting is associated adversely with biomarkers of cardio-metabolic risk and with premature mortality. Much of adults’ total sitting may occur in the workplace. However, limited evidence is available on the patterns of sedentary time among adults during working hours.

PURPOSE: To examine patterns of prolonged sedentary time and physical activity at the workplace in employees from different workplace settings.

METHODS: A convenience sample of 193 employees working ≥4 days/week in office (131), call center (36) and customer service (26) settings was recruited. Actigraph GT1M accelerometers were used to derive percentage of monitored working time that was spent: sedentary (<100 counts per minute; cpm); in light-intensity activity (100-1951 cpm); and, in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA; ≥1952 cpm). Prolonged bouts (≥20 minutes and ≥30 minutes) of sedentary time were also assessed (both frequency and duration).

RESULTS: Time at work (mean 8.6 hours) was mostly spent sedentary (mean [95% CI]: 75.7% [74.4, 77.0]), with some light-intensity activity (20.7% [19.6, 21.8]), and very little MVPA (2.3% [1.9, 5.0]). A substantial portion of workplace sedentary time was accrued in prolonged bouts of at least 20 minutes (39% of total sedentary time) or 30 minutes (24%). All outcomes differed significantly across workplace settings (p<0.001). Call-center workers were generally the most sedentary and least physically active; customer service workers were typically the least sedentary and the most active.

CONCLUSIONS: Further studies are required to document the nature and extent of exposure to prolonged sedentary time at work and to determine the health risks that may be involved for different occupational groups. Future workplace regulations and health promotion initiatives for workers whose jobs involve sitting for long periods might aim to reduce prolonged sedentary time.

1024 Board #6 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Associations Between Physical Activity And Sedentary Behavior In Active And Inactive Groups

Kate Lyden1, Sarah Kozey-Keadle1, Amanda Libertine1, Charles Matthews, FACSM2, Patty Freedson, FACSM1. 1University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. 2National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD. (Sponsor: Patty S Freedson, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Advances in motion sensor technology have enabled wearable monitors to capture more detailed and quantitative information about physical activity and sedentary behavior. As a result, investigations on how components of physical activity and sedentary behavior interact to influence health have emerged. However, it is not known how these behavioral characteristics relate to one another.

PURPOSE To determine the relationship among several components of physical activity and sedentary behavior and to compare these relationships for a group of habitually active individuals to a group of inactive individuals.

METHODS Participants (n =157) wore two activity monitors for 7-days. Individuals who accumulated an average of 30-minutes in MVPA were classified as habitually active. Pearson correlations were used to determine the relationship between each physical activity and sedentary behavior variable and a linear mixed model was used to compare the relationships between groups.

RESULTS Correlations among physical activity and sedentary behavior variables are presented in the shaded portion of the confusion matrix below and the un-shaded portion indicates if the correlations were similar between groups. Correlations were similar between groups for 13 of 15 comparisons.


CONCLUSION The correlations among physical activity and sedentary behavior measures are generally low for active and inactive groups, suggesting these behaviors are independent. These data will help inform the research community using wearable monitors to measure and relate components of physical activity and sedentary behavior to health.

Funded by NIH RO1 NR011477, RC HL099557

C-16 Thematic Poster - Supplementation and Oxidative Stress

MAY 31, 2012 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

ROOM: 2011

1025 Chair: David C. Nieman, FACSM. Appalachian State University, Boone, NC.

(No relationships reported)

1026 Board #1 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Effects of Quercetin Supplementation on Performance and Oxidative Stress Measures in Endurance Runners

Shane D. Scholten1, Brock J. Madsen1, Taylor A. Overweg1, Igor N. Sergeev2. 1University of Sioux Falls, Sioux Falls, SD. 2South Dakota State University, Brookings, SD. (Sponsor: Matthew Vukovich, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Quercetin (Q), a polyphenolic flavonoid with high antioxidant activity, is used for improving endurance in athletes, however, mechanisms of this effect have not been investigated using a chronic training period.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of dietary Q supplementation on oxidative stress, antioxidant activity, and performance measures in trained endurance runners. We hypothesized that quercetin will improve antioxidant status and, thus, increase exercise performance in endurance athletes.

METHODS: During six weeks of supplementation utilizing a double blind, randomized design with a two week washout period, 8 trained (VO2peak 59.2 ± 1.4 mL·kg-1·min-1) young (22.7 ± 4.1 yrs) male subjects received quercetin (1000 mg/d) or placebo (P) while maintaining their current training schedules. Blood samples were collected at baseline, post VO2peak test, and post 10K time trial (TT). Commercially available kits (Cell BioLabs) were used to measure total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), protein oxidation (protein carbonyl), and lipid peroxidation (malondialdehyde (MDA) in serum. Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) and steady state oxygen consumption during the self-selected speed 10K TT (3K, 6K, 9K) were evaluated before and after supplementation.

RESULTS: Following six weeks of supplementation, there was a significant interaction between treatment and time with the variable MDA (Q: -0.69 ± 0.22 pmol/mg protein vs. P: +0.88 ± 0.53 pmol/mg protein, interaction p = 0.019, repeated measures ANOVA). There were no significant pretreatment-to-posttreatment changes in TAC, SOD or protein carbonyl (p > 0.05). There were also no significant pretreatment-to-posttreatment differences in VO2peak or running economy during the 10K TT.

CONCLUSION: The findings obtained indicate that there is a relationship between Q supplementation and the statistically significant decreasing trend in MDA levels following six weeks of supplementation and training. This evidence suggests that Q may reduce oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation). However, performance improvements were not significant (as measured by VO2peak and running economy). Supported by NIH 2P20RR016479 and USDA SD00H325.

1027 Board #2 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Protective Effects of Melanoxetin Extract Supplementation on Acute Exhaustive Exercise-Induced Oxidative Damage in Liver

Jou-Chi Tang, Mei-Chich Hsu, Chi-Chang Huang. National Taiwan Sports University, Taoyuan, Taiwan.

(No relationships reported)

Acute exhaustive exercise generates free radicals that elicit oxidative damage in liver. Previous studies have showed that melanoxetin extracted (MXT) from the heartwood of A. confuse exhibits strong antioxidant effects.

PURPOSE: This study is to investigate whether MXT supplementation can protect the exercise-induced oxidative damage in liver.

METHODS: Forty mice aged 5-week were randomly assigned into four groups: non-exercise (vehicle administration; NE), control (vehicle administration; C), low-dose melanoxetin (10 mg/kg body weight; LM) and high-dose melanoxetin (20 mg/kg body weight; HM) groups. After 3-day oral administration of MXT or vehicle, mice from C, LM and HM groups performed exhaustive swimming (5% body weight loaded). The mice were sacrificed immediately at the end of exhaustive swimming. Blood or liver samples were collected for evaluating alanine amino acid transferase (ALT) and aspartate amino acid transferase (AST) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance (TBARS) levels, respectively. All measurements were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. All data expressed as mean ± SD and values of P<0.05 were considered significant.

RESULTS: AST and ALT levels were significantly (P<0.05) higher in C (17.8 ± 10.2 U/L and 46.6 ± 17.5 U/L) than those in NE (6.4 ± 1.7 U/L and 25.3 ± 5.0 U/L), LM (6.6 ± 1.4 U/L and 23.6 ± 7.8 U/L) and HM (5.8 ± 0.8 U/L and 23.9 ± 2.9 U/L) after exhaustive swimming. Furthermore, TBARS levels were no significantly differences among all groups.

CONCLUSIONS: These finding suggest that MXT supplementation may attenuate the metabolic stress in liver caused by exhaustive exercise.

1028 Board #3 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

Effects of Ionized Alkali Water Intake on Oxidative Stress Induced by Exhaustive Treadmill Exercise

Shinho Lee1, Sangkoo Woo2, Changduck Ha1, Hyeryeon Hong1, Jiyoung Chun1, Jiyoung Lee3, Hyunsik Kang1. 1Sungkyunkwan University, Suwon, Korea, Republic of. 2Andong National University, Andong, Korea, Republic of. 3Pohang University of Science and Technology, Pohang, Korea, Republic of.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of ionized alkali water (IAW) intake on oxidative stress and its related genes expression in highly trained athletes.

METHODS: In a single group and crossover design, 18 middle distance runners (mean age 17.9±0.9 yrs, BMI 22.4±1.2 kg/m2, VO2max 65.6±5.0 ml/kg/min) consumed tap water (TW) and IAW (pH 9.8±0.3) for 2 weeks, respectively, in a random order, and one week was allowed between each trial. After each trial, the subjects underwent an acute and exhaustive treadmill running at an intensity of 80% VO2max. Venous blood samples were collected prior to and immediately after the treadmill running and 2-hr and 24-hr post-exercise periods. Blood samples were used to measure serum concentrations for malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-6. RelA (p65) protein, inducible NO synthase (iNOS) mRNA, cyclooxygenase (COX) 2 mRNA and IL-6 mRNA were also measured in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

RESULTS: At the baseline, there was a tendency for serum IL-6 concentration to be lower (p=0.063) with the IAW trial (0.36±0.21 pg/dl) than that of the TW trial (0.62±0.53 pg/dl), with no significant differences in MDA (p=0.585) and TNF-α (p=0.349) between the trials. At the 2-hr (TW 2.70±0.77 vs. IAW 2.14±0.35 umol/dl) and 24-hr (TW 2.34±0.58 vs. IAW 1.94±0.40 umol/dl) post-exercise periods, serum MDA levels were significantly lower (p=0.002 & p=0.016, respectively) in the IAW trial than those of the TW trial. At the 0-hr post-exercise period, p65 protein level was significantly lower (p=0.046) in the IAW trial than that of the TW trial. No significant time by trial interactions were found for serum TNFα and IL-6 levels.

CONCLUSION: The findings of the study suggest that IAW intake can induce somewhat anti-oxidant effect against free radicals and reactive oxygen species occurring during exhaustive exercise and/or training.

This work was supported by the Korean Research Foundation Grant funded by the Korean Government (MOEHRD) (KRF-2011-32A-G00049)

1029 Board #4 MAY 31 8:00 AM - 10:00 AM

The Effects Of Acute Antioxidant Supplementation On Lipid Peroxidation And Total Antioxidant Capacity Following Intense Exercise.

Mark C. Turner1, Richard Page2, Angela R. Hillman2, Nigel Mitchell3, Jason C. Siegler, FACSM4. 1University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, United Kingdom. 2University of Hull, Hull, United Kingdom. 3British Cycling/Sky Procycling, Manchester, United Kingdom. 4University of Western Sydney, Sydney, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise induced oxidative stress has been found to increase as a result of various exercise modalities. Supplementing with antioxidants, in particular fruit and vegetable concentrate (FVC), have been found to attenuate such responses. However the effects of acute FVC supplementation markers on lipid peroxidation and total antioxidant capacity are yet to be determined.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects acute antioxidant supplementation on antioxidant status and lipid peroxidation following a short bout of intermittent, intense exercise. Method: Seven recreationally active males (25 6 yrs, 179.0 6.9 cm, 73.2 9.1 Kg, VO2max 54.7 7.3 ml·kg·min-1, 285 32 Wmax) completed two experimental trials consuming either a fruit vegetable concentrate (FVC) or Placebo (PLC) one hour prior to exercise. Following a five minute standardised warm-up (100W), subjects completed eight, 2-minute intervals at 85% Wmax interspersed with seven 2-minute intervals at 50% Wmax. Heart Rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured at the end of each interval. Venous blood samples were taken pre-exercise, immediately post, 1 hour and 2 hours after exercise to assess changes in total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS).

RESULTS: There were no significant main or interaction effects for changes in TAS (P>0.05). TBARS approached significance between conditions (P=0.08), however there were no main or interaction effects (P>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Acute FVC supplementation does not attenuate changes in TAS or TBARS following short-term, high intensity intermittent cycling exercise in recreationally active males. Supplementation using FVC may require a longer supplementation period to attenuate the effects of exercise induced oxidative stress.

D-12 Thematic Poster - Cool Tools for Physical Activity Assessment

MAY 31, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3020

1030 Chair: Robert W. Wilson, II. University of Wisconsin - Milwaukee, Wauwatosa, WI.

(No relationships reported)

1031 Board #1 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Artificial Neural Networks to Predict Physical Activity Type and Energy Expenditure in Children and Adolescents

Stewart G. Trost, FACSM1, Yonglei Zheng1, Karin A. Pfeiffer, FACSM2, Weng Keen Wong1. 1Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 2Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

(No relationships reported)

A number of studies have shown that pattern recognition approaches to accelerometer data reduction are feasible and moderately accurate in classifying physical activity (PA) type in children. However, the application of pattern recognition approaches to predict energy expenditure (METs) in youth remains unexplored in the research literature.

PURPOSE: To develop and test artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict MET level and PA type from processed accelerometer data collected in children and adolescents.

METHODS: 101 participants between the ages of 5 and 15 y completed 12 activity trials that were categorized into 5 PA types: sedentary, walking, running, light intensity household activities or games, and moderate-to-vigorous games or sports. During each trial, participants wore an ActiGraph GT1M on the right hip and VO2 was measured using the Oxycon Mobile portable metabolic system. ANNs to predict PA type and METs were developed using the following features: 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 90th percentiles and the lag one autocorrelation. To determine the highest time resolution achievable, features were extracted from windows that were 10, 15, 20, 30, 60, and 120 s in duration.

RESULTS: As window size increased from 10 to 60 s, mean accuracy for the PA type ANN increased from 81.3% to 88.4%. Average RMSE for the MET prediction ANN decreased from 1.1 METs to 0.9 METs. At any given window size, RMSE values for the MET prediction ANN were significantly lower than that observed for previously published regression-based equations.

CONCLUSIONS: ANNs can be used to predict PA type and energy expenditure in children and adolescents using I Hz count data from a hip-mounted uniaxial accelerometer. The associated MET predictions were more precise than conventional regression based approaches.

Funded by NICHD RO1 HD055400

1032 Board #2 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Evaluating Measurement Error in Physical Activity Recall Instruments with a Pattern-Recognition Monitor in Adults

Gregory J. Welk, FACSM, Miguel A. Calabro. Iowa State University, Ames, IA.

(No relationships reported)

A better understanding of measurement error is needed to improve the utility of physical activity recall (PAR) instruments.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate measurement agreement characteristics of a 1 day PAR (1dPAR) and a 7 day PAR (7dPAR) compared to temporally matched estimates from a pattern-recognition monitor under free-living conditions.

METHODS: Healthy adult males (n=25; mean age 52.6±18.7) and females (n=31, mean age: 54.4±19.2) wore a SenseWear Mini Armband (Mini) for 14 consecutive days, including sleeping time. Participants completed a 7dPAR on days 8 and 14 and a 1dPAR assessments on a randomly assigned day in both week 1 and week 2. Separate 3 way (gender x age group x BMI group) ANOVAs were used to examine the influence of these demographic factors on agreement between estimates of TEE from the two self-report instruments and the Mini.

RESULTS: Pearson product-moment correlations were moderate for all comparisons with the Mini monitor (1dPAR day1: r=0.60, 1dPAR day2: r=0.57, 7dPAR week1: r=0.51 and 7dPAR week2: r=0.56). The mean absolute percent errors were approximately 20% for the 1dPAR and 17% for the 7dPAR but demographic factors greatly influenced the degree and direction of error. With the 1dPAR, no age or gender effects were observed but differences in estimates of TEE were significantly smaller for lean individuals than overweight individuals and this was true for both week 1 (112 kcal vs 660 kcal, respectively) and week 2 (220 kcal vs 688 kcal, respectively). Similar effects were evident with the 7dPAR, but gender and age effects were also significant. Males had slight underestimates of TEE (average ∼ -145 kcal) while females had slight overestimates of TEE (average ∼145 kcal). Younger individuals (20-50) tended to underestimate TEE (average ∼ -180 kcal) while older individuals (50-80) tended to overestimate TEE (average ∼ 232 kcal).

CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal that the validity of self-report PAR instruments vary by gender, age and BMI levels. The use of measurement error models may improve the precision for use in population research.

1033 Board #3 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Assessment of Activity Patterns Using Multiple Accelerometer Epochs

Nathanael Meckes1, Stephen D. Herrmann2, Barbara E. Ainsworth, FACSM1. 1Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ. 2University of Kansas, Kansas City, KS.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To examine differences in the time spent in sedentary behaviors and in physical activity (PA) using four accelerometer epoch lengths.

METHODS: 10 adults (6 males, 4 females) wore four ActiGraph GT3X accelerometers on an elastic belt with two accelerometers over each anterior superior iliac spine of the hip. Each accelerometer was randomly assigned to record at different epoch lengths (1-second, 5-seconds, 15-seconds, and 60-seconds) for seven days to assess average weekly time spent in sedentary-, light-, moderate-, and vigorous-intensity PA levels. Modified Mathews’ and Freedson’ cut-points were used to assess PA and sedentary behaviors for each epoch, respectively. A repeated measure ANOVA was used to assess differences in time by epoch and intensity level.

RESULTS: Significant differences were found in the weekly minutes spent in the sedentary (p<.0001) and light-intensity (p.05).


CONCLUSION: By changing the epoch length, differences of 990 minutes in sedentary behaviors and 1,094 minutes in light-intensity activity were observed between the 1-second and 60-second epochs. Selection of epoch length should be taken into account when characterizing time spent in sedentary behaviors and lighter intensity PA.

1034 Board #4 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Why do ActiGraph Vertical Activity Counts ‘level-off?’ A New Perspective

Dinesh John1, Ross Miller2, Sarah Kozey-Keadle1, Graham Caldwell1, Patty Freedson, FACSM1. 1University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA. 2Queens University, Kingston, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Hip-mounted ActiGraph vertical activity counts level-off at running speeds above 10 to 12 Two factors have been postulated to cause this leveling-off: (a) constant vertical accelerations and (b) a narrow band-pass filter.

PURPOSE: To obtain empirical evidence that explains the leveling-off in ActiGraph vertical activity counts.

METHODS: Ten endurance-trained male participants (age= 28.2 ± 4.7 yrs) walked at 3, 5 and 7 km·hr-1, and ran at 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18 and 20 km·hr-1 on a force-measuring treadmill while wearing a hip-mounted ActiGraph GT3X. Accelerations of the body’s center of mass (CoM) were computed from ground reaction forces detected by the treadmill. Frequency content of CoM accelerations was derived using Fourier transformation of the signal. The dominant frequency during each ambulatory speed was determined from acceleration frequency content. Step frequency for each speed was obtained from the total number of heel strikes on the treadmill belt.

RESULTS: GT3X vertical activity counts leveled-off between 10 and 12 km·hr-1. In contrast, peak vertical CoM accelerations increased up to maximum running speed (1.32 ± 0.26 g at 10 km·hr-1 and 1.68 ± 0.24 g at 20 km·hr-1). The dominant frequency of the acceleration signals increased with running speed (4.1 ± 0.7 at 3 km·hr-1, 14.8 ± 3.2 Hz at 10 km·hr-1 and 24.8 ± 3.2 Hz at 20 km·hr-1) and were outside the GT3X band-pass filter limits (0.25 to 2.5 Hz). Step frequency increased from 1.54 ± 0.12 Hz at 3 km·hr-1 to 2.70 ± 02 Hz at 10 km·hr-1 and to 3.39 ± 0.27 Hz at 20 km·hr-1.

CONCLUSION: The leveling-off in activity counts is not due to constant CoM vertical accelerations, but due to the narrow band-pass filter of the GT3X (0.5-2.5 Hz). The filter is designed to detect ambulation and step frequency because walking humans rarely exceed a step frequency of 2.5 Hz. However, frequency content of the acceleration signal is more relevant than step frequency to accurately measure human body acceleration and to distinguish among various human physical activities. A wider band pass filter may capture previously eliminated higher frequency accelerations. This may enable the GT3X to distinguish among exercise intensities and improving detection of free-living activity.

1035 Board #5 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Estimating Type and Energy Cost of Physical Activity Using Multiple Accelerometers and Machine Learning Techniques

Scott J. Strath, Rohit J. Kate, Kevin G. Keenan, Ann M. Swartz. University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To develop and test multi-body located accelerometer models to estimate type and energy cost of physical activity across different age groups.

METHODS. Ninety-nine subjects separated into three age groups (18-39 (28.0±6.4) yrs, n=33; 40-64 (53.9±6.3) yrs, n=33; 65+ (71.1±4.1) yrs, n=33) performed 11 activities which included different walking speeds and activities of daily living while wearing three triaxial accelerometers (ACC, Actigraph), placed on the hip, ankle and wrist. During each activity, oxygen cost (METs) was assessed with a portable metabolic measurement system (Cosmed K4b2). Net activity METs were derived by subtracting measured resting metabolic rate from measured METs during each activity. Sec-by-sec ACC signals were represented as time series in terms of 50 uniformly discretized values called bins. Support Vector Machine was used for activity classification with bins and every pair of bins used as features. The value of a feature was the number of times in the signal the bin occurred or the pair of bins adjacently occurred. Bagged decision tree regression was used for net METs prediction with bins as features. To evaluate model performance we employed the leave-one-out cross validation method.

RESULTS. For all ages combined, maximal accuracy in activity classification for hip, ankle, and wrist isolated sites was 83%, 82%, and 69%, respectively. Combination ACC body location models improved activity classification up to a maximum of 89.2%. For each ACC body location model, or combined body location models, percent accuracy classification decreased as a function of age group, for instance for hip+ankle+wrist accuracy in prediction decreased from 92.8% to 92.6% to 85.9% for 18-39, 40-64, and 65+ age groups, respectively. Multi-site ACC location model prediction of METs root mean square error was 1.06 METs overall, or 0.86 METs for 18-39 yr olds, 0.85 METs for 40-64 yr olds, and 1.0 METs for 65+ yr olds.

CONCLUSION. Machine learning techniques for classification and regression using time series bins as features show promising results to predict activity type and energy cost. The difference in prediction of type and energy cost across age group reveals that movement patterns are distinct by age, and should be considered as analytic procedures to detect type and energy cost are further developed.

1036 Board #6 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Measurement Issues in Accelerometry: Evaluating Sensitivity to Change

Alexander H. Montoye1, Karin A. Pfeiffer, FACSM1, Darijan Suton1, Stewart G. Trost, FACSM2. 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. 2Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR.

(No relationships reported)

Despite numerous studies addressing measurement issues related to accelerometry, there is limited knowledge regarding accelerometers’ sensitivity to detect change in physical activity (PA). In addition, it is unclear if accelerometer models, epoch lengths, or cut-points for PA intensity influence sensitivity to change.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the sensitivity to change of two commercial accelerometers (AG and AC) using previously published cut-points and different epoch lengths.

METHODS: Participants (n=208) aged 6-16 years completed two separate visits which simulated an after-school program. The first visit (low) consisted primarily of light-to-moderate intensity activities (e.g., catch, bowling). The second visit (high) involved mostly moderate-to-vigorous intensity activities (e.g., tag, soccer). Both accelerometers were worn for each visit. Data were collected in in 1-second epochs for AG and 15-second epochs for AC and reintegrated to 15- and 30-second epochs for analysis. Time in MVPA was estimated using four previously developed cut-points for each accelerometer: Freedson/Trost (Fr), Puyau (Pu), Treuth (Tr), and Evenson (Ev) for AG; Pu, Ev, and two separate Heil (H1 and H2) cut-points for AC. Sensitivity to change was assessed by examining differences in MVPA estimates and total counts between the low and high visits using standardized response means (SRM).

RESULTS: Overall, SRM values were higher for AC than for AG (3.47-4.70 vs. 2.96-3.28, respectively) for MVPA. Both AG and AC showed high sensitivity to change for total counts (3.44-3.83 and 3.55-3.93, respectively). For AC, the H2 cut-points yielded significantly lower SRM values than the other cut-points, while there were no differences among cut-points for AG. Choice of epoch had no effect on SRM.

CONCLUSIONS: Both accelerometers showed very high sensitivity to change, and AC showed greater sensitivity than AG. Both AC and AG can detect change in MVPA, irrespective of epoch length and cut-point selection. Funded by NIHR01 HD055400

D-13 Thematic Poster - Diet, Exercise, and Insulin Sensitivity

MAY 31, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3022

1037 Chair: Barry Braun, FACSM. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

1038 Board #1 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Improved Insulin Sensitivity the Day After a Modest Session of Exercise in Obese Adults

Sean A. Newsom, Allison C. Everett, Jeffrey F. Horowitz, FACSM. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

(No relationships reported)

A single session of vigorous endurance exercise improves insulin sensitivity into the next day, and alterations in lipid metabolism may be important for this response. It is not clear whether a relatively modest session of exercise has similar effects.

PURPOSE: Determine the effect of a relatively modest session of exercise on insulin sensitivity and fatty acid uptake the next day in obese adults.

METHODS: Eleven sedentary obese adults (M/F: 3/8; BMI: 37±1 kg/m2; VO2peak: 20±1 ml/kg/min) completed three experimental trials. On two occasions, subjects exercised to expend 350 kcals in the afternoon. The next morning we measured insulin sensitivity (hyperinulinemic-euglycemic clamp) and whole-body fatty acid uptake (palmitate rate of disappearance from plasma (Rd)). These two exercise trials were identical except for the exercise intensity (50% VO2peak [EX50] and 65% VO2peak [EX65]) and the duration of exercise necessary to expend 350 kcals (EX50= ∼70min; EX65= ∼55min). Subjects also completed a control trial [CON], without exercise.

RESULTS: A relatively modest exercise session did indeed increase insulin sensitivity the next day (main effect for exercise; P=0.04), but there was no difference (P=0.8) between EX50 and EX65 (glucose infusion rate during clamp: 10.5±1.6, 12.9±1.9, 12.3±2.1 mg/kg FFM/min for CON, EX50, and EX65). Although the insulin sensitizing effect of exercise was statistically significant when all subjects were included in the analysis, this effect was driven by 8 subjects who demonstrated a relatively large improvement in insulin sensitivity (main effect P=0.009; “responders”). In contrast, exercise did not improve insulin sensitivity in 3 subjects (“non-responders”). Furthermore, exercise tended to lower fatty acid uptake (palmitate Rd) in the “responders” (P≤0.1), but not the “non-responders”. Accordingly, the change in fatty acid uptake after exercise compared with CON was negatively correlated to the change in insulin sensitivity for all subjects (r=-0.543, P=0.01).

CONCLUSION: A relatively modest session of exercise in obese adults improved insulin sensitivity the next day. A reduction in systemic fatty acid uptake after exercise may be an important adaptation for the exercise-induced improvement in insulin sensitivity in obese adults.

Support: NIH-NIDDK Grant #R01DK077966

1039 Board #2 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

A Single Session Of Moderate-Intensity Aerobic Exercise Improves Muscle Insulin Sensitivity In Older Women

Xuewen Wang, Bruce W. Patterson, Janine Kampelman, Dominic N. Reeds, Shelby Sullivan, Bettina Mittendorfer. Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND: The acute effect of aerobic exercise on multi-organ insulin sensitivity in older adults is not clear.

PURPOSE: To determine whether a single session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves multi-organ insulin sensitivity (hepatic glucose production, adipose tissue lipolysis, and muscle glucose uptake) in older women.

METHODS: Two-stage hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp procedures (insulin infusion rate stage 1: 10 mU/m2 body surface area [BSA]/min; stage 2: 50 mU/m2 BSA/min) in conjunction with stable isotope-labeled tracer infusions were used to evaluate multi-organ insulin sensitivity in eight women (age: 68 ± 2 years, 38 ± 2 % body fat, mean ± SEM). Each woman performed two randomized clamps: one after a single bout of aerobic exercise (60% maximum oxygen consumption for one hour) in previous late afternoon and another one at the same time of day but without exercise in previous day. Euglycemia was maintained at approximately 100 mg/dl during stage 1 and 2.

RESULTS: Basal glucose rates of appearance (Ra) into plasma and disappearance (Rd) were similar with and without exercise (p = 0.36). The insulin-mediated decrease in glucose Ra during stage 1 was not different between clamps with and without exercise (76.8% ± 2.5% and 81.7% ± 4.0%, respectively, p = 0.22), but the insulin-mediated increase in glucose Rd during stage 2 of the clamp was significantly greater after exercise than without exercise (394% ± 44% vs. 332% ± 45%, p = 0.05). There were no differences in palmitate Ra into plasma during basal conditions or during the clamp (all p ≥ 0.50).

CONCLUSIONS: A single 1-hour session of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise improves insulin-stimulated glucose disposal by muscle in older women.

Supported by NIH grants K99AG031297, UL1RR024992, P30DK056341.

1040 Board #3 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Assessment of Peripheral and Hepatic Insulin Action By Continuous Glucose Infusion With Stable Isotope Tracer

Kirsten Granados, Carrie Sharoff, Barry Braun, FACSM. University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

People with prediabetes typically have both low peripheral insulin action (PIA) and low hepatic insulin action (HIA). Assessing the impact of lifestyle interventions on both PIA and HIA is difficult because they are not easily distinguished by the glucose clamp or the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT).

PURPOSE: To develop a quantitative method for the simultaneous determination of PIA and HIA under conditions similar to the traditional OGTT.

METHODS: 25 healthy men and women with a wide range of body fat and fitness were tested using both the Continuous Infusion of Glucose with Stable Isotope Tracer (CIG-SIT) and an OGTT in balanced order. The CIG-SIT method assesses hepatic glucose production (HGP) in the fasted state with a 90’ infusion of [6,6-2H] glucose at 2.5 mg/min and during insulin stimulation by infusion of 20% dextrose containing 2.0% [6,6-2H] glucose at 8.45 mg/kgFFM/min for 60’. Blood samples were collected at 0, 75, 90, 140, 145, and 150’ for determination of glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) and steady-state plasma insulin (SSPI) concentrations. PIA and HIA were defined as Rd/SSPI and the % suppression of fasting HGP during the dextrose infusion, respectively. The Rd/SSPI and % suppression of HGP were compared to composite insulin sensitivity index (C-ISI) scores calculated from an OGTT. Strength of the correlations between the tests and statistical significance were evaluated using pearson-product moment correlation.

RESULTS: Both plasma glucose and insulin values reached steady-state in the last 15’ of CIG-SIT. Peak glucose concentrations in CIG-SIT were comparable to OGTT values (9.67 ± 1.82 mM vs 9.48 ± 2.94 mM, respectively; p =0.60) with a corresponding 3-fold increase from fasting insulin concentrations (p < 0.01). Glucose uptake rose by 259% (p= < 0.01) and HGP was 65.4% suppressed (p < 0.01) during the glucose infusion. Rd/SSPI was significantly correlated with C-ISI scores (r = 0.64, p < 0.01). In contrast, there was little correspondence between suppression of HGP and C-ISI.

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations during CIG-SIT closely matched conditions during an OGTT. Quantitative measures of both PIA and HIA can be assessed suggesting CIG-SIT may be useful to differentiate hepatic from peripheral responses to lifestyle interventions.

1041 Board #4 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Exercise Alleviates Lipid-induced Insulin Resistance In Human Skeletal Muscle - Signaling Interaction At The Level Of TBC1D4

Nina Brandt1, Christian K. Pehmoller1, Jesper B. Birk1, Pilegaard Henriette1, Louise D. Hoeg1, Kim A. Sjoberg1, Laurie Goodyear2, Bente Kiens1, Erik A. Richter1, Jorgen FP Wojtaszewski1. 1University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA. (Sponsor: Christian K. Roberts, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Excess systemic lipid availability by intralipid infusion impairs whole body and skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity in humans. Recent reports indicate that prior exercise can protect against this phenomenon on a whole body level.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a single bout of exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance and TBC1D1/D4 related signaling in skeletal muscle.

METHODS: In 8 healthy male subjects 1 hr of one-legged knee-extensor exercise was followed by 7 hrs of either saline or intralipid infusion. During the last 2 hrs a hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp (1.42 mU·kg-1 min-1 insulin) was performed. Muscle biopsies were obtained at time 0 min, 30 min and 120 min of the clamp and blood was sampled throughout the experiment from catheters inserted into the femoral artery and vein.

RESULTS: Intralipid infusion entailed a 32% lower glucose infusion rate and 55% lower leg glucose uptake (all P < 0.05) during the clamp compared to the saline trial. Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was higher in the prior exercised leg in both trials (P < 0.05) and was normalized compared to the resting control leg by exercise in the intralipid trial (P < 0.05). Neither prior exercise nor intralipid infusion caused any changes in proximal insulin or AMPK signaling. TBC1D4/D1 phosphorylation was increased by insulin (P < 0.05). Whereas prior exercise enhanced TBC1D4 phosphorylation on multiple sites (P < 0.05), intralipid impaired TBC1D4 S341 phosphorylation (P < 0.05). Intralipid enhanced PDH phosphorylation and lactate release. Prior exercise led to even higher PDH phosphorylation and activation of GS (all P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, lipid-induced insulin resistance in skeletal muscle is associated with impaired TBC1D4 phosphorylation and enhanced PDH phosphorylation. The prophylactic effect of exercise on lipid-induced insulin resistance may involve augmented TBC1D4 signaling, PDH deactivation and GS activation.

1042 Board #5 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Endurance Training Promotes Liver AMPK Phosphorylation And Improves Insulin Resistance In High Fructose-fed Rats

Rodrigo Ferreira de Moura1, Marcelo Costa Junior1, Natalia Oliveira Bertolini1, Camila A. Machado de Oliveira1, Vivian Cristina Calegari2, Maria Alice Rostom de Mello1. 1Sao Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil. 2Campinas State University, Campinas, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

High fructose-fed rats mimic metabolic syndrome features as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. The muscle contraction promotes improvement in glucose uptake mediated by AMPK phosphorylation (p-AMPK) in muscle. However, AMPK is also implied in lipogenesis inhibition and free fatty acid (FFA) oxidation in liver. As physical exercise leads to metabolic improvements on serum lipid profile and insulin resistance, liver p-AMPK may be involved.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of endurance training on insulin resistance, FFA and liver p-AMPK.

METHODS: Forty adult male Wistar rats were subjected to control diet (C) or high fructose-diet (F) during ten weeks. In the last four experimental weeks the rats of both groups were divided in sedentary (S) or trained (T) and submitted to swimming endurance training at 80% of maximum lactate steady state intensity. Insulin resistance was evaluated by insulin tolerance test (K-itt). The animals were killed 60 hours after the last training session, blood and liver tissue were collected. Serum FFA were evaluated by colorimetric method and p-AMPK by Western blotting technique. One-way ANOVA followed by Bonferroni post test was applied for statistical analysis, significance was preset to p<0.05. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

RESULTS: High fructose-diet led to insulin resistance and increased serum FFA in FS group, however endurance training improved insulin sensitivity and decreased FFA in FT compared to FS (K-itt CS: 3.2 ± 0.4, FS: 1.7 ± 0.2, CT: 3.8 ± 0.4, FT: 3.0 ± 0.4 %.min-1), (FFA CS: 88.9 ± 10.2, FS: 230 ± 27.7, CT: 91.4 ± 7.8, 70.7 ± 6.6 mg/L). High fructose-diet diminished AMPK phosphorylation compared to CS, however it was increased by endurance training (p-AMPK CS: 100 ± 2.7, FS: 84.9 ± 8.2, CT: 137 ± 21.1, FT: 107.4 ± 15.9%).

CONCLUSIONS: Endurance training increases liver AMPK phosphorylation and it may be related to improvement in insulin sensitivity and serum FFA in high fructose-fed rats.

Supported by FAPESP 2007/54098-0

1043 Board #6 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Repeat Meal of Paleolithic Diet Composition Lowers Insulin to Glucose Ratio Independently of Exercise

Po-Ju Lin, Katarina Borer. University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Caloric restriction is thought to be more important than macronutrient composition of the diet for weight loss, insulin sensitivity, and glucose tolerance. However, these parameters can also be affected by decreasing carbohydrate and increasing unsaturated fats and/or protein. Paleolithic diet, containing 22-40% carbohydrate, 19-35% protein, and 28-58% fat (Cordain et al. 2002) may provide health benefits for blood glucose control.

PURPOSE: Compare plasma glucose (G), insulin (I), and insulin to glucose ratio (I/G) after two weight-maintenance meals of Paleolithic (P) or Western (W) composition under sedentary (S) condition or after two pre-meal exercise bouts (X).

METHODS: Twenty-two healthy postmenopausal women participated in 1 of the 4 conditions: S or X trials with P (PS or PX, n=4 each) or with W (WS, n=6; WX, n=8). Meals were provided at 10 and 17h. The macronutrient composition was 30% carbohydrate (CHO), 25% protein (PRO), and 45% FAT in the P meals and was 60% CHO, 15% PRO, and 25% FAT in the W meals. Treadmill exercise bouts at 45% VO2max were performed between 7-9 h and 14-16 h. Blood was collected at hourly intervals for plasma G and I measurements. Areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated for G, I, and I/G during the two 7-h postprandial periods. Data were analyzed with mixed model ANOVA.

RESULTS: Mean caloric content of the first and second meals were 803±124 and 820±124 kcal, respectively. Mean energy expenditure of first and second exercise bouts were 408±60 and 408±66 kcal. Macronutrient composition and exercise had no significant effect on G, I, or I/G after the first meal. After the second meal, P diet was associated with 34% lower I AUC (F=6.85, p=0.02) and 28% lower I/G AUC (F=3.72, p=0.07) compared W meal in both S and X condition. Dietary composition had no effect on second meal G AUC, while exercise increased it by 9% (F=4.62, p=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: The significant reduction in plasma insulin and insulin to glucose ratio after a repeat meal of Paleolithic composition suggests that such a diet may have an acute beneficial effect on insulin sensitivity independently of pre-meal exercise energy expenditure while second exercise bout may reduce glucose tolerance independently of diet composition.

Supported by NIDDK grant R15 DK082800 and Blue Cross Blue Shield student award.

D-14 Thematic Poster - Exercise Effects on Cognition

MAY 31, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2000

1044 Chair: Phillip D. Tomporowski. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

1045 Board #1 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effects Of Two Durations Of Exercise On Cognition In College Students With AD/HD

Jennifer I. Gapin, Sara C. Bohall, Alyssa M. Humphreys, Jeffrey E. Herrick. Southern Illinois University Edwardsville, Edwardsville, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Despite evidence and rationale supporting the potential for exercise to benefit cognitive symptoms of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD), there is very little research in this area, specifically amongst college students. Behavioral interventions that augment traditional forms of AD/HD treatment are needed, and exercise is a simple, widely available and well-tolerated plausible intervention for AD/HD.

PURPOSE: To conduct a pilot study examining the effects of moderate intensity (65-75% age predicted heart rate maximum) exercise at 2 durations (30 minutes and 60 minutes) on cognitive performance in college students with AD/HD.

METHODS: Ten college students (n= 4 males and n = 6 females; M age =21.00, SD=1.57; Body Mass Index M =22.97, SD=2.94) diagnosed with AD/HD were recruited for participation. Participants completed the two exercise doses in a randomized counterbalanced order. Before and after exercise, each participant completed four cognitive tasks: Tower of London (TOL; planning); Digit Span Backward (DSB; working memory); Stroop (inhibition); and Trail Making Test (TMT; processing speed). Considering the small sample size and that this was a pilot study, effect sizes were calculated to examine pre-post differences for the 30 minute condition and the 60 minute condition.

RESULTS: For the 30 minute condition, all ESs indicated improvement and ranged from 0.11-0.75. The largest ESs observed were for TOL (ES = 0.71) and TMT (ES = 0.75). For the 60 minute condition, all ES indicated improvement and ranged from 0.22-1.2. The largest ESs observed were for TMT (ES=1.2) and TOL (ES=.69).

CONCLUSION: The data demonstrate the potential for exercise at both 30 minute and 60 minutes to benefit cognition in college students with AD/HD. Data from this pilot study are intended to provide guidance for future research examining the potential benefits of physical activity for cognitive functioning in AD/HD individuals, and ultimately facilitating the development of optimal physical activity interventions to improve treatment outcomes.

1046 Board #2 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effects Of Exercise On Memory And Frontal Processing In Individuals With Parkinson’s Disease

Krysten M. Knecht, Michael L. Alosco, Corey A. Peacock, Duane B. Corbett, Ellen L. Glickman, FACSM, John Gunstad, Angela L. Ridgel. Kent State University, Kent, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a degenerative neurological condition characterized by motor and cognitive dysfunction. Exercise has been shown to improve cognitive function in older adults and in those with neurological disorders such as PD. However, studies have failed to examine the role of exercise mode and intensity on cognitive changes.

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of upper versus lower extremity aerobic exercise on memory and frontal processing tests in healthy older adults and individuals with PD.

METHODS: Eight older adults with PD (mean- 63.9 years) and six age-matched healthy controls participated in 24 exercise sessions over an eight week period. Subjects were counterbalanced into one of two groups. Group I participated in active-assisted leg cycling at 85 RPM for the first four weeks and then completed four weeks of active-assisted arm cycling at 70-75 RPM. Participants completed 30 minutes of active-assisted cycling (either arm or leg), 10 minutes of resistance training and 5 minutes of balance training during each session. Individuals completed computerized tests of memory and frontal processing tasks at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks.

RESULTS: Repeated measures ANOVA examined whether type of exercise (i.e., arm or leg) was associated with improved performance on memory and frontal processing tests. No significant differences between the type of exercise and any memory tasks for controls or PD patients (p > 0.05) were present. However, there was a significant quadratic effect for PD patients on a test of complex attention and psychomotor speed, specifically Switching of Attention Digits (F(1, 11) = 6.31, p < 0.05; Baseline M(SD) = 31081.3 (12846.6); Leg exercise = 27566.3 (6453.9); Arm exercise = 34935.0 (11908.9). A similar trend was also present for Choice Average Reaction Time (F(1, 10) = 3.52, p = 0.09; Baseline = 1558.1 (692.9); Leg exercise = 885.9 (223.0); Arm exercise = 931.9 (277.9). Greater improvements after leg cycling were observed for PD patients.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that attention and reaction time is improved following a comprehensive exercise intervention in individuals with PD. Furthermore, there are also differences in cognitive responses between the two modes of cycling exercise.

Support: The Foundation of Aging Studies and Exercise Science Research, KSU EHHS Seed Grant

1047Board #3 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Physical Activity and Brain Function in Older Adults at Genetic Risk For Alzheimer’s Disease

J. Carson Smith, FACSM1, Sally Durgerian2, John L. Woodard3, Kristy A. Nielson4, Alissa M. Butts4, Nathan Hantke4, Michael Seidenberg5, Melissa A. Lancaster5, Monica Matthews5, Michael A. Sugarman3, Stephen M. Rao6. 1University of Maryland, College Park, MD. 2Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI. 3Wayne State University, Detroit, MI. 4Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI. 5Rosalind Franklin University of Medicine and Science, North Chicago, IL. 6Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH.

(No relationships reported)

The apolipoproteinE epsilon4 (APOE-ε4) allele is associated with cognitive decline in old age and is a risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Physical activity (PA) is associated with a reduced risk of incident cognitive impairment, particularly among APOE-ε4 carriers. We recently reported greater semantic memory related brain activation in cognitively intact physically active (High PA) APOE-ε4 carriers compared to physically inactive (Low PA) ε4 carriers and non-carriers (Smith et al., 2011).

PURPOSE: Here, we compared longitudinal changes in semantic memory-related brain activation in High PA and Low PA APOE-ε4 carriers.

METHODS: Thirty-two older ε4 carriers completed neuropsychological testing and a fMRI semantic memory task (famous name discrimination) at baseline and after 18 months. All participants were cognitively intact at baseline and were classified as High PA (n = 16) or Low PA (n = 16) based on self-report.

RESULTS: After 18 months, 5 of 16 High PA and 13 of 16 Low PA were classified as cognitively declining by at least 1 SD decrease in neurocognitive performance (Group difference, p = .011, Fisher’s exact test). A fROI analysis of the fMRI data and repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant Group by Time interactions for intensity of semantic memory-related activation. Significantly greater activation at baseline in the High PA group was attenuated over time (no change in Low PA) and resulted in no group differences at the 18-month follow-up.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that greater PA at baseline is associated with greater cognitive stability over 18-months in APOE-ε4 carriers and reduced neural activation during fame discrimination.

Supported by NIH Grant R01 AG022304

1048Board #4 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effects of a Locomotor-Based Physical Activity Intervention on Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Symptomatology in Preschoolers

Ogechi O. Nwaokelemeh, Jasmine Roberts, Manneh Ghazarians, Albert Mendoza, Sanyog Shitole, Sofiya Alhassan, FACSM. University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity (PA) has been associated with improvements in overall health and cognitive functioning in populations ranging from school-age children to older adults. However, very limited information is available on the cognitive benefits of PA in preschool populations.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a locomotor-based PA (LM-PA) intervention on ADHD symptomatology (hyperactivity disorder, aggression, and attention deficit) in preschool-aged children at risk for ADHD.

METHODS: Eight low-socioeconomic status preschool classrooms were randomized into a treatment group (LM-PA; n=4 classrooms) or a control group (unstructured free play; n=4 classrooms). The LM-PA intervention consisted of locomotor-oriented lesson plans and the UF-PA intervention consisted of supervised free playtime. Interventions were delivered for 30 minutes/day, five days/week for six months. Participants’ PA levels were assessed for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. ADHD symptomatology was assessed using the BASC-2 instrument. All measures were assessed at three time points during the 6-month study (baseline, 3-month and 6-month). Hierarchical Linear Modeling was used to examine the rate and magnitude of change in the dependent variables over time. For all models, full maximum likelihood estimation was used.

RESULTS: A total of 69 (LM-PA, n=40; UF-PA, n=29) preschoolers participated in the program (mean±SD; age=4.3±0.7 yrs; BMI= 16.7±2.4 kg/m2). The LM-PA group exhibited increases in total daily and during school percent time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA. Hyperactivity score decreased in the LM-PA group over the course of the 6-month study and increased in the UF-PA group (ξ2 =11.90, df = 2, p=0.003). Predicted rates of change for the LM-PA and UF-PA groups were -2.58 and 2.33 points, respectively. Aggression scores decreased in the LM-PA group and remained consistent in the UF-PA group. The predicted rate of change for aggression in the LM-PA group was 3.84 points (se=1.44, p=0.011). No other significant differences were observed.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide preliminary evidence that a locomotor-based PA intervention could potentially alleviate ADHD symptomology in at risk preschooler-age children.

1049 Board #5 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effects of Low Intensity Walking on Cognitive Performance: A Test of the Treadmill Work Station

Brandon L. Alderman, Ryan L. Olson, Diana M. Mattina. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

(No relationships reported)

In a creative attempt to address today’s increasingly sedentary lifestyle, active workstations consisting of a treadmill and an adjustable sit-to-stand desk have been introduced. Incorporating active workstations into classrooms and offices may serve as an effective means to increase physical activity, as well as energy expenditure, during the workday. However, some may be hesitant to implement the workstations because of the possible impairment they may pose to job performance.

PURPOSE: To examine the effects of self-selected walking on an active workstation on performance tasks requiring attention, mental flexibility, and working memory. Specific performance measures included response speed and accuracy on the Stroop and Eriksen flanker tests, as well as on a reading comprehension test, as measures of executive function.

METHODS: Sixty-six participants (n=27 males, 39 females; Mage=21.06 ± 1.6 years) completed two conditions: a self-selected intensity walking and a seated control, separated by 48 hours. During each condition, participants completed computerized versions of the Stroop test, a modified Eriksen Flanker task, and a test of reading comprehension.

RESULTS: As a manipulation check of intensity, a significant difference in heart rate between conditions was found, t(63) = 13.93, p<.001, ES = 1.6. No differences were found for either speed or accuracy on the congruent or incongruent versions of the Flanker test or the reading comprehension task, ps>.05. For the Stroop task, no between condition differences were found for the first two versions of the task (i.e., neutral and word color); however, participants were more accurate on the third version of the Stroop task (i.e., interference color naming task) during the seated control condition, a difference that just reached significance, t(65) = 2.01, p= .048, ES = .36. No differences in response speed were found for any of the three versions of the Stroop.

CONCLUSION: These findings reveal that performance on cognitive tasks, including those requiring executive control, are not impaired by walking on an active workstation. Implementing active workstations into offices and classrooms may help to decrease sedentariness without impairing performance.

1050 Board #6 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Acute Exercise Enhances Inhibition In Children With Adhd

Matthew B. Pontifex1, Brian J. Saliba2, Lauren B. Raine2, Daniel L. Picchietti3, Charles H. Hillman2. 1Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI. 2University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL. 3Carle Foundation Hospital, Urbana, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Given the increasing prevalence of sedentary behaviors during childhood, and the concomitant pervasiveness of neurobehavioral disorders such as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a greater understanding of the extent to which physical activity relates to brain health and cognition during development is of increasing importance.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of a single bout of moderate intensity aerobic exercise on preadolescent children with ADHD.

METHODS: Using a within-participants design in a sample of 20 ADHD and 20 healthy match-control children, neuroelectric activity and task performance were assessed while participants performed stimulus-response compatible and incompatible conditions of a modified flanker task following a bout of exercise or seated rest during two separate, counterbalanced sessions.

RESULTS: Following a single 20 minute bout of exercise, both children with ADHD and healthy match-control children exhibited greater response accuracy and allocation of attentional resources as indexed by increased P3 amplitude, relative to after a similar duration of seated reading. Further, enhanced scholastic performance in the areas of Reading and Arithmetic were also observed on the Wide Range Achievement Test III following exercise relative to seated reading.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that single bouts of moderately-intense aerobic exercise may provide a non-pharmaceutical treatment option for temporarily improving the cognitive health and effective functioning of preadolescent children with ADHD, and may have real-world implications for maximizing scholastic achievement during development.

Support for our research was provided by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (RO1 HD055352 & 2 T32 HD007333).

D-15 Thematic Poster - Hydration Assessment

MAY 31, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2009

1051 Chair: Lawrence E. Armstrong, FACSM. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

(No relationships reported)

1052 Board #1 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Improvements to Quantitative Errors of Assumption in the Water Deficit Equation using Plasma Osmolality

Samuel N. Cheuvront, FACSM, Robert W. Kenefick, FACSM, Kurt J. Sollanek, Brett R. Ely, Michael N. Sawka, FACSM. USARIEM, Natick, MA.

(No relationships reported)

The water deficit equation (WD1 = 0.6BW[1 - 140/sodium]) is commonly employed in medicine and nutrition to estimate the water required to correct dehydration during the initial stages of fluid replacement therapy. Several assumptions about the equation presumably limit its use, but these assumptions have not been systematically tested.

PURPOSE: To quantify errors of assumption in the water deficit equation.

METHODS: Forty euhydrated volunteers (34M, 6F) ranging in body weight (BW; 66 to 111 kg), body composition (body fat; 6 to 34%), and total body water (TBW; 33 to 64% of BW) were dehydrated (2.2 to 5.8% BW) using exercise, fluid restriction, or diuretic to produce a range of water and electrolyte losses. The primary assumption of WD1 was tested by determining free water (FW) loss from changes in plasma osmolality (Posm) relative to changes in TBW. Corrections to WD1 (dehydrated BW) for unknown euhydrated BW (WD2 using euhydrated BW; WD3 using mathematical correction for unknown euhydrated BW), TBW of 0.6BW (WD4), and the 140 plasma sodium constant (WD5) were evaluated by substitution with measured values. WD1 substituting [1 - (290/Posm)] for sodium was also tested (WD6).

RESULTS: Dehydration reduced TBW by 3.49±0.91 L, 57% of which (2.02±0.96 L) was FW loss, and increased plasma sodium from 139 (135 to 143 mmol/L) to 143 (141 to 148 mmol/L). Calculations for WD1-WD6 all underestimated TBW loss by 1.5 to 2.5 L (P<0.05). WD1-WD5 underestimated FW by ∼0.5 L (36%) to 1.0 L (54%) (P<0.05). However, WD6 accurately estimated FW loss to within 0.06 L (3%) (P>0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: WD1 grossly underestimates TBW and FW losses. Corrections for errors of assumption (WD1-WD5) did little to improve estimates. However, WD6 = 0.6BW[1 - 290/Posm] accurately estimates FW, but not TBW, losses. The use of WD6 for improving free water deficit estimates should be considered.

The opinions or assertions contained herein should not be construed as official or reflecting the views of the Army or the DoD. Supported by funding from the United States Army Medical Research and Materiel Command (USAMRMC).

1053 Board #2 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Urine Color And Its Relation To Mood In Athletes, Recreational Exercisers, And Non-exercisers

Carolyn L.V. Ellis, Nicole E. Moyen, Caitlin A. Jennings, Nicholas A. Arciniaga, Erin J. Griffith, Andrea B. DuBois, Daniela A. Rubin, Lenny D. Wiersma, Daniel A. Judelson, FACSM. California State University, Fullerton, Fullerton, CA.

(No relationships reported)

Despite profound effects of hypohydration on important characteristics such as mood, little research documents the hydration state of healthy, free-living adults. Given the important influence of exercise-induced sweating on total body water, habitual physical activity might modify typical fluid balance.

PURPOSE: To examine the free-living hydration state of a large adult sample, how fluid balance related to mood, and if habitual exercise influenced these relationships.

METHODS: Hydration status was examined in 231 males and 264 females (age = 21 ± 4 y) from three exercise classifications: collegiate varsity athletes (ATH, n = 101), recreational exercisers (REC, n = 221), and non-exercisers (NON, n = 173). Investigators assigned exercise status based on team membership and/or the Godin Leisure-Time Exercise Questionnaire. Participants completed the Brunel Mood Scale and provided a urine sample. Urine color (Ucol) was measured using an eight point color chart, ranging from very pale yellow (1) to brownish green (8).

RESULTS: 53.2% of all subjects displayed Ucol indicative of hypohydration (all participants Ucol = 4 ± 2). No significant differences existed in Ucol between exercise categories or genders. Males, females, NON, and REC each showed no significant relationships between Ucol and Anger, Confusion, Depression, Fatigue, Tension, or Vigour. For ATH, Ucol significantly related to Fatigue (r = 0.232), but no other mood descriptors. Male NON, male REC, male ATH, female NON, and female REC displayed no significant relationships between Ucol and any mood descriptor. Female ATH, however, demonstrated a significant relationship between Ucol and Fatigue (r = 0.286).

CONCLUSIONS: Many free-living individuals appeared to be hypohydrated. A detectable relationship exists between hydration status and fatigue in female athletes that was not present in other females or males.

1054 Board #3 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Hydration Assessment Using Sit-to-Stand Heart Rate after Isotonic or Hypertonic Hypovolemia

Brett R. Ely, Samuel N. Cheuvront, FACSM, Robert W. Kenefick, FACSM, Mark J. Buller, Nisha Charkoudian, Michael N. Sawka, FACSM. USARIEM, Natick, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Sit-to-stand heart rate change (SSΔHR) has been proposed as a diagnostic tool for aiding in the assessment of hypohydration (body water deficit), but no study has systematically evaluated SSΔHR cut-points using different levels and types of body water losses.

PURPOSE: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of the SSΔHR test and the proposed 20 b/min cut-point using both hypertonic and isotonic models of hypohydration.

METHODS: Thirteen healthy young adults (8M, 5F) underwent three bouts of hypohydration. The first bout used sweating to elicit large losses of body water (mass) (> 3% sweat). The second two bouts were matched to elicit 3% body mass losses (3% diuretic; 3% sweat). A euhydration control trial (EUH) was paired with each hypohydration trial for a total of six trials. Heart rate was assessed after 3-min sitting and after 1-min standing during all trials. SSΔHR was compared among trials, and Receiver Operator Characteristic curve analysis was used to determine diagnostic accuracy of the 20 b/min SSΔHR cut-point.

RESULTS: Volunteers lost 4.5±1.1, 3.0±0.6, 3.2±0.6% body mass during >3% sweat, 3% diuretic, and 3% sweat trials, respectively. SSΔHR (b/min) was 9±8 (EUH), 20±12 (>3% sweat; p<0.05 vs. EUH), 17±7 (3% diuretic; p<0.05 vs. EUH), and 13±11 (3% sweat). The 20 beats/min cut-point had high specificity (90%) but low sensitivity (44%) and overall diagnostic accuracy of 67%.

CONCLUSIONS: SSΔHR increased significantly in response to severe hypertonic hypohydration and moderate isotonic hypohydration, but not moderate hypertonic hypohydration. However, the 20 beats/min cut-point afforded only marginal diagnostic accuracy.

The opinions or assertions contained herein are the private views of the author(s) and are not to be construed as official or as reflecting the views of the Army or the Department of Defense.

1055 Board #4 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Thirst Perception Tracks Well with Acute Dehydration even After a Cold Shower

Catalina Capitan-Jimenez, Luis F. Aragon-Vargas, FACSM. University of Costa Rica, San José, Costa Rica.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: to determine if Engell’s 9-point subjective scale of thirst perception (TP) is able to detect varying levels of hypohydration after exercise in the heat. In addition, we wished to evaluate the susceptibility of TP measures to changing due to time or a cold shower.

METHODS: in a repeated-measures design, eight physically active college students (24.5±3.6 years, mean±standard deviation), reported to the laboratory after an overnight fast (10 hours or longer), on four non-consecutive days. They exercised intermittently in a controlled climate chamber (mean temperature and relative humidity: 32±3°C and 65±6%) to a randomly assigned dehydration equivalent to 0, 1, 2 and 3% of body mass (BM). Following exercise, subjects ingested a fixed volume of water equivalent to 1.20% BM in 30 minutes and TP was evaluated every 30 minutes over 3 hours.

RESULTS: Baseline characteristics were not different among conditions (p>0.05). Differences were found for TP (in arbitrary units) among conditions (p=0.012): TP at 0% BM (2.6±1.4) was lower than TP at 2 (6.3±2.3) and 3% BM (8.6±0.5) after exercise (p=0.018 and p<0.0005, respectively). TP at 0 (1.0±0.0) and 1% BM (1.4±0.5) was different from TP at 3% BM (5.1±2.8) after water intake (p=0.025 and p=0.032, respectively). TP was already the same for all conditions 30 min after drinking, (1.1±0.3, 1.1±0.3, 2.6±1.4, and 3.3±2.3 for 0, 1, 2 and 3% BM, respectively, p>0.05); it remained so for 3h. There was no significant difference in TP between two consecutive measures separated by a 30-minute period with a cold shower, but without drinking (t=0.89, 0.00, 1.87, and 1.00 for 0, 1, 2, and 3% BM, respectively, p>0.05).

CONCLUSION: This subjective scale of thirst perception is able to detect levels of hypohydration equivalent to 2% BM or greater. TP is robust but it decreases quickly after drinking (and remains low for 3h) even in the absence of euhydration.

Supported by UCR-VI-245-B0-315

1056Board #5 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Changes from High and Low Habitual Fluid Intake Alters Urinary Osmolality and Thirst

Evan C. Johnson1, Colleen X. Munoz1, Laurent LeBellego2, Alexis Klein2, Douglas J. Casa, FACSM1, Carl M. Maresh, FACSM1, Lawrence E. Armstrong, FACSM1. 1University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT. 2DANONE Research, Palaiseau, France.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study aimed to 1) define habitual fluid intake (FI; water contained in beverages and food) within a population of college-aged women and, 2) observe changes in urine osmolality (Uosm), blood serum osmolality (Sosm) and perception of thirst when habitual fluid consumption was modified.

METHODS: 120 women taking oral contraceptives recorded their food and fluid intake for 5 days. FI was analyzed using Nutritionist Pro software to determine high volume (HIGH) and low volume (LOW) levels of FI. Subsequently, 28 subjects (14 HIGH, 14 LOW) enrolled in the fluid modification stage (Phase 2). During the first two placebo days of their pill pack subjects consumed their habitual beverage volume. On day 3 FI was increased in LOW by prescription of 3.00 L/d of bottled water, and HIGH decreased FI by only drinking 1.25 L/d. Finally, each group returned to their habitual fluid consumption volume for one recovery day. Body mass, 24hr urinary (volume (Uvol), color (Ucol), specific gravity (USG), and osmolality (Uosm)), blood serum osmolality (Sosm), and perception of thirst (THIRST) measures were collected during Phase 2.

RESULTS: Phase 1 analysis revealed FI of LOW (1.62 ± 0.48 L/day) and HIGH 3.34 ± 0.56 L/day). THIRST was similar during baseline (5±2, 5±2; p = .419) but LOW exceeded HIGH during treatment (6±2, 3±1; p<.001) and recovery (5±2, 3±1; p=.045). Uosm differed at baseline (392±129, 766±210 mOsm/kg; p<.001), treatment (593±222, 274±60 mOsm/kg; p<.001), and recovery (356±167, 557±213 mOsm/kg; p=.010), and finally Sosm showed no differences at baseline (293±3, 295±4 mOsm/kg; p=.173), treatment (294±2, 293±2 mOsm/kg; p=.662), or recovery (294±3, 294±5 mOsm/kg, p=1.000). Repeated measures analysis for body mass showed no effect of treatment, but an effect of time (F [2, 26] =10.94, p<.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Phase 1 identified the range of habitual FI for our sample. Phase 2 demonstrated that differences in baseline beverage consumption between HIGH and LOW were not due to THIRST since no differences existed. Finally, although past research has shown Sosm to be a sensitive hydration marker during acute exercise-induced dehydration, the current data suggests Uosm is more sensitive than Sosm to mild body fluid changes (e.g. <2% body mass) in free living participants after a baseline value is established.

1057 Board #6 MAY 31 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Examination Of Saliva And Fluid Biomarkers During Progressive Dehydration

Colleen X. Munoz, Evan C. Johnson, Julie K. DeMartini, Robert A. Huggins, Douglas J. Casa, FACSM, Carl M. Maresh, FACSM, Lawrence E. Armstrong, FACSM. University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT.

(No relationships reported)

Measures quantifying fluid balance include body mass change (ΔBM), serum and urine osmolality (Sosm, Uosm), urine specific gravity (USG), urine volume (Uvol), and urine color (Ucol). However, 1) no universal marker for all circumstances exists due to, 2) the invasive nature of blood sampling, 3) the difficulty of obtaining urine samples under some conditions, and 4) the ease in obtaining saliva samples provides practical rational for consideration of salivary osmolality (Vosm) as a novel hydration index. Regulation of Vosm differs from traditional regulation of fluid and electrolyte balance; however, large daily variations in Vosm parallel to body mass fluctuations within individuals implies regulation of secretion based on fluid availability. Therefore, this study correlated %ΔBM vs. Vosm, Sosm, Uosm, USG, Uvol and Ucol.

METHODS: Twenty-three healthy male subjects (age 22±3y, mass 77.3±12.8kg, height 179.9±8.8cm, body fat 10.6±4.5%) participated. Subjects completed 5 visits to establish baseline body mass, followed by two dehydration trials in a warm (36±1 °C), moderately humid (48±3%) environment: 1) passive dehydration (Passive) where subjects sat for 5h, and 2) active dehydration (Active) where subjects cycled at a moderate intensity (71±9% predicted heart rate max) for 5h. Upon each %ΔBM and at 2.5 and 5.0h, investigators measured Vosm, Sosm, Uosm, Usg, Uvol, and Ucol.

RESULTS: Vosm strongly correlated with %ΔBM during Active (r2=-.76) but not Passive (r2=-.13). During Passive, urine markers (Usg > Ucol > Uosm) were more strongly correlated with %ΔBM than all other markers (r2=-.67, -.63, and -.60, respectively). During Active, the strongest correlations with %ΔBM occurred with Ucol (r2=-.76), Vosm (r2=-.76), Sosm (r2=-.71), and Usg (r2=-.67). A linear regression model revealed best predictors of %ΔBM during Passive were Uosm (p<.001) and Sosm (p=.009), and during Active were Vosm (p<.001), Sosm (p<.001), and Uosm (p=.008).

CONCLUSION: Analyses suggested certain biomarkers are more strongly related to %ΔBM at smaller (Usg>Ucol >Uosm) than larger (Ucol>Vosm>Sosm>Usg) degrees of hypohydration. Active results imply Vosm might be an accurate, non-invasive, simple predictor of hydration status during moderate to severe dehydration experienced by athletes, laborers, and military personnel.

D-52 Thematic Poster - Anxiety, Stress, and Exercise

MAY 31, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3020

1058 Chair: Jack Raglin. Indiana University, Bloomington, IN.

(No relationships reported)

1059 Board #1 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Short-Term Exercise Training Improves the Quality of Life of Sedentary Women with Generalized Anxiety Disorder

Matthew P. Herring1, Timothy W. Puetz2, Patrick J. O’Connor, FACSM3. 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. 2Emory University, Atlanta, GA. 3The University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Role and quality of life impairments in Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) patients are comparable, if not greater, in magnitude to other anxiety disorders, somatoform disorders, and major depressive disorder. Exercise improves health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among healthy and chronically-ill adults, but no randomized controlled trial has examined exercise effects on HRQOL among GAD patients. We reasoned that exercise would improve broad physical and mental dimensions of HRQOL among GAD patients because exercise improves physical fitness and specific signs and symptoms of GAD.

PURPOSE: To quantify and compare the effects of six weeks of resistance (RET) and aerobic exercise training (AET) on HRQOL among sedentary women with GAD.

METHODS: Thirty sedentary women, aged 18-37 years, diagnosed by clinicians blinded to allocation with a primary DSM-IV diagnosis of GAD were randomized to RET, AET, or a wait list control (WL). RET involved two sessions of lower-body weightlifting per week. AET involved two sessions per week of leg cycling matched with RET on body region exercised, positive work, active exercise time, and weekly load progression. The subscales of the SF-36 were used to assess HRQOL. Hedges’ d effect sizes and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) were calculated at post-intervention for each exercise condition compared to WL.

RESULTS: Six weeks of exercise training significantly improved physical and mental dimensions of HRQOL. RET significantly improved role physical (d= 1.04; 95%CI: 0.10, 1.97), role emotional (d= 0.96; 95%CI: 0.04-1.89), and mental health (d= 1.05; 95%CI: 0.11-1.98) subscales of the SF-36. AET resulted in significant improvements in physical function (d= 1.30; 95%CI: 0.34-2.27), role emotional (d= 0.75; 95%CI: 0.04-1.46), and vitality (d= 0.93; 95%CI: 0.01-1.85) subscale scores. RET resulted in improvements in all subscales other than bodily pain. AET resulted in improvements for all subscales except social functioning.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exercise training improves HRQOL among patients with GAD. The largest effects were observed for role impairments, physical function, vitality, and mental health. The findings from this feasibility study warrant further investigation.

Supported by a grant from the University of Georgia College of Education.

1060 Board #2 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Relations between Kinesiology Students’ Sedentary Behavior and their Physical and Mental Health

Mitch Barton, Scott B. Martin, Jacob S. Tucker, Allen W. Jackson, FACSM. University of North Texas, Denton, TX.

(No relationships reported)

A Bureau of Labor Statistics summary report (2011) of the results from the American Time Use Survey indicated that television viewing and socializing with friends account for a substantial amount of leisure time activity. Socialization, especially of young adults, often occurs in front of screen-based devices such as computers and cell phones. Sedentary behaviors increase the relative risk of morbidity and mortality independent of physical activity (PA). Unfortunately, less information is available about sedentary behavior in young adults which may lead to health risks in the future.

PURPOSE: To investigate the relations between sedentary behaviors and other physical and mental health characteristics of relatively active young adults knowledgeable about the benefits of regular PA.

METHODS: Kinesiology students (N=200) completed a general health survey that included self-report items from the Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (i.e., PA, sedentary behaviors), Self-Motivation Inventory, Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (i.e., aerobic capacity, strength, and flexibility) and Big Five Inventory (i.e., emotional stability).

RESULTS: An analysis of variance controlling for gender, self-reported Body Mass Index, and PA was conducted to compare students (n=25) reporting ≤2 hours of sedentary behaviors per day with those (n=175) reporting >2 hours of sedentary behaviors per day. Results revealed a significant difference (p2 hours of sedentary behaviors per day (M=4.53±1.19) on emotional stability (e.g., relaxed, happy, etc.).

CONCLUSION: Results illustrate that sedentary behavior is inversely related to mental health outcomes, even with those who are knowledgeable of the benefits of regular PA.

1061 Board #3 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Exploring Cognitive And Academic Performance Following Acute Aerobic Exercise: Influence Of Trait Anxiety

Tina A. Mattila, Annie Nekoliczak, Steven J. Petruzzello, FACSM. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Anxiety is often associated with impaired cognition. An affordable behavioral therapy (e.g., exercise) that could enhance cognitive performance in the academic setting would be valuable.

PURPOSE: To investigate 30 min of aerobic exercise on state anxiety (SA), cognition, and academic performance.

METHODS: 30 college students (14 [[Unsupported Character - ♀]]) with high (HTA: n=9; M=47.67±4.8) or low (LTA: n=21; M=23.67±2.13) trait anxiety (P< 0.001) participated in 3 sessions (1-2 hrs each): Visit 1-baseline assessments of cognitive function, academic achievement, trait anxiety, and fitness; Visits 2, 3-counterbalanced exercise (E) and control (C) conditions. C-sitting quietly for 34 min; E-34 min of treadmill running (20% <Ventilatory Threshold). SA was measured 0-, 35-, and 70-min post-condition. Measures of working memory (N-back), inhibition (Flanker), and academic achievement (SAT) were assessed 0- and 50-min post-condition. Participants completed the SAI, E/C, SAI, cognitive tests, math/reading SAT, SAI, math/reading SAT, cognitive tests, and the SAI (in that order).

RESULTS: SA decreased significantly more from baseline to 0-min post-E in HTA individuals than LTA individuals (P= 0.009). Reduction in SA from 35-min to 70-min post-E was also significantly greater in HTA individuals (P= 0.047). Average math SAT scores following E were higher than after C for both groups (P= 0.038). The increase in Math SAT score from C to E for HTA individuals (MΔ=1.11) was greater than for LTA individuals (MΔ=0.44), with an effect size of 0.37, although not statistically significant. RTs on incongruent Flanker trials (r= 0.40, P= 0.032) were faster during the second round of cognitive testing when SA decreased more 0-min to 35 min post-E.

CONCLUSIONS: SA decreased significantly more for HTA than LTA individuals following E. Greater decreases in SA after E were associated with higher Math SAT scores for both groups. Although not statistically significant, HTA individuals had a 2.5x greater increase in Math SAT score after E than C when compared to the LTA group, suggesting that the anxiolytic effects of E may act as a mechanism for enhanced academic performance in people with higher trait anxiety. Future research should investigate this relationship in individuals with test anxiety.

1062 Board #4MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Physical Activity and Perceived Stress among Young Adults

Amanda E. Paluch, Xuemei Sui, Thomas G. Hurley, Edward P. Crowley, Meghan J. Baruth, Gregory A. Hand, FACSM, Steven N. Blair, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

Mental health is an essential aspect of overall quality of life. Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) have the potential to influence a variety of mental health outcomes, including stress.

PURPOSE: To examine the association between perceived stress with CRF and objectively measured MVPA in a cohort of healthy young adults.

METHODS: Participants were 52 adults (62% women, ages 20 to 34 years, BMI 26.6±4.3) who enrolled in the Energy Balance Study. CRF was assessed by a maximal exercise test on a treadmill. MVPA duration (≥3 METs) was measured using the SenseWear Mini Armband for an average of 7.8±1.9 days. Stress level was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and dichotomized based on a score of 12 as the threshold for high stress. Data were analyzed using Pearson correlations and logistic regression.

RESULTS: Statistically significant correlations existed between CRF and perceived stress (-0.37, p=0.0071), MVPA and perceived stress (-0.28, p=0.046), and CRF and MVPA (0.72, p<0.001). After adjusting for age, gender, and BMI, for every 1 ml/kg/min higher CRF there was a 12% lower odds of being classified as high stress (OR (95% CI): 0.88 ( 0.79-0.98), p=0.02); and every 10-minutes higher in MVPA was associated with a 16% lower odds of being classified as high stress (OR (95% CI): 0.84 (0.72-0.99),p=0.04), and for every 30-minute higher MVPA there was a 40% lower odds of being classified as high stress (OR (95% CI): 0.60 (0.37-0.98), p=0.04).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher levels of CRF and MVPA were associated with lower perceived stress levels among young adults. Our findings suggest that even small amounts of 10 minutes daily MVPA or slight improvements in fitness could provide meaningful mental health benefits. Interventions focusing on increasing fitness levels and MVPA may be a successful avenue for controlling perceived stress levels during a period in life where many young adults are highly susceptible to experiencing stress.

1063 Board #5MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Exercise Enjoyment, Psychosocial Stress, and Depression as Predictors of Physical Activity Following a Two Year Period.

Jeanette M. Garcia, Elizabeth F. Nagle, FACSM, Robert J. Robertson, FACSM. University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: There have been numerous cross-sectional studies that have examined psychosocial variables and physical activity behavior, however, few studies have examined this association prospectively. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to examine exercise enjoyment (EE), psychosocial stress (PS), and depression (D) as predictors of physical activity (PA) behavior following a two-year period.

METHODS: At baseline, one hundred and eighty two young adult males and females aged 29.55 ( .99) years, completed the Physical Activity Enjoyment (PAE), Perceived Stress (PSS), and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression (CES-D) scales to measure EE, PS, and D respectively. Approximately two years later, follow-up measures included the Modifiable Past Year Physical Activity Questionnaire, a self-report measure of PA in the past year, measured as average minutes per week. Multiple regression analysis examined the association of EE, PS, D, and minutes per week of PA, controlling for age, gender, race, and BMI in the sample.

RESULTS: Regression analysis showed that enjoyment of physical activity (F=6.70, p=0.01) significantly predicted higher levels of physical activity, while levels of depression (F=4.04, p=0.05) significantly predicted lower levels of physical activity following a two year period. Perceived stress was not associated with physical activity levels (F=1.75, p=0.19).

CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that enjoyment of physical activity and depression may predict physical activity behavior. Higher levels of enjoyment are associated with higher levels of physical activity, while higher levels of depression are associated with lower levels of physical activity. Studies aiming to increase physical activity behavior should also focus on psychological behavior changes such as increasing enjoyment of physical activity and lowering feelings of depression.

1064 Board #6 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Impact Of Acute Exercise On The Cardiovascular Symptoms Of Anxiety In High-anxious Individuals

Ipek Ensari. Teachers College, Columbia U, New York, NY. (Sponsor: Carol Ewing Garber, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The study investigated the impact of a single bout of exercise on the heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and self-report state anxiety (SA) levels in sedentary individuals with high trait anxiety.

METHODS: A within-subjects design with 21 sedentary participants who scored in the top 18 percentile on the Spielberger Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) was implemented. Participants came in for testing twice; exercised on the recumbent bike at a moderate pace for 30 minutes during one visit and watched a slideshow (control) during the other visit. Participants were then administered the Stroop word task to induce state anxiety. HR activity was monitored throughout both sessions using a portable electrocardiogram device. BP, radial pulse (RP) and SA levels were measured upon arrival, 5 minutes after the exercise/slideshow and immediately after the Stroop Task.

RESULTS: The mean R-R interval decreased significantly in response to the Stroop task in the control condition (.82 ±.098 milliseconds (ms) vs .76 ± .079 ms, respectively; p=.000). However, there was no such significant change in the experimental condition (.67 ms to .64 ms; t=1.42, p=.171). There were no significant differences in the SA scores or in performance on the Stroop Task between conditions. The DBP was also significantly increased in the control condition after the Stroop task (73.8 ± 9.7 to 76.0 ± 8.4, p=.007). RP increased significantly after the exercise bout and remained elevated until the end of the session (Mean increase= 7.80 ± 13.64, p=.019).

CONCLUSIONS: Exercise may have a blunting effect on the cardiovascular symptoms of stressful events in high-anxious individuals. The higher R-R interval in the experimental condition despite a congruent trend in the SA scores suggest that these individuals may have a dissonance in their ability to process perceived versus physiological stress. The maintenance of the elevated heart rate after the exercise may have implications regarding the increased sensitivity of high-anxious individuals to symptoms of exertion, fatigue and heart rate elevation.

D-53 Thematic Poster - Barefoot Running Update

MAY 31, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3022

1065 Chair: Paul DeVita, FACSM. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

(No relationships reported)

1066 Board #1 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Magnetic Resonance Analysis of Intrinsic Foot Musculature during Running in Shod and Barefoot Conditions

D. S. Blaise Williams, III1, Brian W. Wurzinger2, Richard L. Segal3, C. Ryan Steinbaker4, Olivia M. Ratcliff1. 1East Carolina University, Greenville, NC. 2Duke University, Durham, NC. 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC. 4Eastern Radiology, Greenville, NC. (Sponsor: Paul Devita, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Barefoot running has recently gained popularity with proponents suggesting there is potential strengthening of the intrinsic foot muscles. While mechanical support of the medial longitudinal arch by these muscles is present, there have been no definitive studies estimating the activation of intrinsic foot muscles during running in shod or barefoot conditions.

PURPOSE: To evaluate intrinsic foot muscle activity after running in barefoot and shod conditions.

METHODS: The study included 4 recreational runners (ages 21-41 years). Each subject underwent a T2 weighted MRI of the right foot. Following this initial MRI, each subject ran 1 mile on a treadmill (6.67 mph) in a barefoot or shod condition. Shoe condition order was randomly determined. A second MRI scan was completed immediately after running. The protocol was repeated 48 hours later with the second shoe condition. InteleViewer imaging software was used to measure mean signal intensity of the abductor hallucis brevis muscle. Signal intensities from the images were fit to a monoexponential time curve to extract T2 time values. T2 times were converted to percentage change from pre-exercise values in order to normalize between subjects. Mean percentage change in signal intensity was calculated for each region of interest for all subjects and conditions. 95% confidence intervals for each variable were compared between conditions.

RESULTS: Across all subjects, there was a 7.7% (CI=-9.77% to 25.31%) increase in mean signal intensity between pre and post running in the barefoot condition and 13.9% (CI=-9.47% to 37.20%) increase in the shod condition. There was a 2.1% (CI=-4.86% to 0.57%) increase in T2 timing between pre and post running in the barefoot condition and a 3.2% (-6.75% to 0.38%) increase when running shod.

CONCLUSION: Based on these findings, running 1 mile on a treadmill does not result in significant activation of the intrinsic foot muscles. Further, barefoot running does not result in greater activation in these muscles compared to running shod. This suggests that barefoot running may not result in strengthening of the foot intrinsic muscles. Passive structures and extrinsic foot muscles may play a greater role in controlling foot motion than intrinsic foot muscles during running.

1067 Board #2 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Running-related Injuries During The Transition From Shod To Barefoot Running

Allison R. Altman1, Irene S. Davis, FACSM2. 1University of Delaware, Newark, DE. 2Harvard Medical School, Cambridge, MA.

(No relationships reported)

There are more than 16 million runners in the United States. Of these runners, up to 79% are injured each year. It has been suggested that an increasing number of runners are converting to barefoot running to avoid injuries by running with a softer landing pattern. However, the alteration in mechanics associated with this conversion may increase the risk of injury during the transition.

PURPOSE: To determine the injury patterns associated with the transition from shod to barefoot running.

METHODS: 109 barefoot runners were recruited from online advertisements. These runners were between 18-50 yrs and were running at least 10 miles/week. Injuries associated with barefoot transition were reported to a web-based survey. Injuries were divided into musculoskeletal injuries (MS_INJ) and injuries to the plantar surface of the foot (PL_INJ). MS_INJ were further divided into those that were professionally assessed where a clear diagnosis was noted, and those that were self-reported.

RESULTS: 17% (18/109) of the runners sustained a MS_INJ during their transition with half of those (9/109) seeking medical attention. 15% (16/109) of barefoot runners sustained PL_INJ. 37 total injuries were reported, with 21 being MS_INJ, and 16 were PL_INJ. The most common MS_INJ were foot, arch, calf and lower leg pain. Of the PL_INJ, blisters were the most common. Cuts, thought to be a significant risk with barefoot running, only occurred in 2/109 runners.

CONCLUSION: Overall, the occurrence of transition injuries was relatively low. Conditioning of the arch and lower leg muscles, coupled with a gradual toughening of the plantar surface of the foot should help to reduce these injuries during transition.

Table 1
Table 1:
Injuries reported during transition to barefoot running.

1068 Board #3 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Kinetics and Kinematics of Running After a 6 -week Barefoot Training Program

John E. Davis, Brianna Harfmann. Alma College, Alma, MI.

(No relationships reported)

Many studies have examined the biomechanical aspects of running barefoot. However, few have looked at these responses after training barefoot.

PURPOSE: The purpose was to establish if training barefoot alters running gait, ground reaction forces, and efficiency.

METHODS: Fifteen subjects were recruited and randomly assigned to three groups with the following experimental conditions: barefoot training, shod training and no training. Pretesting included measurements of ground reaction forces (Fx, Fy, Fz), oxygen consumption and joint angles. Each subject performed the tests both barefoot and shod. A six-week training program ensued and at the completion of the training post-testing was conducted. Data were analyzed via one-way ANOVA with significance set at p<0.05.

RESULTS: Consistent with past results, there was a trend in barefoot trained individuals to adopt the expected gait with forefoot strike and greater knee flexion. Increased knee joint angles were observed after the training period in these individuals supporting greater knee flexion upon impact. The barefoot trained group also showed a tendency to decrease vertical force (Fz) after training. Fz reductions were seen at both initial impact and push-off during the gait cycle. No training effects were demonstrated for Fy, Fx and ankle joint angles. Both barefoot and shod trained groups showed an increase in efficiency with training (barefoot = 13.2 + .3 % pre-training to 14.2 + .3% post-training; shod = 12.2 +.3% pre-training to 13.0 +.2% post-training).

CONCLUSION: While not statistically different, these data indicate that barefoot training results in running gait changes and decreased forces. These findings suggest that running barefoot allows the runner to better sense forces incurred and adjust to a forefoot strike to decrease impact forces.

1069 Board #4 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Adaptation Of Contact Dynamics Following An Eight-week Transition From Shod To Barefoot Running

Rami Hashish, Sachithra Samarawickrame, Kush Gaur, George Salem, FACSM. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Epidemiological studies suggest that 70 percent of the United States’ eleven million adult shod (SH) runners will sustain a yearly overuse injury - predominantly in the lower extremity. An increasing number of distance runners are transitioning to barefoot (BF) on the premise that the associated forefoot initial contact (IC) reduces the loading rate (LR), and thus potential for overuse injuries. However, the spatiotemporal characteristics of novice BF running are also associated with an increase in leg stiffness, which is a risk factor for knee injury. Therefore, the purpose of this exploratory investigation was to examine the effect of an eight-week transition from SH to BF running on this paradox.

METHODS: Kinematics and three-dimensional kinetics were collected on two habitually SH distance runners performing over-ground SH running at their self-selected speed and BF running at a matched speed. These runners were measured again following an eight-week transition to BF running consisting of a weekly incremental increase in BF running percentage. Loading rate was quantified as the derivative between initial loading (200 N) and the impact transient. Leg stiffness was modeled according to McMahon and Cheng (1990). Absolute change and the associated effect sizes (ES; Cohen’s d) between the two conditions are reported for the various measures.

RESULTS: Relative to SH running, novice BF runners demonstrated an increase in ankle plantar flexion (-23.7o; ES 2.52), a reduction in LR (-65.6BW.s-1; ES 4.05), yet an increase in leg stiffness (1.0; ES 2.18). Following the transition period, there was a reduction in plantar flexion at IC (2.2o; ES 1.027), as well as a reduction in both LR (-57.4BW.s-1; ES 1.08) and leg stiffness (-4.4; ES 1.36).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite being able to adapt a forefoot IC and a reduction in LR, novice BF runners presented with an increase in leg stiffness during ground contact. This may be associated with an increase potential for boney injury and be indicative of an impaired, or un-practiced, movement strategy. However, following the transition, there was a marked reduction in both LR and leg stiffness, suggesting that these runners adapted their movement strategy and contact dynamics - potentially reducing their injury risk.

1070 Board #5 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Adaptive Changes In Plantar-flexor Performance Following A Transition From Shod To Barefoot Running

Sachithra Samarawickrame, Rami Hashish, Kush Gaur, George Salem, FACSM. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

(No relationships reported)

An estimated 10-20% of the American population are regular shod runners, 25% of whom are injured at any given time. Recent anecdotal reports substantiate a claim first proposed by Robin and Hanna (1987) that habitual barefoot runners have reduced lower-extremity injury rates compared to their shod counterparts. As a result, there has been a steady increase in the number of habitually shod runners who have switched to barefoot running. However, no study to date has examined the long-term adaptive changes in lower limb muscle performance when experienced shod runners transition to barefoot running. A pilot study was conducted to demonstrate the changes in ankle plantar-flexor peak torque (PT) and peak rate of torque development (RTD) in two habitually shod recreational runners who progressively transitioned into barefoot running over an 8-week period.

PURPOSE: To compare the post-exertion decline of ankle plantar-flexor PT and RTD between two running conditions - a novel barefoot condition and a post-transition barefoot condition.

METHODS: Two habitually shod runners (26-year-old female and 34-year-old male) were tested for PT and RTD at 10° plantar-flexion on a dynamometer, before and after a bout of running (defined as 20% of their typical daily running distance). Dynamometry was repeated after an 8-week transition period.

RESULTS: In the novel barefoot condition, PT declined 38-45% (24N.m, 39N.m) for the female and male subject respectively. Post-transition, the PT declined only by 22-26% (17N.m, 25N.m) after exertion. The plantar-flexors demonstrated an overall improvement of 32.5% (Cohen’s D Effect Size (ES): 2.12) in resistance to the exertion related decline in PT. In the novel barefoot condition, RTD declined 30-43% (42N.m/s, 59N.m/s). Post-transition, the RTD declined only by 20-29% (24N.m/s, 34N.m/s). The overall improvement of the resistance to the post-exertion decline of RTD was 42.8% (ES: 4.34).

CONCLUSION: There is evidence of adaptive improvements in the performance parameters of the plantar-flexors following a transition to barefoot running. This exploratory study will inform the design of expanded prospective studies on the transition from shod to barefoot running, ultimately leading to the formulation of recommendations on the benefits/risks of transitioning to barefoot running.

1071 Board #6 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Comparison of Metabolic and Biomechanical Factors of Running Economy in Minimalist versus Conventional Running Shoes

Joseph R. Bootier, Lauren S. Morimoto, Wanda Boda, Bulent Sokmen, Jordan S. Smith. Sonoma State University, Rohnert Park, CA. (Sponsor: Bill Beam, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Running economy is determined by biomechanical and metabolic efficiency. Decreases in stride length (SL), increases stride frequency (SF), and decreases in VO2 at a given workload have been related to improved economy in running. Minimalist running shoes (MRS) have flooded the market and shoe companies claim that they improve running economy when compared with conventional running shoes (CRS).

PURPOSE: To test claims made by a MRS company that running in their shoes improves economy when compared to running in CRS.

METHODS: A randomized, continuous treadmill running protocol was completed by ten trained runners (18-35 yrs) for each footwear condition. VO2 measurements were continuously collected during three submaximal stages. Each stage was five minutes in duration (6, 7.5 & 9 mph) with three-minute walking recoveries between each stage in order to ensure steady state VO2. Saggital plane kinematic data were collected at 210FPS using a high speed Casio video camera. Kinematic data were analyzed using KA Pro video analysis software. VO2 data from CRS and MRS shoe conditions were compared using a 2×3 ANOVA. Delta efficiency was calculated for CRS and MRS and correlated to stride length in meters (m) and stride frequency in steps per minute (SPM).

RESULTS: The metabolic energy consumption (VO2) in MRS was lower than in CRS at 6 mph (33.3 vs. 33.8 ml·kg·min-1), 7.5 mph (40.0 vs. 41.2 ml·kg·min-1), and 9 mph (48.3 vs. 49.6 ml·kg·min-1) but the results were not significant (p<0.94). Average delta efficiency in the MRS condition was slightly higher (15.08%) than that of the CRS (14.79%) condition. A moderate correlation was found between SF (173.3 SPM, r= 0.31), SL (0.89 m, r= -0.32) and delta efficiency in the CRS condition. A slightly stronger moderate correlation was found between SF (174.9 SPM, r= 0.40), SL (0.90 m, r= -0.36) and delta efficiency in the MRS condition.

CONCLUSION: Although there were trends toward improved running economy, our study results showed no significant differences in running economy between CRS and MRS conditions in trained runners.

D-54 Thematic Poster - High Intensity - Clinical (Clinical Exercise Physiology Association)

MAY 31, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2000

1072 Chair: Devon Dobrosielski. Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD.

(No relationships reported)

1073 Board #1 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Aerobic Versus Strength Training in COPD Patients

Michael J. Berry, FACSM, Zachary Rogers, Jordan Hauser, Norman Adair. Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Both aerobic and strength training have been found to improve physical function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, there has been no direct comparison between the two training methods in the same patients.

PURPOSE: To compare improvements in physical function in a group of COPD patients completing both an aerobic and strength training program.

METHODS: Eleven mildly diseased patients completed a 3 month aerobic training program and approximately 5 years later completed a 3 month strength training program. Improvements in 6 minute walk distance (6MW), time to climb 1 flight of 11 steps (SCT) and time to rise from a chair 5 times (CRT) were examined.

RESULTS: The forced expiratory volume as a percent of predicted remained relatively constant over the 5 years (61.1 ± 5.9 vs 60.0 ± 10.3, p = 0.89). Aerobic and strength training increased 6MW by 160.2 ± 45.7 (p = 0.008) and 137.2 ± 23.8 (p = 0.001) feet, respectively. Aerobic training did not change SCT (p = 0.91); whereas strength training decreased SCT by 1.1 ± 0.31 sec (p = 0.008). Aerobic and strength training decreased CRT by 1.6 ± 0.7 (p = 0.056) and 4.6 ± 0.9 (p = 0.001) sec, respectively. When comparing changes as a result of participation in aerobic and strength training programs, there were no differences between the two in 6MW (r = 27.5 ± 61.4 feet, p = 0.67) or SCT (r = 1.1 ± 0.7 sec, p = 0.18). There was a trend (p = 0.08) for aerobic training to lead to greater improvements in CRT (r = 3.5 ± 1.5 sec).

CONCLUSION: These results show that both an aerobic and a strength training program are appropriate training modalities to increase physical function in patients with COPD.

1074 Board #2 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Methodological Aspects of Aerobic High-Intensity Interval Exercise in Cardiac Rehabilitation

Gerhard Tschakert1, Julia Kroepfl1, Alexander Mueller2, Hanns Harpf3, Leonhard Harpf3, Heimo Traninger3, Sandra Wallner-Liebmann4, Peter Hofmann, FACSM1. 1Karl-Franzens-University and Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria. 2Karl-Franzens-University, Graz, Austria. 3Center for Ambulatory Rehabilitation Graz, Graz, Austria. 4Medical University Graz, Graz, Austria.

(No relationships reported)

Aerobic high-intensity interval exercise (HIE) is an effective training intervention in heart disease patients. However, the optimal prescription of aerobic HIE in cardiac rehabilitation is still unclear.

PURPOSE: To compare acute metabolic and cardio-respiratory responses during short and long aerobic HIE to moderate continuous exercise (CE).

METHODS: 4 patients undergoing phase III cardiac rehabilitation (3 males, 1 female; age: 66.3±6.1 yrs; ht: 170.5±1.7 cm; wt: 80.5±10.0 kg), all treated with ß-blocking agents, performed a maximal symptom-limited incremental exercise test (IET). Subsequently, subjects performed three different exercise tests matched by mean load (Pmean) set 20 % below the second lactate turn point (LTP2): 1) short HIE with a peak work load duration (tpeak) of 20 sec, a peak work load (Ppeak) equal to Pmax from IET, a recovery work load (Prec) 10 % below LTP1, and a calculated duration of recovery phases (trec); 2) long HIE (tpeak 4 min, Ppeak corresponding to power output at 85 % HRmax at IET, trec 3 min, Prec calculated); 3) CE with a target workload equal to Pmean of both types of HIE. Sessions took 28 min and were randomly assigned and interspersed by at least 2 days. Statistical analysis was made using repeated measures ANOVAs with Fisher’s-LSD (least significant difference).

RESULTS: Heart rate was not significantly different between short HIE, long HIE, and CE (mean HR: 109.4±26.9; 112.9±25.5; 109.1±25.5 b/min; peak HR: 120.8±29.1; 127.0±24.9; 117.5±25.7 b/min). Peak VO2 was by trend lower during short HIE than during long HIE (1.5±0.2 vs. 1.8±0.4 l/min; p=0.057) with no difference to CE (1.6±0.2 l/min). Mean La was significantly higher during long HIE than during CE (4.0±0.8 vs. 2.5±0.6 mmol/l; p<0.05), and peak La tended to be higher during long HIE than during CE (4.4±0.8 vs. 2.8±0.8 mmol/l; p=0.057).

CONCLUSION: Short HIE gives lower or similar acute cardio-respiratory responses compared to long HIE and CE, respectively, despite considerable higher peak load intensities with greater peripheral muscular training stimuli without higher metabolic load. Training effects of this short aerobic HIE applying peak load durations of about 20 sec have to be proven in randomized controlled training studies.

1075 Board #3 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects Of Low Volume Strength Training Program In The Peripheral Muscle Dysfunction In Copd Patients

Fabricio Zambom1, Pilar Cebollero2, María Hernández2, Esteban Gorostiaga3, Javier Ibañez3, Javier Hueto2, María M. Antón1. 1Public University of Navarre, Tudela, Spain. 2Complejo Hospitalario de Navarra, Pamplona, Spain. 3Instituto Navarro del Deporte, Pamplona, Spain.

(No relationships reported)

Peripheral muscle dysfunction is one of the systemic effects of COPD more limiting functional capacity.

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of a resistance training of low-volume weekly (twice a week for 12 wks) or combined resistance (once weekly) and endurance (once weekly) training on the maximum strength of the upper and lower limbs and muscle power of the lower limb.

METHODS: Thirty-six moderate to severe COPD men and dyspnea (2-3) were divided in three groups: resistance group (RG, n=14, 2 days/wk resistance training), combined resistance and endurance group (REG, n=14, 1 day/wk resistance training and 1 day/wk endurance training) and control group (CG, n=8). The subjects were tested at 0-wk and 12 wk for maximal strength (1RM) and power output (70% 1RM) of the lower extremities and maximal strength (1RM) of the upper extremities. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS with the level set a priori at 0.05.

RESULTS: There were no significant differences in maximal strength and power at the beginning of the study among the three groups. The maximal strength in the leg press increased by 26% (from 189 ± 52 to 238 ± 68 kg, P<0.001) in the REG, 33% (from 189 ± 56 to 250 ± 89 kg, P <0.001) in the RG. The improvement was greater (P<0.05) in both groups than in the CG. The maximal strength in the chest press increased by 31% (from 50 ± 12 to 66 ± 18 kg, P <0.001) in the RG, 35% (from 51 ± 17 to 67 ± 17 kg, P <0.001) in the REG. The increases was greater (P <0.001) in both groups than in the CG. The maximal strength in the knee extension and dorsal exercise increased (P <0.001) by 27% and 31% in the REG and 41% and 41% in the RG compared to CG. The power of the lower limb at 70% of 1RM increased by 50% (from 557 ± 290 to 725 ± 258 w, P <0.001) in the REG, 33% (from 601 ± 167 to 797 ± 212 w, P <0.001) in the RG. No differences in the improvement of the upper and lower limbs between the RG and theREG.

CONCLUSIONS: Low volume (twice a week) resistance training improves the maximal strength and muscle power in the lower limb and maximal strength in the upper limbs in COPD patients. Also, once a week is sufficient stimulus to improve maximal strength in the lower and upper limbs and muscle power in the lower limb and the improvement is comparable to twice a week resistance training program. Supported by the Ministry of Education , Government of Navarre and The Public University of Navarre.

1076 Board #4 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

High-intensity Aerobic Interval Training In Cardiac Rehabilitation: A Matter Of Mode?

Inger-Lise Aamot1, Siv-Hege Forbord2, Vibeke Løckra2, Kjersti Gustad3, Andreas Stensen3, Astrid T. Berg2, Håvard Dalen1, Trine Karlsen1, Asbjørn Støylen1. 1NTNU, Trondheim, Norway. 2St.Olavs Hospital, Trondheim, Norway. 3Levanger Hospital, Levanger, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

High-intensity aerobic interval training (AIT) has been shown to increase peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) more than moderate continuous exercise, both in healthy and in cardiac patients. However, exercise training in a phase 2 cardiac rehabilitation (CR) is often at moderate intensity. Management of exercise intensity, exercise classes, older age and co morbidity in the patient group may be reasons for keeping traditional training regimes.

PURPOSE: to assess efficacy of AIT in a CR programme, organised either as outpatient hospital exercise training or home-based exercise training.

METHODS: 90 persons (80 men/10 women, mean age 57 ± 8,) referred to CR at two Norwegian hospitals, diagnosed myocardial infarction(MI) or had undergone revascularisation, were invited to participate. Exclusion criteria were heart failure, severe arrythmias or unstable angina. They were randomized to AIT ( 4x4 minutes of exercise at 85-95 % of peak heart rate (HRpeak) with 3 minutes of active breaks between intervals) on treadmills (TE n=34), in group exercise classes (GE n=28) or to home-based exercise training (HE n=28) for 12 weeks, twice a week. Cardiopulmonary exercise test was performed before and after intervention to determine exercise tolerance, VO2peak and HRpeak. All participants were instructed in use of heart rate (HR) monitors, and target heart rate (THR) was 85-95% of HRpeak. Main outcome measure was VO2peak. ANCOVA was used to analyse differences between groups, paired T-test for differences within groups.

RESULTS: 83 persons (92%) completed the programme with no adverse events registered. 7 persons (1 female) dropped out (TE n=2, GE n=3, HE n=2) due to orthopaedic problems (n=3), GI problem (n=1) or withdrawal of consent (n=3). Exercise adherence was high as median exercise sessions pr group was 24 (range 7-24 in TE, 18-24 in GE and 10-24 in HE). THR was achieved by all except one. VO2peak changed from 34.7±7.3 to 39.0±8.0 ml/kg/min (p=0.001), 32.7±6.5 to 36.0±6.2 ml/kg/min (p=0.001) and 34.4±4.8 to 37.2±5.2 ml/kg/min (p=0.001) in TE, GE and HE, respectively. TE changed significantly more than HE (p=0.013), differences between HE and GE, and GE and TE were not significant (p=0.467 and p=0.087, respectively).

CONCLUSION: AIT was efficiently performed in CR, independent of exercise mode, as it was minor differences between groups.

1077 Board #5 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

The Effects of Short Term High Intensity Exercise On Glucose Regulation and Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) in Borderline Type 2 Diabetics

Fergal M. Grace1, Nick Sculthorpe2, Julien S. Baker1, Lon Kilgore1. 1University of the West of Scotland, Glasgow, United Kingdom. 2University of Bedfordshire, Bedford, United Kingdom. (Sponsor: Prof Bruce Davies, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The present study was designed to investigate the effects of a short-term high-intensity exercise intervention on sedentary males identified as being pre-diabetic (5.6 to 7.0 mmol/l-1 ; 101 to 126 mg/dl-1). The study further investigated whether asymmetric dimethylargenine (ADMA) levels are affected by short term high intensity exercise in the same population.

METHODS: Following ethical approval and overnight fast, male university staff were recruited to participate in a study where they would have fasting blood glucose levels measured and the potential to participate in a supervised exercise program. Selection criteria to participate in the intervention part of the study were that subjects were aged between 38-45 years with elevated fasting blood glucose and did not participate in any formal exercise. Subjects (n=32) were suitable to participate (mean age 42+/-2.7 yrs) and were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group (n=16) performed 30mins of walk-run treadmill exercise at 80% heart rate max, 3 times/week-1 . Blood was sampled using standard venepuncture measurement and asymmetric dimethylargenine (ADMA) and blood glucose measurements analysed both pre and post intervention using standard techniques. Data was analysed using a one-way ANOVA using SPSS version 18.0 statistical package. Significance ratio of p<0.05 was used to indicate statistical significance.

RESULTS: ADMA levels were not significantly different either between groups or following the high intensity exercise intervention. Fasting blood glucose levels were significantly reduced (p<0.05) following a 3-week exercise intervention and were significantly lower than the control group (p<0.05) at the same time-point. 25% of intervention subjects (n=4) achieved sub-clinical fasting blood glucose levels.

CONCLUSION: The present study provides evidence that short-term high intensity exercise intervention can be effective in the control of blood glucose and is effective in the prevention of Type 2 diabetes in an at-risk population. The lack of change to ADMA indicates that this acute improvement is independent of changes to vascular endothelium.

1078 Board #6 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Hemodynamic Responses To Resistance Training In Patients with Cardiac Disease

Terje F. Gjøvaag1, Peyman Mirtaheri1, Jonny Hisdal2, Tonje Westlie1, Irja Tuchel1, Kari A. Bruusgaard1, Birgitta Nilsson2. 1Oslo and Akershus University College, Oslo, Norway. 2Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

Recent guidelines (e.g. AHA 2007) recommend resistance training (RT) with moderate intensity for cardiac patients. Blood pressure (BP) during RT in cardiac patients is reported to be within a clinically acceptable range at 40 % and 60 % of one repetition maximum (1RM) (Haslam et al. J Cardiopulm Rehabil, 1988), but these patients often exercise with much higher loading (e.g. Karlsen et al. Int J Sports Med, 2009).

PURPOSE: Compare the BP responses in cardiac patients following moderate intensity RT (40-60 % 1RM) and heavy RT (85 % 1RM). Preliminary data is reported.

METHODS: Four male and one female patient with a previous history of coronary artery disease participated. Mean (SD) age, weight and height were: 66.4 (5.4) yrs., 76.0 (10.0) kg and 175.5 (7.5) cm, respectively. The patients performed two sessions of sitting leg-extensions without breath holding. Sessions were separated by 48 hours and performed in a randomized order. The load was 3 sets of 15RM, (55 % of 1RM, or 3 sets of 4RM (85 % of 1RM). Beat-for-beat systolic (S) and diastolic (D) BPs were monitored by a Finometer Pro (Finapres Medical Systems). The Rate Pressure Product (RPP) is calculated as S-BP x heart rate (HR).

RESULTS: S-BP, D-BP and RPP (table 1) increased more following 15RM compared to 4RM RT (# p<0.05, 4RM vs. 15RM, Set 2 and 3). Compared to rest, S-BP, D-BP and RPP increased in set 2 and 3 for both 4RM and 15RM training (* p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: When RT is performed after international recommendations the S-BP and D-BP increased more than following heavy RT. In addition, measures of hemodynamic stress of the heart (RPP) show less stress following heavy RT. Thus, cardiac patients may tolerate heavy RT better than RT with moderate loadings when the RT is performed without breath holding.

Table 1
Table 1:
Median (min-max) values of S-BP, D-BP and RPP during RT

D-55 Thematic Poster - Noninvasive Measures of Muscle Metabolism

MAY 31, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2009

1079 Chair: Kevin McCully, FACSM. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

1080 Board #1 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Post Exercise Skeletal Muscle Phosphocreatine Recovery And Reoxygenation: Implications For Oxygen Transport And Utilization With Age

Corey R. Hart1, Gwenael Layec1, Joel D. Trinity1, Xin Liu2, Seong-Eun Kim2, H. Jon Groot2, Eun-Kee Jeong2, Russell S. Richardson1. 1George E. Whalen VA Medical Center, Salt Lake City, UT. 2University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

The decline in exercise capacity with age is most often attributed to a decrease in oxygen delivery and/or a reduction in skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. However, the effects of aging on these complex phenomena are still equivocal.

PURPOSE: To investigate both phosphocreatine (PCr) recovery kinetics, an index of muscle oxidative capacity, and O2 availability in both young and old people following dynamic exercise.

METHODS: A total of 11 subjects (5 young (Y) and 6 old (O)) performed sub-maximal dynamic plantar flexion exercise, following which PCr resynthesis was assessed (31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy), muscle re-oxygenation was evaluated by the rate of decrease in deoxy-hemoglobin/myoglobin (deoxy-Hb/Mb; near-infra red spectroscopy), and blood flow in the popliteal artery was measured (ultrasound Doppler).

RESULTS: End-exercise popliteal blood flow was similar between O (813 ± 261 ml.min-1) and Y (691 ± 113 ml.min-1), whereas muscle reoxygenation rate was slowed, as evidenced by the longer time constant (O: 74 ± 21; Y: 50 ± 18 s) and mean response time (O: 96 ± 32; Y: 60 ± 14 s) of deoxy-Hb/Mb recovery. In contrast, PCr recovery time constant (O: 66 ± 20; Y: 66 ± 13 s) and the maximal rate of oxidative ATP synthesis (O: 30 ± 7; Y: 32 ± 12 mM.min-1) were not altered by age.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite differences in post-exercise muscle reoxygenation rates, that reveal reduced O2 availability relative to metabolic demand, oxidative capacity appears to be preserved with age, likely achieved by a compensatory increase in tissue O2 extraction.

1081 Board #2 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects Of Superimposing Reactive Hyperemia On Pcr Recovery Kinetics: Different Outcomes From Healthy Subjects And Copd Patients

Gwenael Layec1, Luke J. Haseler2, Russell S. Richardson1. 1University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT. 2Griffith University, Griffith, Australia.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: Post-exercise PCr recovery is now largely considered a reliable index of mitochondrial ATP production and oxidative capacity. Using different fractions of inspired O2, it has previously been documented that PCr resynthesis is sensitive to O2 availability. Reactive hyperemia (RH) induced by brief circulatory occlusion, could enhance O2 availability during the post-exercise recovery period and may be an interesting tool to evaluate the coupling between perfusion and metabolism in skeletal muscle. However, the effects of RH on PCr resynthesis kinetics have not yet been investigated.

PURPOSE: To determine whether a period of brief ischemia during exercise followed by RH would affect the PCr recovery kinetics in both young healthy subjects and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) known to exhibit endothelial dysfunction.

METHODS:31P-magnetic resonance spectroscopy (31P-MRS) was used to examine skeletal muscle energetics and PCr recovery kinetics in young healthy subjects and patients with COPD following dynamic plantar flexion exercise with RH, induced by a cuff occlusion during the last min of exercise, or free-flow conditions (FF).

RESULTS: End-exercise PCr was not significantly altered by RH in healthy subjects (P > 0.05), but was significantly lower in patients with COPD (22.9 ± 3.2 mM in FF and 15.4 ± 7.6 mM in RH, P < 0.05). End-exercise pH was significantly reduced in both groups with RH (healthy subjects: 7.05 ± 0.04 mM in FF and 6.94 ± 0.10 mM in RH, P < 0.05; COPD: 6.94 ± 0.22 mM in RH and 6.84 ± 0.17 mM in FF, P < 0.05). RH significantly slowed the PCr recovery time constant in patients with COPD (40.4 ± 15.5 s in FF and 61.6 ± 42.2 mM in RH, P < 0.05), but not in healthy subjects (23.1 ± 7.8 s in FF and 24.1 ± 6.4 s in RH, P > 0.05).

CONCLUSION: PCr resynthesis kinetics was unchanged by RH in young healthy subjects and was slowed in patients with COPD. These findings suggest that with RH, unlike healthy controls, O2 supply to previously active fibers may have actually been compromised in the COPD patients due to flow-induced spatial heterogeneities in skeletal muscle microvascular perfusion resulting in attenuated mitochondrial respiration.

1082 Board #3 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Monitoring Lactate and Acetylcarnitine in Human Forearm Muscle During Exercise

Jimin Ren, A. Dean Sherry, Craig R. Malloy. University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in skeletal muscle is tightly regulated to control flux of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. It has been suggested that increased flux in glycolysis induced by a short bout of high intensity exercise will induce accumulation of acetyl-CoA in mitochondria, thereby inhibiting PDH, and permitting conversion of pyruvate to lactate. According to this hypothesis, acetyl groups of acetylcarnitine are derived from glucose. However, acetyl-CoA (or acetylcarnitine) may be derived from oxidation of other substrates and accumulation of acetyl-CoA may not lead to lactate production.

PURPOSE: To determine the relationship between the appearance of lactate and acetylcarnitine after forearm exercise.

METHODS: Six healthy human subjects with informed consent underwent proton MR spectroscopy lying prone at 7 Tesla. Proton MR spectra were acquired in forearm muscle before and after a short period of repetitively squeezing a rubber ball. Subjects were instructed to maximally squeeze for 2 sec on and 2 sec of rest (high intensity), or gently squeeze and relax on the same cycle (low intensity). Subjects tolerated maximal exercise for about 1.5 to 3.0 min. Lactate and acetyl levels were monitored by the resonances of lactate -CH- at 4.1 ppm and of acetyl -CH3 signal from acetylcarnitine at 2.12 ppm. Post-exercise disposal was following by a series of dynamic scans, each lasting about 1-2 min.

RESULTS: After high intensity exercise, lactate was markedly increased and decayed rapidly to baseline within ∼5 min. The acetylcarnitine signal was increased and continued to increase for 1 - 3 min after exercise, then decreased gradually over 20 min of recovery. After low-intensity exercise, acetylcarnitine was easily detected but lactate was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The appearance of acetylcarnitine after exercise is not always associated with accumulation of lactate, suggesting that the appearance of acetylcarnitine just reflects a dismatch between acetyl consumption and its production which may come from oxidation of substrates other than glucose during low-intensity exercise. Lactate accumulation occurs during high intensity exercise when anaerobic glycolysis becomes the primary energy source to meet the increased energy damand. Grant support: NIH RR02584.

1083 Board #4 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Muscle Metabolic Economy Does Not Vary By Intensity During Brief, Voluntary Contractions

Anita D. Christie1, Stephen A. Foulis2, Ryan G. Larsen2, Jane A. Kent-Braun, FACSM2. 1University of Oregon, Eugene, OR. 2University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Motor unit discharge rates (MUDR) and the metabolic cost of contraction increase with contraction intensity. However, it is not clear whether the metabolic economy (ME) of contraction changes with increasing intensity. We hypothesized that higher MUDR and activation of all motor units will result in lower ME at high contraction intensities.

PURPOSE: To examine MUDR and ME during voluntary contractions at various intensities.

METHODS: Ten men (23±1 years, mean±SE) and 10 women (23±1) performed 12-s ankle dorsiflexion contractions at 20, 50 and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction torque. Torque was expressed relative to maximal fat-free muscle cross sectional area (mCSA), measured by MRI. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to quantify total ATP cost of contraction, and metabolic economy (Nm·s/ cm2/mM ATP) was calculated for each contraction. In a subset of 8 individuals (2 men), MUDRs were obtained on a separate day using a four-wire needle electrode.

RESULTS: As expected, specific torque and ATP cost of contraction increased with contraction intensity, as did mean MUDR (p<0.001; Table 1). For all contractions mean MUDR was linearly and directly associated with ATP cost (r=0.90, p<0.001). ME did not differ across contraction intensities (p=0.98; Table 1).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite tightly coupled increases in ATP cost and MUDR, ME did not vary with increasing contraction intensity. While MUDR contributes to the total cost of contraction, the increase in active muscle mass associated with higher specific torque appears to maintain ME at a constant level in human skeletal muscle.

Table 1
Table 1:
Selected variables for each contraction intensity (mean (SE)).

NIH R01 AG21094

1084 Board #5 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Measuring Skeletal Muscle Metabolism with Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

Melissa L. Erickson, Terence E. Ryan, Jared T. Brizendine, Hui-Ju Young, Kevin K. McCully, FACSM. University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Skeletal muscle metabolism has been measured in the forearm with near-infrared spectroscopy using the rate of recovery of muscle deoxygenation after exercise.

PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to make baseline measurements of muscle metabolism in able-bodied participants in order to make future comparisons to persons with spinal cord injury.

METHODS: Eight able-bodied and one participant with spinal cord injury gave informed consent prior to testing. NIRS was used to measure rate of recovery of deoxygenation in the vastus lateralis after electrical stimulation. B-mode ultrasound images were taken to assess subcutaneous adipose tissue at the measurement site. The NIRS probe (Oxymon Artinis) placed over the vastus lateralis contained two channels of differing penetration depths. Metabolic rate was measured as the slope of the HHB, HbO2, HbDiff during short duration arterial occlusions. Electrical stimulation was used to increase metabolic rate and repeated brief arterial occlusions were used to measure metabolic rate after exercise and fit to an exponential curve and time-constants were calculated.

RESULTS: The average time constant for able-bodied participants was 31.2 (7.4, SD) seconds. The time constant for the participant with SCI was 48.4 seconds. This time constant was 54.9% slower in comparison to the able-bodied group, consistent with previous results using 31P MRS. Half time to peak hyperemia after cuff ischemia was also 48% slower in the participant with SCI (29.0 vs 19.5 seconds).

CONCLUSION: Metabolic measurements in the able-bodied population can be made with NIRS and were similar to those measured with 31P-MRS. This technology holds promise for measuring mitochondrial function in clinical populations such as people with SCI.

1085 Board #6MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

In vivo Human Muscle Shortening and Oxygen Consumption

Jared R. Fletcher, Erik M. Groves, Brian R. MacIntosh, FACSM. University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

A lower whole-body energy cost of running has been associated with an increased stiffness of the Achilles tendon. During an isometric contraction, less muscle fascicle shortening occurs with a stiff tendon, than with a more compliant one, and it is often assumed that this lower magnitude of shortening permits the lower energy cost for running. However, the effect of increased muscle shortening on in vivo human skeletal muscle energy use has not been investigated fully.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of muscle shortening on skeletal muscle energy requirement.

METHODS: 19 trained male and female runners (35±2 years, 171±2 cm, 67±3 kg; VO2max=51±2 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed 30 plantarflexions attempting to reach 50% of maximum torque with each contraction. Contractions were performed on an isokinetic dynamometer under two conditions: isometric (ISO) and isokinetic (KIN). Angular velocity was set at 6.98 rad·s-1 for KIN. Medial gastrocnemius fascicle length (FL) and shortening velocity were measured by ultrasound and rate of haemoglobin deoxygenation was measured during blood flow occlusion using near-infrared spectroscopy. This rate of deoxygenation was assumed to be proportional to energy use.

RESULTS: Compared to ISO, KIN resulted in significantly greater (mean difference±SEM) muscle shortening (6.3±1.9 mm, p<0.001), greater shortening velocity (1.6±0.3 FL·s-1, p<0.001) and greater rate of decrease in oxyhaemoglobin (+19±7 %, p<0.01), despite a lower mean torque (-19±2%, p<0.001) and lower mean impulse per contraction (-9.8±1.6 Nm·s, p<0.001) in KIN compared to ISO. Taken together, the energy required to maintain a given torque was greater in KIN compared to ISO (194±38%). The energy required was also significantly related to the amount of shortening (r2=0.2804, p<0.001) and the velocity of shortening (r2=0.356, p<0.001).

CONCLUSION: Muscle energy requirement is greater when muscle fascicle shortening and/or velocity of shortening is increased. This may explain the reported benefit of a stiff Achilles tendon in reducing whole-body energy cost during running.

Supported by NSERC Canada.

D-56 Thematic Poster - Population Based Surveillance

MAY 31, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 2011

1086 Chair: Joan M. Dorn. University at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY.

(No relationships reported)

1087Board #1MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Perceived Health: Inequalities Associated With Areas Of Deprivation And Other Socio-demographic And Modifiable Behaviours.

Alan M. Nevill1, Paul Donnelly2, Simon Shibli3, Charlie Foster4, Marie H. Murphy, FACSM5. 1University of Wolverhampton, Walsall, West Midlands, United Kingdom. 2Sport Northern Ireland, Belfast, United Kingdom. 3Sheffield Hallam University, Sheffield, United Kingdom. 4University of Oxford, Oxford, UK, Oxford, United Kingdom. 5University of Ulster, Belfast, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To identify demographic (incorporating areas of deprivation) and behavioral inequalities in perceived health in a sample of 4,663 respondents, subjects taken from The Northern Ireland Sport and Physical Activity Survey 2009-10.

METHODS: Responses to a self-rated health question were dichotomised by assigning 1 to those reporting either average, poor or very poor health and 0 to those reporting very good or good health. Binary logistic regression was used to identify the health inequalities between areas of high, middle or low deprivation. These differences were further adjusted for other socio-demographic factors (social class, age, gender, rural/urban environments) and modifiable behaviours (diet, smoking, physical activity, BMI).

RESULTS: Respondents from high and middle areas of deprivation were significantly more likely to report poor health (Odds ratios OR=1.38 (CI 1.20 to 1.59) and 1.15 (0.98 to 1.35) respectively) compared with those from areas of low deprivation. As soon as other socio-demographic factors (age and social class) were incorporated into the analysis, these differences disappeared. Smoking significantly increased respondents likelihood of reporting poor health but other modifiable behaviours of meeting the recommended PA guidelines (150 mins of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity per week; OR=0.73; 0.62 to 0.85) and eating five portions of fruit and vegetables or more per day (OR=0.75; 0.65 to 0.86) significantly reduced respondents likelihood of reporting poor health. Respondents living in rural environments were also less likely to report poor health compare with those living in urban environments, OR=0.66 (0.54 to 0.81). Finally, the analysis identified a “U” shaped association between poor health and BMI (by incorporating BMI as a quadratic), where respondents with either very high or very low BMI were associated with poorer health (optimal BMI=20 kg/m2).

CONCLUSION: Inequalities in health associated with deprivation still remain in Northern Ireland but these inequalities can be explained by respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics. Modifiable behaviours of meeting the recommended PA guidelines, eating five portions of fruit and vegetables and maintaining an optimal BMI were associated with a reduced probability of reporting poor health.

1088 Board #2 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Body Mass Index And Accelerometer-determined Physical Activity: A Linear Dose-response Relationship

Bjørge H. Hansen, Ingar Holme, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Elin Kolle. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway. (Sponsor: Roald Bahr, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The coincident reporting of both a decreased energy intake and increased prevalence of obesity during the last decades suggests that decreased habitual physical activity (PA) is a key determinant of overweight and obesity in Western populations. Although PA plays a vital role in obesity, the relationship between PA and obesity has been difficult to determine accurately using self-report measures of PA. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between accelerometer-determined PA and body mass index (BMI).

METHODS: The study was a cross-sectional population-based study of 3,867 adults and older people aged 20-85 yr. PA was assessed for seven consecutive days using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Height and weight was self-reported and overweight and obesity was defined as a BMI of 25-29 and ≥30 kg/m2, respectively. Logistic regression was performed to assess the impact of a number of factors on the likelihood that participants were either overweight or obese.

RESULTS: By comparison with normal weight participants, obese women and men had 26 % and 21 % lower overall PA (mean counts per minute), respectively. Overweight and obese participants engaged in less PA of at least moderate intensity and took fewer steps per day. The odds ratio (OR) for being overweight or obese decrease across quintiles of PA and the dose response relationship was linear. The most active quintile had a 50% lower odds of being either overweight or obese compared with the least active quintile. Hour-by-hour plots of overall PA showed that weight-category related differences in the activity-patterns were most pronounced on the weekend.

CONCLUSIONS: Both indicators of overall physical activity and intensity-specific activity differ across BMI categories and the risk of being either overweight or obese increases with decreasing overall physical activity level. The findings indicate the need for planned interventions aimed at increasing the overall level of physical activity in the population in order to prevent the expected weight gain.

This study was supported by research grants from the Norwegian Directorate of Health.

1089 Board #3 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Walking For Transportation And Leisure: National Health Interview Survey, 2010

Prabasaj Paul, Dianna D. Carroll, Janet E. Fulton, FACSM. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity is associated with lower risk for a number of chronic diseases. Walking is the most commonly reported physical activity among U.S. adults and is one of the ways to meet the aerobic component of the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for adults.

PURPOSE: To estimate the prevalence of transportation and leisure walking among U.S. adults in 2010, by demographic characteristics and BMI.

METHODS: Data from the core and Cancer Control Supplement of the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (n=27,157) - an interviewer-administered survey of U.S. adults – were examined for leisure and transportation walking prevalence (≥1 10-minute bout in the previous 7 days). Data were stratified by sex and then examined by age group (18-24, 25-34, 35-44, 45-64 and 65+ years), race/ethnicity (Hispanic, non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, Asian/Native Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, and other), education (less than high school, high school, some college and college graduate) and BMI (<25, 25-<30 and 30+ kg/m2).

RESULTS: Prevalence of transportation walking is significantly higher among men [32.3%; 95% CI (31.1%, 33.5%)] than among women [26.8% (25.8%, 27.9%)]; prevalence of leisure walking is significantly lower among men [48.4% (47.2%, 49.6%)] than among women [50.7% (49.5%, 51.8%)]. Transportation walking is most prevalent among 18-24 year old men [42.1% (38.6%, 45.7%)] and women [37.6% (34.2%, 41.2%)], and least, among men [21.9% (19.7%, 24.1%)] and women [18.3% (16.8%, 19.9%)] 65 years of age and older. Leisure walking is most prevalent among college graduate men [59.3% (57.1%, 61.4%)] and women [62.5% (60.4%, 64.5%)]. Compared among BMI categories, obese adults have a lower prevalence of walking for transportation [men 26.1% (24.1%, 28.2%); women 22.7% (21.0%, 24.4%)] and for leisure [men 46.7% (44.6%, 48.8%); women 42.7%; (40.7%, 44.7%)].

CONCLUSIONS: Transportation walking is more prevalent among men, and among the youngest adults. Leisure walking is more prevalent among women, and among college graduates. Walking is least prevalent among the obese. These findings may assist in the development of targeted strategies to increase walking among U.S. adults.

1090Board #4 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Challenges Assessing Physical Activity Among Brazilian Adults

Emerson Sebastiao1, Sebastiao Gobbi2, Andiara Schwingel1, Wojtek Chodzko-Zajko, FACSM1. 1University of illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL. 2UNESP - Sao Paulo State University, Rio Claro, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

Physical inactivity is a public health concern worldwide. Among several approaches used to measure physical activity, self-reported questionnaires are widely used due to their low cost and ease of use.

PURPOSE: The present study explored issues and challenges associated with the assessment and interpretation of daily physical activity using the widely adopted International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).

METHODS: A cross-sectional population-based study was conducted in Rio Claro, Brazil. Using a stratified randomized technique, a total of 1572 adults, 20 years old and over (men, 44.8±17, n= 657; women, 46.7±17, n=915) were interviewed. Physical activity level was assessed by means of the IPAQ - long version. Data was analyzed using mean and percentage.

RESULTS: Data analysis revealed significant over-reporting of time spent in physical activity at work and in household-related tasks. Men reported 1560 minutes/week and women 1150 minutes/week of physical activity at work, in average. Regarding to household-related tasks, men reported 376 minutes/week and women 710 minutes/week, in average. Around 42% of men and 25% of women reported more than 150 minutes/week of physical activity at work. Regarding household-related task the values were 33% and 74%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Our data support the contention that the assessment of physical activity through self-report is problematic and underscores the need for more objective measures of physical activity such as accelerometry.

1091 Board #5 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

A Cross-sectional Survey On Physical Activity Prevalence and Correlates In Phu Tho Province, Vietnam

Helena Wallin1, Huong Tran2, Carl Johan Sundberg1. 1Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden. 2Hanoi Medical University, Hanoi, Viet Nam.

(No relationships reported)

NCD (non-communicable disease) prevalence is increasing rapidly in Vietnam. As part of the national NCD program, an integrated community model targeting NCD risk factors has been initiated in the urban site of Viet Tri - Phu Tho province - in northern Vietnam. A baseline survey measuring the indicators that the intervention will address was carried out in December 2010.

PURPOSE: To examine physical activity patterns and associations with selected NCD risk factors in a Vietnamese population.

METHODS: A cross-sectional survey including 788 adults aged 40-80 years was performed. The Stepwise approach to Surveillance of NCDs was used and physical activity was measured with the Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). Time spent in physical activity during work, leisure-time and transport was reported. Data on self-reported socioeconomic status, smoking and drinking was collected. Measurements of blood pressure (BP), fasting blood glucose (FBG) levels, weight, height, and waist circumference were performed. The Spearman method was used to analyse correlations.

RESULTS: 29% of the study population were physically inactive - hence not meeting the required 30 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise 5-7 days/week. Of mean MET-weighed activity time per week, work activity contributed with 50%, transport activity with 37%, and leisure activity with 13%. Leisure activity increased (r=0.13) with age. No strong associations between physical inactivity and BP, FBG or anthropometric measurements were found in multivariate logistic regression analysis. There was an inverse association between age (r=-0.20, adjusted for sex) and physical activity (total MET-minutes/week). When adjusting for age and sex a correlation between physical activity and BMI (r=-0.08) and waist circumference (r=-0.1) was found. Sitting time/day was associated with age (r=0.13), alcohol intake levels (r=0.07) and monthly income (r=0.07), and inversely associated with FBG levels (-0.08).

CONCLUSIONS: Hypertension and IFG was found to be prevalent in this sample while 1/3 of the population were physically inactive. It is therefore likely that promotion of physical activity would have beneficial health effects for this population.

1092 Board #6 MAY 31 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Similarity in Physical Activity Levels. A Family Study From Azores Islands

José A. Maia1, Manuel Campos1, Andre Seabra1, Rui Garganta1, Raquel Chaves1, Fernanda Santos1, Thayse Gomes1, Michele Souza1, Daniel Santos1, Denise Mendonça2. 1Faculty of Sport, Porto, Portugal. 2Abel Salazar Biomedical Sciences Institute, Porto, Portugal.

(No relationships reported)

Family is one of the most important agents in shaping and promoting physical activity (PA) and other health behaviors within its members. PURPOSES: (1) to identify the similarity/dissimilarity in PA levels of nuclear families (trios: father, mother, and son/daughter) from Azores islands; (2) to investigate which parent is the most important in family aggregation of PA levels.

METHODS: 56 families (168 subjects) from 3 islands were sampled. The New Lifestyle NL 2000 pedometer was used to assess PA during 3 consecutive days (2 week days and a week-end day), and the following cut-off values were used to classify family members as active or sedentary: adults≥10.000 steps/day; sons≥13.000 steps/day; daughters≥11.000 steps/day. Different combinations of family members in each trio (heredograms display) were used to classify a family as being active or sedentary. Chi-square (χ2) and odds-ratios (OR) were computed in SPSS 18.

RESULTS: 30.4% of all possible trios were classified as active, and 10.7% as sedentary. When considering only daughters the active trios were 39.9% and all sedentary 10.3%; when using sons, 22.2% of all trios were active and 11.1% sedentary. Dissimilarities were also observed in different heredograms. Both parents significantly influence daughters´ PA (χ2=4.9, p<0.05, OR=9.8), but mother´s links are more important (χ2=8.7, p<0.05, OR=10.2).

CONCLUSIONS: Active and sedentary family members tend to show similarities, but also dissimilarities. Mothers seem to be more important in shaping their daughters´ PA levels. This opens up new challenges to design programs to involve, differently, all family members, especially fathers and sons, according to their needs and expectations of healthy and active living.

Supported by FCT grant contract PTDC/DES/67569/2006 FCOMP-01-0124-FEDEB-09608

E-12 Thematic Poster - Exercise and Fat Oxidation: Differences Specific to Age and Body Weight

JUNE 1, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 3020

1093 Chair: Dan Benardot, FACSM. Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

1094Board #1JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Fat Oxidation During Exercise In Young And Older Elite Cyclists

Alessandro Scotto di Palumbo, Jonida Haxhi, Massimo Sacchetti. University of Rome Foro Italico, ROME, Italy. (Sponsor: Carl Foster, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Ageing is associated with deleterious changes of energy metabolism, whereas exercise training has the potential to mitigate this phenomenon.

PURPOSE: The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the link between ageing, chronic endurance training and substrate oxidation capacity during exercise.

METHODS: Ten young elite cyclists (YT; age: 29.3 ± 3.8 yrs) and ten age-matched sedentary controls (YU; age: 26.6 ± 4.1 yrs), eight older elite master cyclists (OT; age: 65.0 ± 3.9 yrs) and eight age-matched sedentary controls (OU, age: 62.8 ± 4.0 yrs) performed an incremental cycling test consisting in six 3-min steps at 35%, 45%, 55%, 65%, 75%, and 85% of VO2max to assess fat oxidation capacity measured by means of indirect calorimetry. Maximal aerobic capacity was previously determined from a maximal cycling test.

RESULTS: YT showed the highest maximal fat oxidation (Fat max) (0.85 ± 0.14 g*min-1), which occurred between 65% and 75% of VO2max. Differently, Fat max was lower (0.31 ± 0.09 g* min-1 p< 0.01) and peaked at lower intensity in YU (45% VO2max). OT showed a relatively high fat oxidation capacity (0.49 ± 0.12 g*min-1 at 65% VO2max), which was superior and peaked at higher intensities compared to OU (0.26 ± 0.08 g*min-1 at 45% VO2max; p<0.03). Notably, OT and YT, who had a similar VO2max (OT: 46.1 ± 3.9 ml*kg*min-1 vs. YU: 42.8 ± 5.6 ml*kg*min-1 p= 0.1) had significantly different fat oxidation rate in favour of OT

(p= 0.04) The analysis of the contribution of fat and CHO to total energy expenditure (CTEE) revealed that the intensity at which fat CTEE was equivalent to CHO CTEE (cross-over point) was shifted towards higher values in the trained groups (between 65 and 75% VO2max in YT; at 55% VO2max in OT; between 35 and 45% VO2max in OU; at 35% VO2max in YU).

CONCLUSION: Chronic endurance training may play an important role in contrasting the age-related decline in fat oxidation capacity.

1095 Board #2 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effects Of A High-fat Diet And Exercise On Lipid Oxidation And Mitochondrial Content

Gina M. Battaglia, Donghai Zheng, Joseph A. Houmard, FACSM. East Carolina University, Greenville, NC.

(No relationships reported)

We have observed that obese individuals have a dampened response in terms of increasing the expression of genes linked with lipid oxidation genes in response to a high-fat diet. Short-term exercise has been shown to increase skeletal muscle lipid oxidation in obese individuals, although whether it can improve high-fat diet-induced lipid oxidation is unclear.

PURPOSE: To compare skeletal muscle lipid oxidation and mitochondrial protein content in response to a 3-day high-fat diet and 10 consecutive days of aerobic exercise training in sedentary lean and obese individuals.

METHODS: Nine lean (age 22.2±1.3y; BMI 23.4±0.6 kg/m2) and 8 obese (age 22.9±0.8y; BMI 33.4±0.9 kg/m2) males consumed an isocaloric high-fat (70% of total calories) diet for 3 days. Ten consecutive days of aerobic exercise (1h/day, 70% VO2peak) on a cycle ergometer was performed, and the diet was repeated during days 8-10 of the exercise training. Fasting muscle biopsies were taken before and after each high-fat diet and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) measured with end-labeled [1-14C] palmitate. Various indices of mitochondrial content were determined with western blots.

RESULTS: Lean subjects increased lipid oxidation over baseline (mean ±SEM 27.3±7.4%, p=0.03), and significantly more than their obese counterparts in response to a 3-day high-fat diet (1.0±7.9%). A significant effect of a high-fat diet and exercise on lipid oxidation was observed, with lean individuals increasing by 64.0±32.8% and obese individuals increasing by 70.4±34.8% compared to baseline. Protein content of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) enzymes was not different between lean and obese individuals and did not change with a high-fat diet or exercise training.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exercise training rescued the lipid oxidation response to a high-fat diet in obese individuals. Protein content of OXPHOS enzymes did not seem to account for these changes. Further research should investigate possible mechanisms responsible for this improvement in high-fat diet-induced lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle.

1096 Board #3 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effects Of Exercise Training On Fat Oxidation In Untrained Overweight And Obese Females

Kelly Manning1, Jeffrey Rupp2, Dan Benardot2, L. Jerome Brandon2, J. Andrew Doyle2. 1Georgia College & State University, Milledgeville, GA. 2Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study examined whether a high-intensity interval (IT) or a continuous steady-state (CT) exercise training program had the greatest effect on fat oxidation rates and fat mass loss in a population of untrained overweight and obese females.

METHODS: Thirteen female subjects (VO2peak 30.6 ± 1.29, BMI 29 ± 0.79, fat mass [FM] 33.3 ± 2.09 kg) were randomly assigned to either a CT (exercise at the relative intensity that elicits the maximal fat oxidation rate [FATmax] ) or an IT (intervals alternating 5 minutes at 40% and 85% VO2peak) training group that exercised approximately 1 hour, 3 days.week-1 for 10 weeks. Body composition assessments, peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), FATmax and plasma free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations were examined pre- and post-training using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), ParvoMedics gas analysis system and FFA half micro tests (Roche Diagnostics).

RESULTS: No significant differences were found post-training in body weight (kg), body fat (%), fat-free mass, or fat mass (P>0.05). The relative exercise intensity that elicited FATmax was significantly increased from 35.3 ± 2.55% to 44.7 ± 3.56% in the IT group post-training (P <0.05). The maximal fat oxidation rate was determined at a higher relative exercise intensity after 10 weeks of a IT program compared with a CT program, which resulted in longer durations of fat oxidation during submaximal exercise bouts.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest that an IT program induces a greater increase in the relative exercise intensity that elicits maximal fat oxidation after 10 weeks of training compared to a CT program in this population. Although body composition and FATmax were not altered, it is possible that through training induced metabolic adaptations from the IT program, intramuscular triacylglyceride (IMTG) contributions to fat oxidation at a given steady-state work rate could be increased post-training.

1097 Board #4 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effect Of Body Weight Status And Pubertal Maturity On Lipid Oxidation During Exercise In Girls

Georges Jabbour1, Jonathan Tremblay1, Marie Lambert2, Jennifer O’Loughlin1, Angelo Tremblay3, Mathieu Marie-Eve1. 1University of Montreal, Montreal, QC, Canada. 2Department of Pediatrics, Montreal, QC, Canada. 3University of Montreal, Laval, QC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity is a viable option to increase energy expenditure and fat oxidation, which are both relevant to the obese child at an increased risk of metabolic complications. Many studies report that the rate of fat oxidation during maximal exercise is higher in obese versus non-obese youth. However, these studies have rarely taken into account the stage of maturation or body weight status of children.

PURPOSE: Aim of the present study was to explore the association between 1) body weight status and lipid oxidation; and 2) sexual maturation and lipid oxidation in girl aged 10 years during incremental exercise.

METHODS: Participants were drawn from the QUebec Adipose and Lifestyle InvesTigation in Youth (QUALITY) cohort study. The sample included 39 prepubertal girls at Tanner stage 1 [(T1); 12 normal-weight (NW), 12 overweight (OW) and 15 obese girls (OB)] and 37 pubertal girls at Tanner stage 2 [(T2); 16 NW, 10 OW and 11 OB girls]. Following a rest period, girls performed an incremental maximal cycling test adapted from the McMaster protocol. Lipid oxidation was measured using indirect respiratory calorimetry. Respiratory exchange ratio (RER) was calculated for each stage performed in the protocol test among the first five stages (25, 50, 75, 100 and 125W). The percent contribution of lipid oxidation to the energy yield (%LO) was computed from gas exchange measurements as follows: %LO= (1-RER) - 0.29-1[[Unsupported Character - &#903;]] 100.

RESULTS: %LO did not differ between NW, OW and OB girls at T1, for all exercise stages. In contrast, OB girls at T2 showed a higher %LO contribution compared to OW and NW, respectively: 25W (70 vs. 42 and 42%), 50W (40 vs. 22 and 25%), and 75W (20 vs. 12 and 14%). Moreover, OB girls at T2 showed a higher %LO contribution than OB girls at T1: 25W (70 vs. 51%), 50W (40 vs. 25%) and 75W (20 vs. 15%).

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in prepubertal girls, the contribution of lipid oxidation to the energy yield is not affected by body weight status during an incremental maximal cycling test. In contrast, fuel selection in OB girls entering puberty favors lipid oxidation when compared to girls in OW and NW. These results highlighted that entering puberty, despite a similar chronological age, is associated to a differentiation in substrate selection in obese girls.

1098 Board #5 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Acute Effects of Resistance Exercise vs. Endurance Exercise on Exogenous Fat Oxidation in Obese Women

Shawn M. Arent, FACSM, Patrick M. Davitt, Gregory C. Henderson. Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.

(No relationships reported)

Oxidation of exogenous fatty acids (FAs) during meal absorption may be attenuated in obesity, and interventions that alleviate this tendency for FA retention are needed.

PURPOSE: To compare acute effects of resistance exercise (RE) and endurance exercise (EE) to a resting control (C) for effects upon subsequent postprandial oxidation of exogenous fat in obese women.

METHODS: Sedentary, obese women (n=10; Body weight = 101.0 ± 8.0 kg; BMI = 37.1 ± 2.3) were studied under 3 conditions (RE, EE, and C), each on separate days, in randomized order. A total-body high intensity RE workout (∼1 h) consisted of 3 sets of 10 repetitions for 8 exercises at a load of 90% the 10 repetition maximum. EE consisted of walking on a treadmill at 65% VO2peak for 1 h. A standardized meal of 20 kcal/kg FFM (CHO-48%, Fat-36%, Protein-16%) was administered 30 min after exercise. A [U-13C]palmitate tracer (5 mg/kgFFM) was included in the meal to assess metabolism of exogenous fat. Pulmonary gas exchange was analyzed immediately before the meal and at 40, 80, 160, 240, 320, and 400 min afterwards in order to determine carbon dioxide excretion (VCO2). Additionally, breath samples were collected and analyzed by isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) to determine isotopic enrichment (IE) of 13CO2. Results were analyzed by 2-way (condition x time) RM ANOVA. From 13CO2 excretion rate, tracer dose, and meal fat content, rate of exogenous fat oxidation was calculated.

RESULTS: Results indicated main effects of trial (P < 0.01) and time (P < 0.001), but no significant interaction. Follow-ups indicated that oxidation rates were significantly higher in RE and EE in comparison to C (P<.05) with no significant difference between the two exercise modalities. Rates of exogenous FA oxidation rose continuously throughout trials to the following final values: RE, 5.0 ± 0.9 kcal/h; EE, 5.0 ± 0.9 kcal/h; C, 4.0 ± 0.7 kcal/h.

CONCLUSION: Acute, moderate intensity EE and high intensity RE both enhance the rate of exogenous fat oxidation in the postprandial period in obese women when compared to a sedentary control. Thus, RE and EE may be equally effective in altering trafficking of exogenous FAs in favor of oxidative disposal. Findings may have implications for exercise prescription for fat loss.

Funding provided by the Charles and Johanna Busch Biomedical Foundation

E-13 Thematic Poster - Exercise with Diabetic Patients (Clinical Exercise Physiology Association)

JUNE 1, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 3022

1099 Chair: Kerry Stewart. Johns Hopkins Bayview Med., Baltimore, MD.

(No relationships reported)

1100 Board #1 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Exercise Intervention Improves Body Composition in Both the Elderly and Individuals with Parkinson’s Disease.

Duane B. Corbett, Corey A. Peacock, Gabriel J. Sanders, Ellen L. Glickman, FACSM, Angela L. Ridgel. Kent State University, Kent, OH.

(No relationships reported)

Parkinson’s disease (PD) is a progressive neurological disorder which affects 1 in 100 individuals over 60. Reduced physical activity, due to motor dysfunction, in PD often results in declines in Fat-Free mass and increases in Fat Mass.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of an 8 week exercise intervention on body composition in an elderly control population and an elderly population with PD.

METHODS: Ten elderly adults with PD and seven age-matched healthy controls participated in 24 exercise sessions over an eight week period. The program included total-body exercise, as recommended by ACSM, including total body static stretches for 30 seconds, total-body, multi-joint resistance training using 50-80% of the one-repetition maximum for a total of 8-15 repetitions and 30 minutes of cycle ergometry session at moderate intensity. Body Composition was measured before the intervention (Pre) and after the intervention (Post). Testing measures included Weight, Body Fat %, Fat Mas, Fat-Free Mass, Waist-Hip Ratio, and Body Mass Index (BMI).

RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated a significant (p ≤ 0.005) decrease in Body Fat (30.1±8.5 % pre, 28.1±8.1% post) and Fat Mass (53.5±27.1 lbs. pre, 49.5±24.3 lbs. post). There was no significant (p=0.588) decrease in Fat-Free Mass. There were also no significant main or interaction effects for group (PD, elderly control).

CONCLUSIONS: Both the elderly and individuals with Parkinson’s disease improved body composition by losing body fat while maintaining muscle mass.

1101 Board #2 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Assessment Of Cardiovascular Fitness And 18 Km Running Performance In Individuals With Type 1 Diabetes

Daisy F. Motta1, William Valadares2, Glauciane Mendes2, Amanda Silva2, Marcela Consoli2, Magno Miranda2, Debora Guimarães2, Marconi Silva2, Daniel Giannella-Neto3, Rodrigo Lamounier2. 1Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 2Diabetes Center in Belo Horizonte - CDBH, Belo Horizonte, Brazil. 3Federal University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil.

(No relationships reported)

INTRODUCTION: The cardiovascular fitness is an important parameter for prescription and evaluation of training, especially for type 1 diabetes (T1DM) individuals. The project “Volta Monitorada de Belo Horizonte” aims to prepare T1DM to participate in a 18 km race (Volta da Pampulha) and thus is it was required a prior assessment by means of a ramp protocol and / or field test.

PURPOSE: To evaluate the agreement and correlation between 1600m and ramp protocol test to estimate VO2max with the 18 km race performance.

METHODS: Thirteen young T1DM recreational runners (29.0 ± 7.79 years; 8 male and 5 female) performed three exercise sessions: treadmill ramp protocol (RAMP), a field test of 1600m (1600m) and a 18km race (18K). The responses of heart rate (HR) and rating of perceived exertion were evaluated in all sessions. In RAMP and 1600m the VO2max and HRmax were determined. Glucose was continuously monitored during 18K (GuardianRT, Medtronic) and lactate was assessed at rest, in the middle and at the end of the 18K. Statistical analysis: Data are presented as mean ± SD. Data were analyzed by Bland-Altman plot, Student’s t test and Pearson correlation.

RESULTS: The VO2max in RAMP and 1600m were 44.92 ± 8.60 and 40.76 ± 9.30 respectively (P = 0.02). The average race time in the 18K was 133.6 ± 28.95 min. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean of -3.74 ± 5.30 and parameters within the limits of agreement. A high and significant correlation was observed between VO2max in 1600m and RAMP (R: 0.840, p = 0.003). An inverse correlation was observed for VO2max. vs. 18 k time in 1600m (r =- 0.819, p = 0.0006) and in RAMP (r =- 0.724, p = 0.005). No correlation was observed between HRmax values obtained in RAMP (181.1 ± 10.6 bpm) and 1600m field test (169.8 ± 16.3 bpm).

CONCLUSION: Our data show that the ramp test can overestimate the VO2max compared to the 1600m field test. However a high correlation was observed between them. The test of 1600m and the ramp protocol may be used as important tools for estimating running training performance in type 1 diabetic patients.

1102 Board #3 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Cardiorespiratory Fitness, Preclinical Systolic and Diastolic Dysfunctions and HRQoL in Men with Type 2 Diabetes

Lucia Cugusi, Martino Deidda, Silvio Nocco, Fabio Orrù, Paola Demuru, Alessandra Caria, Sergio Cabras, Christian Cadeddu, Stefano Bandino, Myosotis Massidda, Giuseppe Mercuro. University of Cagliari, Cagliari, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

Low cardiorespiratory performance and preclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunctions are powerful predictors of mortality in diabetes patients. A plenty of studies have examined cardiorespiratory fitness and echocardiographic parameters in association with diabetes-specific markers, such as fasting glucose and HbA1c. However, little is known about the association between Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL), cardiorespiratory fitness, and preclinical diastolic and systolic dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes.

PURPOSE: to determine the relationship between cardiorespiratory performance, preclinical systolic and diastolic dysfunctions and HRQoL in type 2 diabetic patients.

METHODS: Fifteen men affected by type 2 diabetes (51,4 ± 9,38, years) were investigated using Cardiopulmonary Exercise Test (CPET) to determine the Maximal Oxygen consumption (VO2 Max), Echocardiography to evaluate systolic (S wave peak velocity, STRAIN, Strain Rate (SR)) and diastolic (E/e’ ratio) functions, and SF-36 to establish the Mental Summary Component (MSC) and Physical Summary Component (PSC). To evaluate the correlations between HRQoL and echocardiographic/CPET parameters we used the Pearson’s coefficient.

RESULTS: A significative correlation was found between VO2 Max and both MSC (r= 0.58; p<0.01) and PSC (r= 0.52; p<0.05). On the other hand, our results showed that E/e’ ratio was closed inversely associated with MSC (r= -0,72; p=0.001), and PSC (r= -0,80; p<0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate that a high level of cardiorespiratory fitness and a mild diastolic dysfunction are associated with high values of HRQoL in men with type 2 diabetes. Based on these findings, it seems important to emphasize the usefulness of HRQoL questionnaires in the baseline assessment of these patients, as well as in the analysis of possible changes between these correlations after physical training.

1103 Board #4 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Relative Muscle Mass is Inversely Associated with Inflammation in Older Adults With Type 2 Diabetes.

Yorgi Mavros1, Kieron Rooney1, Shelley Kay1, David Simar2, Kylie A. Anderberg1, Michael K. Baker3, Yi Wang4, Renru Zhao1, Jacinda Meiklejohn1, Nathan De Vos5, Mike Climstein, FACSM6, Anthony O’Sullivan2, Bernhard T. Baune7, Steven N. Blair, FACSM8, Nalin Singh5, Maria A. Fiatarone Signh1. 1University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. 2University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia. 3Edith Cowan University, Perth, Australia. 4University of California, San Fransisco, CA. 5Balmain Hospital, Sydney, Australia. 6Bond University, Gold Coast, Australia. 7University of Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. 8University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The relationship between excess adiposity and systemic inflammation is well known. However, the contribution of skeletal muscle is less well understood. Recently, conflicting data have emerged examining this relationship within various cohorts using differing indices of skeletal muscle mass. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationships between absolute and relative skeletal muscle mass and systemic inflammation within a cohort of older adults with type 2 diabetes.

METHODS: Baseline data in 40 older adults with type 2 diabetes participating in a clinical trial of resistance training were analyzed for this study. Skeletal muscle mass was measured using bioelectrical impedance analysis. Relative skeletal muscle mass (%MM) and muscle mass index (MMI) were calculated by dividing by body weight (kg) and height2 (m) respectively. C-reactive protein (CRP) was the marker for systemic inflammation.

RESULTS: %MM was inversely related to CRP (r2=0.22, p<0.01). No relationships were found between absolute muscle mass or MMI and CRP (p>0.05). The association between CRP and %MM was stronger in women, and was attenuated and no longer significant in men (women: n=19, r2=0.51, p<0.001; men: n=21, r2=0.12, p=0.12).

CONCLUSIONS: Higher relative muscle mass is associated with lower CRP in older adults with type 2 diabetes. Anabolic interventions targeting skeletal muscle mass may be an underutilized strategy to improve systemic inflammation and reduce cardiovascular risk profile in this cohort.

1104 Board #5 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Enhanced External Counterpulsation Improves Peripheral Artery Function, Redox Balance, and Insulin Resistance in Patients with Abnormal Glucose Tolerance

Jeffrey S. Martin, Darren T. Beck, Juan M. Aranda Jr., Randy W. Braith, FACSM. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND- In coronary artery disease patients, enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) improves peripheral arterial function, and humoral markers of vasoactive balance, and oxidative stress. Similar outcomes in patients with abnormal glucose tolerance (AGT) may be beneficial as nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and arterial function have been implicated in the pathogenesis of abnormal glucose tolerance. Purpose- Therefore, we sought to evaluate the effects of EECP on peripheral flow mediated dilation (FMD), NO bioavailability, and a surrogate of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in patients with AGT.

METHODS- Eighteen patients with AGT were randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive either 7 weeks (35 1-hour sessions) of EECP (n = 12) or 7-weeks of standard care (control; n = 6).

RESULTS- EECP increased normalized brachial artery (27%) and popliteal artery (52%) FMD. In addition, following EECP, plasma nitrate/nitrite (NOx) was significantly elevated (26.47 ± 1.58 µmol/L vs. 34.46 ± 1.78 µmol/L, P<0.01) and plasma 8-iso-PGF2α, a marker of lipid peroxidation, was significantly depressed (838.2 ± 61.2 pg/mL vs. 644.0 ± 70.7 pg/mL, P<0.05). Finally, the HOMA-IR was significantly decreased (3.02 ± 0.55 vs. 2.08 ± 0.39, P<0.05) following EECP. Change in NOx (r=-0.44) and 8-iso-PGF2α (r=0.56) were significantly (P<0.05) correlated with changes in HOMA-IR. However, correlations between peripheral FMD and HOMA-IR did not reach statistical significance.

CONCLUSIONS- In patients with AGT, EECP elicits similar vascular changes to those observed with CAD patients. Furthermore, these changes were associated with improvements in the HOMA-IR. The effects of EECP on peripheral insulin sensitivity and mechanisms of adaptation should be further characterized.

1105 Board #6 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effect Of High Versus Low-intensity Supervised Aerobic And Resistance Training On Modifiable CVD Risk Factors In T2DM Subjects

Silvano Zanuso1, Antonio Nicolucci2, Stefano Balducci3, Paolo Benvenuti4, Francesco Bertiato5, Simonetta Senni6, Giuseppe Pugliese7. 1University of Greenwich, Chatam Maritime, United Kingdom. 2Consorzio Mario Negri Sud, S.Maria Imbaro (Chieti), Italy. 3“La Sapienza” University, Rome, Italy, Rome, Italy. 4Technogym, Gambettola (FC), Italy. 5Technogym, Gambetola (FC), Italy. 6Technogym, Gambettola, Italy. 7La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: There is no clear evidence indicating that moderate-to-high intensity (HI) training provides more benefits than low-to-moderate intensity (LI) training of equal energy cost on glycemic control and other modifiable CVD risk factors in individuals with type 2 diabetes. This study was aimed at verifying this hypothesis in a large cohort of the Italian Diabetes and Exercise Study (IDES).

METHODS: Sedentary patients with type 2 diabetes and the metabolic syndrome were enrolled in 22 outpatient diabetes clinics across Italy and randomized to twice-a-week supervised progressive aerobic and resistance training plus exercise counseling (exercise group; n=303) versus counseling alone (control group; n=303) for 12 months. Individuals in the exercise group were further randomized to LI aerobic (at 55% of predicted maximal oxygen consumption [VO2max]) and resistance (at 60% of predicted 1-Repetition Maximum [RM]) training (n=142) versus HI aerobic (at 70% of predicted VO2max) and resistance (at 80% of predicted 1-RM) training (n=161).

RESULTS: Volume of physical activity, both supervised and non-supervised, was similar in LI and HI participants. Compared with LI training, HI training produced only marginal, though statistically significant, improvements in strength, HbA1c (mean difference -0.17% [0.10;-0.43], P=0.03), triglycerides (-10.36 mg/dl [9.10;-29.82], P=0.02) and total cholesterol (-9.23 mg/dl [-0.53;-17.94], P=0.04), but not in the other parameters examined.

CONCLUSIONS: Data from the IDES indicate that, in low-fitness individuals such as sedentary subjects with type 2 diabetes, intensity is less important than volume and type of exercise for achieving improvements in modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

E-14 Thematic Poster - High-Intensity Interval Training

JUNE 1, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 2000

1106 Chair: Meir Magal, FACSM. North Carolina Wesleyan College, Rocky Mount, NC.

(No relationships reported)

1107 Board #1 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Interval Training Is Efficient In Improving VO2max In Runners

Ari T. Nummela, Ville Vesterinen, Esa Hynynen, Jussi Mikkola, Laura Hokka. Research Institute for Olympic Sports, Jyväskylä, Finland.

(No relationships reported)

Traditional endurance training improves performance during tasks that rely on mainly aerobic energy metabolism by increasing body’s ability to transport and utilize oxygen and altering substrate metabolism in working skeletal muscle. However, many studies have shown that interval training may be as effective as traditional endurance training in increasing maximal oxygen uptake and endurance performance.

PURPOSE: To compare the effects of interval and constant velocity training in runners.

METHODS: Twenty seven recreational endurance runners were matched into the interval training group (IT-group, n = 14) and constant velocity training group (CT-group, n = 13). All runners went through a 10-week endurance training program, which included two high intensity training sessions per week. IT-group performed 7-10 x 150 m at 110-115% of vVO2max and 7-10 x 500 m at 90-100 % of vVO2max and CT-group performed 40 min constant velocity run between lactate (LT) and ventilatory threshold (VT) and 17 - 18 min run above their VT. The runners performed three tests before and after the training period: (1) incremental treadmill test to determine VO2max, LT and VT, (2) maximal anaerobic running test (MART, 10 × 150 m) to determine maximal anaerobic velocity (vMART), and (3) submaximal 1 km run on a track to determine running economy (RE).

RESULTS: All runners improved their velocity at VO2max (2.7%, p< 0.001), VT (4.2%, p < 0.001), LT (3.6%, p < 0.001) and vMART (1.8%, p < 0.01) but they could not improve their RE and there were no significant differences between the groups (p < 0.05). Although RE did not improve during the training period, a positive relationship was observed between the changes in RE and vMART as well as between decreased submaximal blood lactate values in the treadmill test and changes in vMART. The main novel finding of the present study was that IT-group improved their VO2max in l/min (4.6%) more than CT-group (0.6%, p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: The results of the present study showed that interval training was more efficient in improving VO2max than traditional endurance training.

1108 Board #2 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effect of High-Intensity Interval Training on 2-kilometer Ergometer Time-Trial Performance in Female High School Rowers

Dana M. Ryan, Natasha S. Carr, Brandon J. Sawyer, Siddhartha S. Angadi, Jack Chisum, Glenn A. Gaesser, FACSM. Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) compared to standard endurance training (ET) on improving 2-kilometer (km) ergometer time-trial performance in female, high school rowers.

METHODS: Twenty-three females (Age 16 ± 1.0 yr, Weight = 61.9 ± 10.6 kg, Height 1.70 ± 0.10 meters) volunteered to participate in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to either HIIT or ET. In addition to their regular training, for 4 weeks subjects completed a total of 12 training sessions on a rowing ergometer. HIIT sessions consisted of six 30-sec bouts of “sprint” rowing (modified Wingate tests) with 4 min of light active recovery in between each bout. ET sessions consisted of one 30-min continuous bout of exercise at 60-70% VO2max. Before and after training, all participants completed a 2-km time trial and an incremental exercise test for determination of VO2max on a rowing ergometer. Analysis of variance, t-tests and Pearson product-moment correlations were used for data analysis.

RESULTS: For both HIIT and ET groups there was a trend toward improvement in 2-km ergometer times (HIIT: Pre-training = 518.3 ± 21.3 sec, Post-training = 501.5 ± 21.9 sec, p= 0.07; ET: Pre-training = 523.0 ± 20.7 sec, Post-training = 505.0 ± 19.3 sec, p= 0.10). There was no significant difference between groups (p< 0.142). VO2max was not changed following training (HIIT: Pre = 45.8 ± 5.7 ml/kg/min, Post = 44.8 ± 4.0 ml/kg/min, p=.288; ET: Pre = 45.0 ± 5.6 ml/kg/min, Post = 45.8 ± 5.6 ml/kg/min, p=.592). Among all participants, change in 2-km time was not significantly correlated with the change in VO2max (r = -.27 p=.208).

CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both HIIT and ET have similar effects on 2-km ergometer time-trial performance, and that any improvement in 2-km rowing performance appears to be unrelated to an increase in VO2max. A longer training program on a larger sample is likely needed to determine if there are differences between HIIT and ET.

1109 Board #3 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Evolution of Perceptual and Physiological Responses During 7 Weeks of High Intensity Interval Training

Stephen Seiler, FACSM, Benjamin V. Olesen, Kristian Jøransen, Ken J. Hetlelid. University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This study investigated the relationship between perceptual and physiological responses during three different interval training programs over a 7 week training period.

METHODS: Trained recreational cyclists (n=27) between 25 and 49 yrs (VO2 peak 52 ± 5, 23 males, 4 females) were randomized after matching for training characteristics to 3 groups: 1) 2·wk-1 4 × 16 min work periods, 3 min rest, 2) 2·wk-1 4 × 8 min work periods, 2 min rest, or 3) 2·wk-1 4 × 4min work periods, 2 min rest. All 3 groups were instructed to perform each session with maximal effort (“isoeffort matching”). Additional training durng the 7 week period was restricted to low intensity endurance training 2-3 sessions per week. Heart rate responses (HF) and power output (W) was acquired continuously during each interval bout. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and session RPE (sRPE) were collected during and 30 minutes after each training

RESULTS: The 4×4, 4×8 and 4×16 min interval groups completed work periods at 94 ± 2, 90 ± 2, and 88 ± 2 % of HFmax respectively (p<0.001 for 4×4 vs. other groups). Blood lactate responses were 13.2 ± 2, 9.6 ± 3, and 4.9 ± 1.5 mmol·L-1 (p<0.001 among groups). Average workload was 84 ± 2, 72 ± 5, and 64 ± 4 % of power at VO2peak (p<0.001). Session averaged workload increased by 9 ± 8, 13 ± 10, and 8 ± 5 % over 7 weeks, while session averaged peak heart rate responses remained unchanged. Both RPE (18.5 ± 1.2, 16.4 ± 0.6, and 15.9 ± 0.4, p<0.001) and sRPE (7.9 ± 0.8, 7.3 ± 0.7, and 6.9 ±0.7, p= 0.017) were higher in the 4x4 group throughout the 7 week training period and also tended to climb throughout the 7 week period in the 4x4 interval group.

CONCLUSIONS: Despite a 4× difference in total work time and “isoeffort” matched instructions of maximal overall effort for each group, the 4×4 minute prescription resulted in higher perceived effort through each training session and higher perceived “session effort” 30 minutes post exercise. Importantly, the intermediate 4×8 minute prescription resulted in greater physiological gains (recently published), despite lower acute perceived exertion and post exercise perception of effort.

1110 Board #4 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Low-Volume High-Intensity Interval Training Reduces Abdominal Adiposity and Increases Lean Mass in Overweight Women

Jenna B. Gillen, Michael E. Percival, Mark A. Tarnopolsky, Martin J. Gibala. McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. (Sponsor: Stuart Phillips, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Low-volume high-intensity interval training (HIT) induces physiological adaptations typically associated with traditional high-volume endurance training (END) despite a dramatically reduced time commitment. Limited data suggests HIT is superior to END for inducing fat loss in women when compared on a matched-work basis, but little is known regarding the effect of low-volume HIT on body composition. END performed in the fasted state has also been reported to prevent weight gain in the face of a hyper-caloric fat-rich diet. Fasted state low-volume HIT may thus represent a potent exercise strategy for improving body composition in overweight women.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of low-volume HIT performed in the fasted vs. fed state on adiposity and lean mass in overweight women.

METHODS: Sixteen overweight women (age: 27±8 yr, BMI: 29±6 kg/m2, VO2peak: 28±6 ml/kg/min) performed 18 sessions of HIT over 6 wk in either the fasted or fed state (n=8 each). Each session consisted of 10 × 1 min cycling efforts at ∼90% maximal heart rate (177±26 W) interspersed with 1 min of rest. Dual-emission X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify whole body and regional % fat, fat mass (kg) and lean mass (kg) before and after training.

RESULTS: Body mass was unchanged following training (pre: 77.4±12.4, post: 77.5±12.4, p>0.05). DEXA revealed lower % fat after training in abdominal (pre: 48.0±6.9%, post: 46.9±7.1%, p≤0.05) and leg regions (pre: 44.5±8.6%, post: 43.7±8.5%, p≤0.05) as well as at the whole body level (pre: 41.7±6.9%, post: 40.9±6.6%, p≤0.05). HIT also reduced abdominal (pre: 2.71±0.75kg, post: 2.65±0.76kg, p≤0.05) and total body fat mass (pre: 31.4±9.0kg, post: 30.8±8.9kg, p≤0.05). Lean mass increased in leg (pre: 15.1±2.3kg, post: 15.4±2.5kg, p≤0.05) and gynecoid regions (pre: 6.31±0.84, post: 6.48±0.84, p≤0.05) and tended to increase at the whole body level (pre: 43.2±6.7kg, post: 43.7±6.5kg, p=0.07). There was no effect of the dietary intervention on changes in body composition (all main effects for training).

CONCLUSION: Short-term low-volume HIT reduces adiposity and increases lean mass in overweight women without changes in body mass.

Supported by NSERC, Canada.

1111 Board #5 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Adherence To High-intensity Interval Training In Overweight And Obese African-american Women

Lyndsey M. Hornbuckle1, Michael McKenzie2, Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, FACSM3. 1Kennesaw State University, Kennesaw, GA. 2Winston-Salem State University, Winston-Salem, NC. 3Gramercy Research Group, Winston-Salem, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Exercise interventions are commonly used to research the effects of various modalities on behavior change. There is currently little data examining the feasibility of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in African-American (AA) women.

PURPOSE: This pilot study evaluated the adherence to HIIT in overweight and obese AA women.

METHODS: A 16-week exercise trial was conducted 3×/week where subjects were randomized to either a steady-state group (SS: n=11) that completed 32 continuous minutes of treadmill walking at 60-70% of their maximum heart rate (MHR), or 32 minutes of treadmill HIIT that alternated 3 minutes of walking at 60-70% of MHR with 1 minute of very brisk walking/jogging at 80-90% of MHR (n=16). Exercise adherence was measured by dropout rate and exercise session attendance. Paired sample, 2-tailed T-tests were used to determine significant pre- to post-intervention changes in cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) factors in study completers for both groups. Significance was accepted at p≤0.05.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven, low-active, obese AA women (age: 30.5±6.8 years; BMI 35.1±5.1 kg/m2; 5274±1646 steps/day at baseline) entered the trial. Three SS subjects (73% dropout rate) and 11 HIIT subjects (31% dropout rate) completed the study. SS study completers attended 86±10% of their sessions, while HIIT completers attended 93±0.6% of their sessions. HIIT significantly increased VO2peak (22.1±2.8 to 24.9±2.8 mL/kg/min) and significantly decreased waist circumference (104.7±10.1 to 102.0±10.0 cm), while SS showed no change in either. Although all study subjects had triglyceride levels well below recommended levels, SS significantly decreased triglycerides (61.3±5.5 to 52.3±5.5 mg/dL) and HIIT showed no change. There were no significant pre- to post-intervention changes in either group for blood pressure, weight, BMI, glycosylated hemoglobin, insulin, C-reactive protein, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, or fibrinogen.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that AA women may be more likely to adhere to a HIIT exercise program, when compared to a SS protocol of the same frequency and duration. These results could inform the design of future exercise interventions in this population. Further research is indicated to evaluate the effects of each protocol on CVD risk factors.

1112 Board #6 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Blood Oxidative-Stress Markers in Response to Wingate Sprint Exercise and Training

Allan H. Goldfarb, FACSM, Jason K. Smith, Phil D.M. Chee, Ryan S. Garten, Laurie Wideman. Univ., of North Carolina Greensboro, Greensboro, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Alterations in oxidative stress have been shown in response to sprint exercise and the Wingate cycling test. Aerobic training can up-regulate oxidative stress defenses.

PURPOSE: This study was designed to determine if Wingate cycling training (WT) would alter the oxidative-stress response to an acute exercise (AE) bout of cycling.

METHODS: Nine active males (26.8±4.3yrs) with an average VO2 max of 47.03 ± 4.3ml·kg.-1min-1 volunteered as subjects. Subjects performed a pre-training Wingate power test after resting for 30 minutes in a post-absorptive state. A forearm catheter enabled blood sampling 30 and 0 min prior to the cycling and 1, 5, 10,15,30 and 90 minutes after exercise. Subjects trained 3 days per week for 3 weeks. The 1st week had 4 Wingate’s per session, then 5 the 2nd week and 6 Wingate’s per session the final week. After each week another acute Wingate power test was conducted in the morning and blood was obtained as before. Blood samples were immediately processed and stored at -80oC until analyzed. Plasma samples were determined in duplicate for protein carbonyls (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and xanthine oxidase (XO). Data was analyzed by SPSS 19.0.

RESULTS: Peak power increased from baseline to week four with no mean power differences. PC increased over time with acute exercise independent of training (P=0.000). PC increased at 1, 5, and 10 minutes post exercise with the peak value 0.38± 0.05 nM· -1 mg. protein-1 at 1 min post exercise compared to baseline PC= 0.08± 0.02 nM·-1 mg. protein-1. XO was similar prior to exercise and did not change significantly with acute exercise (AE) or training (WT): (Baseline = 10.37± 1.33 uU/ml; AE=9.65 ± 1.12 uU/ml; T= 9.99 ± 1.43 uU/ml). Plasma MDA did not significantly change with AE nor did WT influence the MDA response. However, MDA tended to decrease over time after the AE independent of training (P = 0.08).

CONCLUSIONS: The Wingate cycling test can increase PC within the blood and indicates oxidative stress with acute exercise but the Wingate cycling training did not influence the extent of this increase.

E-15 Thematic Poster - Increasing Physical Activity in Youth

JUNE 1, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 2009

1113 Chair: Karin A. Pfeiffer, FACSM. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.

(No relationships reported)

1114 Board #1 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Impact of an Integrative Dance Based Program on Urban Children’s Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement

Ping Xiang1, Zan Gao2, David Stodden2. 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 2Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX. (Sponsor: Li Li, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: This 2-year study was designed to examine the impact of an interactive dance (Dance Dance Revolution [DDR]) based exercise program on urban children’s health-related physical fitness and academic achievement.

METHODS: Participants were 268 children (65 third graders, 85 fourth graders, and 58 fifth graders) who had no physical education class from an urban elementary school. In Year 1, participants’ baseline 1 mile run performance, BMI, standardized reading and math grades were assessed in August 2009. The fourth graders were then assigned to the intervention group (DDR plus activities such as aerobic dance and jump rope), engaging in 30 min. of exercise during recess three times per week. While the third and fifth graders were in the comparison group, and had no structured exercise at school. Data were collected again in May 2010. We then tracked this cohort to the second year and collected data again in August 2010 and May 2011. In year 2 the fourth grade children (third grade in year 1) were again assigned to the intervention, while fifth and sixth graders (fourth and fifth grade in year 1) were in the comparison group.

RESULTS: The results revealed in year 1, the intervention children (fourth) had significantly greater decreased time (Mgain score = -1.70 sec) in 1 mile run than comparison children (third and fifth) did (Mgain score = -.22 sec), F (2, 207) = 7.56, p< .01. Similarly, the intervention children had greater improvement on math grades (Mgain score = .68) than comparison children did (Mgain score = .19), F(2, 203) = 8.87, p< .01. In year 2, the intervention children (fourth graders who were third graders in year 1) had significantly more improvement in the 1-mile run (Mgain score = -1.79 sec) than sixth graders (fifth graders in year 1; Mgain score = -.30 sec) in the comparison group. Again, the intervention children had greater increased math grades (Mgain score = .72) than sixth graders did (Mgain score =.27). There were no significant differences on children’s BMI changes and reading grades changes between the groups across time.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggested the DDR-based intervention improved children’s cardiorespiratory endurance and math grades over time. Additionally, the intervention promoted a positive effect on children’s maintenance on those aspects during follow-up period.

(RWJF Grant # 66347)

1115 Board #2 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Promoting Parenting Skills to Increase Physical Activity and Decrease Television Viewing in Children

Meghan M. Senso1, Stewart G. Trost, FACSM2, Claire K. Fleming1, Dani M. Rein1, Rona L. Levy3, Shelby L. Langer3, Robert W. Jeffery4, Marcia G. Hayes1, Nancy E. Sherwood1. 1HealthPartners Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN. 2Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR. 3University of Washington, Seattle, WA. 4University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

(No relationships reported)

Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and TV time are both important determinants of overweight and obesity in children. Parents undoubtedly influence children’s TV and activity children exposure, yet how parenting influences these behaviors is not fully understood.

PURPOSE: Our aim was to examine the relationship between general and behavior-specific parenting and child TV time and MVPA.

METHODS: This analysis utilizes baseline data from Healthy Homes/Healthy Kids 5-10, an ongoing randomized control trial focused on coaching parents with 5- to 10-year-old children who are at risk for overweight or obesity (N= 252 parent-child dyads, child age = 6.7 ± 1.7, 48.8% female, child BMI percentile = 85.5 ± 6.7). Child MVPA was measured via accelerometry (inclusion criteria: ≥3 days of ≥10 hours wear time; N = 194, mean days worn = 5.7 ± 1.2, mean hours worn = 13.0 ± 1.4). Height and weight were measured by study staff. All other measures were parent-reported.

RESULTS: Parent self-efficacy in supporting activity and limiting TV were associated with child MVPA (ρ = 0.23, p <0.01) and TV time (ρ = -0.43, p <0.01) respectively. Parent limit setting around TV and child TV time were also inversely related (ρ = -0.19, p < 0.01). Parental encouragement of activity was positively associated with child MVPA (ρ = 0.19, p = 0.01), however other types of parental support were not. Permissive and authoritarian parenting styles were both positively correlated with TV time (ρ = 0.20, p < 0.01 and ρ = 0.16, p = 0.01 respectively), whereas authoritative parenting was negatively associated with TV time (ρ = -0.16, p = 0.01). There were no significant relationships between general parenting styles and child MVPA.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that parenting plays an important role in developing healthy child behaviors and may be key for obesity prevention. General parenting styles are more strongly associated with TV time than with child MVPA. However, behavior-specific parenting, such as self-efficacy, limit setting, and parental support for healthy behaviors appear to influence both TV time and MVPA. These data add to the body of evidence suggesting that parenting skills should be an integral part of any program aimed at promoting healthy weight gain in children.

Supported by NIH Grant R01 DK0884475-01.

1116 Board #3 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Dissemination Of Action Schools! BC: Effect On Cardiovascular Fitness Over 2 Years

Lindsay Nettlefold1, Heather A. McKay1, P.J. Naylor2, Shannon S.D. Bredin1, Darren E.R. Warburton1. 1University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada. 2University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a flexible, whole school physical activity model (Action Schools! BC) on cardiovascular fitness following two years of dissemination across British Columbia, Canada.

METHODS: We measured cardiovascular fitness at the beginning and end of two consecutive school years using the Leger multistage shuttle run test in 25 schools (1319 children, 8-11 years) that were allocated randomly to intervention (n = 640 children) or control (n = 679 children).

RESULTS: After controlling for covariates and school clusters, cardiovascular fitness after year one increased 37% more in girls (6.8 laps, 95% CI, -1.4, 15.0; p = 0.09) and 31% more in boys (4.7 laps, 95% CI, -1.9, 11.4; p = 0.14) attending intervention schools compared with children attending control schools. There were no between-group differences in cardiovascular fitness for girls (p = 0.46) or boys (p = 0.45) after year two. One large control school (n = 163) adopted the intervention after year one and cardiovascular fitness increased significantly more in girls (16%; 4.9 laps, 95% CI 0.5, 9.3; p = 0.03), but not boys (4%; 2.6 laps, 95% CI -3.0, 8.1; p = 0.35) during the implementation year compared with the control year.

CONCLUSION: Dissemination of Action Schools! BC elicited physiologically important increases in cardiovascular fitness, similar or greater in magnitude compared with other investigations, across year one. Lack of targeted training for teachers in year two and the movement of children to classrooms where teachers were not trained may explain the lack of effect across year two. School-based physical activity models may enhance children’s cardiovascular fitness; however, ongoing teacher training and compliance are likely key factors to sustaining benefits.

Supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (OCO 74248; PJN/HAM, Co-PI). Additional funding was provided by the University of British Columbia, the Canada Foundation for Innovation, the British Columbia Knowledge Development Fund, the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and the Michael Smith Foundation for Health Research (DERW, SSDB).

1117 Board #4 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Effects Of A 6-month Soccer Intervention Program On Body Composition And Psychological Health In Overweight Children

André Seabra1, António Natal1, Ana Seabra1, João Brito1, Fabricio Vasconcelos1, Eduardo Teixeira2, Andreia Pizarro2, Maria J. Carvalho2, Peter Krustrup3, Jorge Mota2, Carla Rêgo4, Robert M. Malina, FACSM5. 1Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 2Research Centre of Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal. 3Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, Section of Human Physiology, University of Copenhagen and Sport and Health Sciences, College of Life and Environmental Sciences, St. Luke’s Campus, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. 4Center for Research in Health Technologies and Information Systems, Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto and Children and Adolescent Center, CUF - Hospital, Porto, Porto, Portugal. 5Department of Kinesiology and Health Education, University of Texas, Austin, and Tarleton State University, Stephenville, Austin, TX.

(No relationships reported)

Physical activity (PA) is an important medium for improving the physical fitness, body composition and well-being of children, and as such is often emphasized in intervention programs with overweight/obesity children. Only few studies have examined the impact of a specific team sport intervention on the body composition and psychological health in overweight children.

PURPOSE: To examine the effect of 6-month soccer intervention program on the body composition and psychological health in overweight children.

METHODS: 28 overweight children of both gender participated in a prospective observational cohort study: 14 were assigned to a soccer program (SG) (10.1±2.0 years) and 14 were assigned as a control group (CG) (10.5±2.2 years). The 6-month soccer program involved sessions 60-90 min, 4 times/week; average intensity >80%HRmax). CG participated only in the compulsory physical education classes at school (45-90 min, 2 times/week) and did not participate in any kind of organized or unorganized sport activity for at least 1 year. Bone mineral density (BMD) scans were taken for the whole-body, lumbar spine (L1-4) and lower limbs using DXA. Percent body fat (%BF) and lean body mass (LBM) were estimated. Psychological measures included attraction to participate in PA, perceived physical competence, self-esteem and body image; standardized questionnaires were used. PA was monitored with accelerometers for 5 days. Maturity offset was used as an estimate of biological maturity status. Statistical procedures included paired t tests and ANCOVA models. SPSS 18 was used in all analyses.

RESULTS: From baseline to after 6 months, SG demonstrated greater increases in attraction to PA (+11.9%; 95% CI: 2.0 to 21.9%; p<0.05), perceived physical competence (+23.4; 95% CI: 1.9 to 45.0%; p<0.05), self-esteem (+13.6; 95% CI: 5.3 to 21.9; p<0.05) and body image (-7.4%; 95% CI: -30.8 to -103.9%; p<0.05) compared to CG. Changes in whole-body (+0.2%), lumbar spine (+1.4%) and lower limb (left: +0.1%; right: +0.2%) BMD, %BF (-1.1%) and LBM (+0.2%) did not differ between SG and CG.

CONCLUSIONS: A 6-month soccer intervention program in overweight children did not result in significant changes in body composition but was effective in improving psychological health of children.

1118 Board #5 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Impacting Home Environments through Preschool Settings to Prevent Obesity: The HOP’N Home Project

Tanis J. Hastmann1, Bronwyn S. Fees2, Richard R. Rosenkranz2, David A. Dzewaltowski2. 1Oakland University, Rochester, MI. 2Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS. (Sponsor: Tamara Hew-Butler, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Home environments are critical settings to prevent obesity in children. Parents are gatekeepers of children’s physical activity and nutrition opportunities because they establish the home physical and social environment. However, there is a gap in the literature on how to affect home environments.

PURPOSE: The primary aim was to evaluate the impact of the HOP’N Home intervention on the prevention of child obesity through changes in the physical and social home environment in preschool-aged children. HOP’N Home targeted child care settings to develop children’s skills to ask their parents for healthful home food and activity options and parents’ skills to provide healthful home environments.

METHODS: Study one was a cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial in which two child care classrooms were randomized to receive the 12-week HOP’N Home program or serve as controls (n = 22; mean age = 3.5, SD = 0.5y; 68% white; 45% male; 5% free/reduced lunch; 18% overweight/obese). Study two was a non-randomized trial (n = 50; mean age = 4.1, SD = 0.7 y; 82% white; 58% male; 19% free and reduced lunch; 31% overweight/obese) in which two child care homes and two centers received the HOP’N Home intervention. Pretest, posttest and follow-up height and weight measurements, and a parent survey assessed the impact of intervention. Data from study one were analyzed using analysis of covariance examining the effect of condition on change scores for BMI, BMIz, and parent survey variables. Paired t-tests were used for study two.

RESULTS: HOP’N Home had no impact on BMI or BMIz; however, in study one, HOP’N Home children increased (p < 0.05) in frequency of asking to play outside per week (pretest = 4.5, post = 4.6) compared to control (pre = 5.5, post = 2.5). In study two, HOP’N children increased (p < 0.05) in park visits (mean change = 0.8), decreased in screen time activities (mean change = -21.2 min/day), and fast food restaurant visits per week (-0.2 times/wk). Additionally, parents increased (p < 0.05) allowing their child to play outside (6%) and decreased allowing their child to consume candy and/or chocolate (-5%) after their child asked.

CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that target building skills of children attending child care programs and reaching parents may be a practical way to influence the healthfulness of home environments in young children.

1119 Board #6 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Physical Activity Modulation In 9-11 Year Old Children: Exercise Classes In The Teaching Environment (“EXCITE”)

Alison L. Innerd, Kathryn L. Taylor, Liane B. Azevedo, Alan M. Batterham, FACSM. Teesside University, Middlesbrough, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Whether physical activity can be modulated via interventions is uncertain.

PURPOSE: To determine whether a classroom-based intervention can modulate physical activity in 9-11 year old children.

METHODS: We recruited 153 children (76 boys) from five schools. In an exploratory controlled before-and-after design, two schools were assigned to the Intervention condition (n=72) and three to Control (n=81), matching for socioeconomic status and level of physical education provision. School teachers delivered an 8-week classroom-based intervention, comprising 10 minutes of moderate-vigorous physical activity integrated into the curriculum on each school day. Children in control schools maintained their usual school routine. Primary outcomes were the mean daily total physical activity (counts per minute; cpm) and moderate-vigorous physical activity (minutes; Evenson cutpoints). We instructed children to wear a waist-mounted accelerometer for eight consecutive days (minimum requirement of four days with at least 10 hours of wear time). Measurements were taken at baseline, week 8 (during the last week of the intervention), and follow up (4 weeks post-intervention). We estimated the difference in the change from baseline (intervention minus control) for each outcome at week 8 and at follow up, with sex and the baseline value as covariates. We adopted a magnitude-based inferences framework, calculating the probability that the true population effect was greater than the minimum practically important difference (Cohen’s d of 0.2 standard deviations).

RESULTS: At 8-weeks, mean daily total physical activity increased by 59 cpm (90% confidence interval, -20 to 138 cpm). The probability that the true population effect is larger than the minimum important difference was 0.769; “likely to be” practically important. Moderate-vigorous physical activity increased by 13.1 minutes (-3.7 to 29.9 minutes). The probability that the true population effect was practically important was 0.747 (“possibly” beneficial). At follow up there were no substantial differences between intervention and control for either outcome.

CONCLUSION: The short-term perturbation effect of the intervention on total physical activity was likely to be substantial. However, this effect was transient and practically disappeared at follow up.

E-16 Thematic Poster - The Athlete’s Heart

JUNE 1, 2012 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

ROOM: 2011

1120 Chair: Benjamin Charles Thompson. Metropolitan State College of Denver, Denver, CO.

(No relationships reported)

1121 Board #1 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Ultrasound Measured Left Ventricular Strain in Competitive Youth Swimmers: Acute and Chronic Effects of Training

Michael P. Godard, FACSM1, Kathryn M. Godard2, Deborah Jessen2. 1Western Illinois University, Macomb, IL. 2McDonough District Hospital, Macomb, IL.

(No relationships reported)

This study examined the effects of a season of competitive youth swim training on cardiac and pulmonary function. This study is the first to examine the effects of a season of competitive youth swim training on left ventricular (LV) wall size, function and left ventricular myocardial strain utilizing tissue Doppler techniques.

PURPOSE: To identify alterations in rest and stress tissue Doppler, LV wall dimensions and function, along with pulmonary function (PFT) that takes place over the course of a competitive swim season.

METHOD: This study included 12 competitive youth male swimmers (9.33±1.67 yrs., 80.60±20.36 lbs., 55.35±2.67 inches). All measures were taken pre-and-post season. PFT was measured at rest using spirometry. Cardiovascular dimensions (LVIDd, LVIDs, IVSd, PWd) and functions (fractional shortening (FS%), mitral inflow, myocardial performance index) were measured by echocardiography (relevant parameters were adjusted for BSA via the Haycock formula) before and after a graded exercise test on a pediatric cycle ergometer.

RESULTS: There were no significant changes in any of the demographic information pre-to-post season. There was a significant increase in time to exhaustion on the bike and peak watts (13.00±2.45 to 13.75±2.55 minutes and 166.67±29.46 to 175.00±30.62 Watts, respectively) (p<0.05). The only PFT measure found to be significant was FIF50 (1.59±0.67 to 2.26±0.81 L/s) (p<0.05). Multivariate test for all LV wall dimension interactions was significant Wilks Lambda = .012, p<0.001, partial eta squared .988. A significant increase in FS% (32.36±5.12% to 34.19±5.30%), Mitral Valve E/A ratio (1.72±0.21 to 2.03±0.37), and Myocardial Performance Index (MPI) (0.26±0.11 to 0.36±0.09) was found at rest from pre-to-post season measures (p<0.05). Additionally, peak strain measurement of the basal inferior displacement significantly increased (p<0.05) pre-to-post season (10.51±2.97 to 13.11±2.21).

CONCLUSION: The increase in time to exhaustion, peak watts and FS% is consistent with previous studies. The increases in LV dimensions are consistent with previous findings that endurance training results in LVH (which may be responsible for the increase in MPI). The combination of the changes in FS%, Mitral Valve E/A and MPI suggests an overall improvement in cardiac function.

1122 Board #2 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Do Big Athletes Have Big Hearts?

Nathan Riding1, Othman Salah1, Bruce Hamilton, FACSM1, Hakim Chalabi1, Francois Carre2, Sanjay Sharma3, Raschid Brouas4, Keith P. George, FACSM5, Greg P. Whyte, FACSM5, Mathew G. Wilson1. 1ASPETAR, Qatar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Doha, Qatar. 2Rennes University, Pontchaillou Hospital., Rennes, France. 3St Georges Hospital, UK, London, United Kingdom. 4Qatar Basketball Federation, Doha, Qatar. 5Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Typical morphological features of the athletic heart include an increase in left ventricular internal diameter in diastole (LVIDd) and a concomitant increase in LV wall thickness. Differentiating physiological cardiac hypertrophy from cardiac pathology is a challenge for sports cardiologists. Whilst upper normal limits exist for LV wall thickness (13 mm) and LVIDd (66 mm), it is not known if these limits are applicable to athletes with very large body surface areas (BSA).

PURPOSE: To investigate cardiac structure in professional athletes with extreme anthropometry (>2.3m2 BSA), and to assess the validity of established upper normal limits for physiological cardiac hypertrophy in this unique population.

METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty-six athletes underwent cardiovascular screening that included 12-Lead electrocardiography and 2D, M-mode and Doppler echocardiographic examination. All athletes were grouped on the basis of BSA (Group 1 BSA >2.3m2, n = 100; Group 2 BSA 2.29-2m2, n = 244; Group 3 BSA <1.99m2, n = 492).

RESULTS: There were progressive yet significant increases in mean wall thicknesses and LV cavity dimension between the three BSA groups. Specifically intraventricular septum during diastole [(Group 1) 10.2 ± 1.1mm, (Group 2) 9.4 ± 0.9mm, (Group 3) 8.8 ± 1.0mm, p<0.05] and posterior wall thickness in diastole [(Group 1) 9.2 ± 1.1mm, (Group 2) 8.5± 0.82mm, (Group 3) 7.9 ± 0.9mm, p<0.05] increased as BSA increased. This adaptation was also observed with LVIDd [(Group 1) 56.7 ± 3.4mm, (Group 2) 55 ±3.3mm, (Group 3) 51.6±3.9mm, p<0.05]. No athlete with a normal ECG presented a maximal wall thickness and LVIDd > than 13mm and 66mm, respectively. However, three athletes (1 × Group 1, 2 × Group 2) presented a maximal wall thickness > 13mm, but also demonstrated an abnormal ECG suspicious of an inherited cardiac pathology.

CONCLUSION: Irrespective of whether an athlete has a large BSA, previously established upper limits of physiological hypertrophy are still applicable to this population. Any athlete, including those with a BSA >2.3m2, who demonstrate a maximal wall thickness ≥ 13mm or an LVIDd ≥ 66mm should be investigated further for cardiac pathology.

1123 Board #3 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Echocardiographic 3d Speckle Tracking Values On Cardiac Wall Motion In Elite Adult, Adolescent And Pediatric Athletes

Juergen Scharhag, FACSM1, Kristin Hotzkow2, Stephan Kopinski2, Martin Barche2, Frank Mayer2. 1University Clinic Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany. 2University Potsdam, Potsdam, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Three dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography (3DST) offers new possibilities to analyze cardiac wall motion and function. As 3DST analyses the whole myocardium in one echocardiographic view, it is more accurate and faster than two dimensional speckle tracking, which only analyses myocardial slices. However, 3DST data for exercise adapted hearts of elite athletes do not exist so far.

PURPOSE: It was the aim of the present study to analyze the cardiac wall motion by 3DST in elite athletes of different ages to generate normal values which could help to detect cardiac abnormalities or pathologies at earlier stages than usual two dimensional echocardiography.

METHODS: We examined 33 male adult national elite athletes (EA: 22 ± 5 yrs; 186 ± 9 cm; 84 ± 10 kg) of different disciplines as well as 51 adolescent (AA: 37 boys/14 girls; 16 ± 1 yrs; 174 ± 9 cm; 64 ± 11 kg) and 104 pediatric (PA: 54 boys/50 girls; 12 ± 1 yrs; 158 ± 10 cm; 47 ± 10 kg) state elite athletes of an elite sports school who received a routine preparticipation screening under resting conditions. By 3DST (Artida, Toshiba) the left ventricular 3D strain as well as the longitudinal, radial and circumferential strain at the basal (B), midventricular (M) and apical (A) level was analyzed in a 3 dimensional 16 segment model.

RESULTS: 3D strain values [%] were significantly higher in pediatric athletes than in adolescent and adult athletes: B/M/A: 33±12 / 25±10 / 12±7 in EA; 30±13 / 28±12 / 17±8 in AA; 38±16 / 35±16 / 22±13 in PA; p < 0.05). In addition, 3D strain was significantly lower at the apical level (A) compared to the basal (B) and midventricular (M) left ventricular levels in all three groups (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: 3D strain values show a broad range between elite adult, adolescent and pediatric athletes on all left ventricular levels, which has to be considered when 3D wall motion analysis is applied in athletes. In addition, as the 3D strain is higher at all left ventricular levels in pediatric athletes compared to adolescent and adult athletes, age dependent as well as long term exercise training dependent adaptations on cardiac wall motion have to be presumed in athletes. Further 3DST studies are required to analyze the effects of growth as well as exercise training on the cardiac wall motion in athletes and athlete’s heart.

1124 Board #4 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Cardiac Strain During Exercise In Adolescent Males

Viswanath B. Unnithan, FACSM1, Piers Barker2, Thomas Rowland3, Denise M. Roche4, Martin Lindley5, Max Garrard6. 1Staffordshire University, Stoke-on-Trent, United Kingdom. 2Duke University, Durham, NC. 3Baystate Medical Center, Springfield, MA. 4Liverpool Hope University, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 5Loughborough University, Loughborough, United Kingdom. 6Leeds Metropolitan University, Leeds, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Little evidence exists with regard to the changes in cardiac strain that occur during submaximal exercise in young, healthy males.

PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes that occur in longitudinal, radial and endocardial circumferential strain during submaximal cycle ergometry

METHODS: Fourteen recreationally active adolescent males volunteered to participate in the study ( age: 17.9 ± 0.7 years, stature: 182 ± 7 cm, mass: 72.1 ± 8.2 kg) . All subjects underwent an incremental (40W) submaximal cycle ergometer test to exhaustion. Longitudinal (L), radial (R), and endocardial circumferential (EC) strain values were obtained using speckle tracking from a two-dimensional B-mode image of the left ventricle (LV) during rest and the initial stages of submaximal exercise only (40W and 80W). The average of 6 LV segments was used to determine both peak wall deformation (%) and the time to peak deformation (ms).

RESULTS: There were statistically (P<0.05) significant differences for peak and time to peak for: L, R and EC from rest to submaximal exercise respectively.There were also statistically (P<0.05) significant differences between workloads (40W and 80W) for time to peak for L and EC respectively.


CONCLUSION: The results suggest that significant increases in left ventricular wall deformation (L, R and EC strain) occur during the transition from rest to submaximal exercise and that these changes occur at a faster rate with increasing exercise intensity. This pattern of data confirms that a healthy left ventricle has a hyperdynamic response to exercise.

1125 Board #5 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

MRI Evaluation of Right Ventricular Adaptation to Resistance Versus Endurance Training: a 6-month Randomised Trial

Angela L. Spence1, Louise H. Naylor1, Howard H. Carter1, Conor P. Murray2, Keith P. George3, Daniel J. Green1. 1University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia. 2Envision Medical Imaging, Perth, Australia. 3Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool, United Kingdom.

(No relationships reported)

Chronic exercise training is known to induce morphological adaptation of the left ventricle (LV). Echocardiographic studies suggest the right ventricle (RV) also exhibits hypertrophy in athletes however, due to its complex shape RV structure is very challenging to accurately assess using echocardiography. A limited number of MRI studies have implied that RV hypertrophy in athletes is balanced, however this is the first prospective, longitudinal randomized study examining the impact of divergent exercise training modalities on indices of RV morphology utilizing MRI technology.

PURPOSE: To determine whether 6-months of controlled, supervised, intensive endurance (E) or resistance (R) training induces RV adaptation.

METHODS: Twenty-three young male subjects were randomized into either E (n=10) or R training groups (n=13) and completed a 6-month intensive, progressive training intervention, attending 3×1 hr fully supervised sessions per week. Variables included MRI-assessed cardiac morphology, body composition, aerobic fitness and muscular strength. Global RV function was examined using myocardial speckle tracking echocardiography to determine longitudinal strain. Measures were taken at baseline, following training and following 6 weeks of detraining.

RESULTS: Aerobic fitness significantly improved in E (3.55±0.22 to 3.79±0.18 L.min-1, P=0.024) but was unchanged in R. Muscular strength significantly improved in both groups, but to a greater extent in R (27.3±4.6 vs. 37.5±4.9%, P<0.001). Although total fat mass did not significantly change, total lean mass increased in both groups (R: 59.7±2.35 to 62.0±2.2kg, P<0.001, E: 56.9±2.9 and 58.3±3kg P<0.05). Right ventricular mass was significantly increased following E (28.6±2.3 to 31.3±2.3g, P<0.05) but not R (35.7±1.8 to 35.4±1.9g). The ratio of LV mass to RV mass was unchanged with training. Similarly, RV end-diastolic volume was higher in E subjects following training although this was not statistically significant (E: 176.3±10.7 to 187.1±13.1mL vs. R:194.5±11.5 to 198.8±11.7mL). Global RV longitudinal function did not change across the training period in either group.

CONCLUSIONS: Right ventricular morphological adaptations are observed following 6-months of intense supervised endurance, but not resistance, exercise training.

1126 Board #6 JUNE 1 9:30 AM - 11:30 AM

Correlation Between ECG Abnormalities and Cardiac Parameters in Highly Trained Asymptomatic Male Endurance Athletes

Gunnar Erz1, Stefanie Mangold2, Ulrich Kramer2, Erik Franzen1, Andreas M. Niess1, Christof Burgstahler1. 1University of Tuebingen, Department of Sports Medicine, Tuebingen, Germany. 2University of Tuebingen, Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Tuebingen, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

BACKGROUND Intensive endurance training can induce abnormal ECG patterns at rest. These alterations are differentiated into minor, mildly or distinctly abnormal ECG patterns. Echocardiographic data imply a correlation between the extent of these alterations and cardiac parameters like cardiac volume or wall thickness. In comparison to echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is characterized by high reproducibility and accuracy. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between ECG alterations and cardiac parameters in highly trained asymptomatic male endurance athletes as assessed using cardiac MRI.

METHODS 45 asymptomatic male endurance athletes (mean age 40±8.9 yrs., [range 19-59], 13±5 h of training per week) underwent a cardiac MRI examination in addition to a resting ECG. Based on the ECG patterns, the athletes were divided into groups with normal or minor (group 1) and mild or distinct (group 2) alterations. Cardiac MRI was used to calculate left and right ventricular end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, stroke volume, ejection fraction, and myocardial mass. Late enhancement imaging was used to exclude structural alterations or myocardial scarring.

RESULTS Athletes in group 1 and 2 did not differ significantly in terms of age, height, body weight, body mass index or hours of training per week. Athletes with mildly or distinctly abnormal ECG patterns showed a significantly higher myocardial mass than athletes with minor ECG alterations at rest or normal resting ECG values (156.4 ± 18.4 g vs. 140.5 ± 20.0 g; p=0.0103). The differences persisted when the values were corrected for body surface area (80.0± 7.4 g/m2 vs. 73.4± 8.3 g; p<0.001). All other assessed cardiac parameters did not differ between the two groups. Pathological myocardial enhancement was detected in only in one patient with a minor abnormal ECG.

CONCLUSIONS Male asymptomatic endurance athletes with mildly or distinctly abnormal ECG patterns at rest are characterized by a higher myocardial mass than comparable athletes with minor alterations or normal ECG at rest. Thus, the extent of ECG-abnormalities seems to be mainly the result of an increase in myocardial mass. Additionally, the absence of mild or distinct ECG alterations does not exclude the presence of pathological late gadolinium enhancement.

F-12 Thematic Poster - Exercise and Inflammation

JUNE 1, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3020

1127 Chair: Rickie J. Simpson. University of Houston, Houston, TX.

(No relationships reported)

1128 Board #1 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect of Wheel Running on Sickness Behavior and Inflammation in Aged Mice

Jeffrey A. Woods, FACSM, Steve Martin, Brandt Pence, Ryan Greene, Stephanie Johnson, Robert Dantzer, Keith Kelley. University of Illinois, Urbana, IL.

(No relationships reported)

Peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with LPS causes exaggerated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior in aged mice. Regular moderate intensity exercise has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory effects that may protect against inappropriate neuroinflammation and sickness behavior in aged mice.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that voluntary wheel running would attenuate LPS-induced inflammation and sickness behavior in 22-month-old C57BL/6J mice.

METHODS: Mice were housed with either a running wheel (VWR) or locked-wheel (Locked) for 10 weeks, after which they were intraperitoneally injected with LPS (0.33 mg/kg).

RESULTS: VWR mice ran on average 4km/day and lost significantly more body weight and body fat, and increased their forced exercise tolerance compared to Locked mice. VWR had no effect on LPS-induced anorexia, adipsia, weight-loss, or reductions in locomotor activity. Twenty-four hours post-injection we found an LPS-induced upregulation of whole brain TNFα and IL-1β mRNA and increased TNFα, IL-1β, and IL-6 mRNA in visceral adipose, spleen, and liver; these effects were not attenuated by VWR. Additionally, we found no difference in plasma IL-6 between VWR and Locked mice.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that, at this dose of LPS, VWR does not reduce LPS-induced neuroinflammation, peripheral inflammation, or exaggerated or prolonged sickness behavior in aged animals. The necessity of the sickness response is critical for survival and may outweigh the subtle benefits of exercise training in aged animals.

1129 Board #2 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

MCP-1 -/- Mice Show Blunted Inflammatory Cytokine Response And Improved Recovery Following Exercise-induced Muscle Damage

Benjamin T. Gordon, E Angela Murphy, Jamie L. McClellan, Martin D. Carmichael, J Mark Davis, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC. (Sponsor: Mark Davis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The body’s inflammatory response to eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage in both brain and muscle contributes to impaired performance recovery. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1) is essential in the release of inflammatory mediators, but its role in exercise-induced muscle damage and subsequent performance recovery has not yet been determined.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the role of MCP-1 on brain and muscle inflammation, and performance recovery following a novel bout of downhill running.

METHODS: C57BL/6 (n=24) and MCP-1-/- mice (n=24), 8 weeks of age were randomly assigned to one of six groups: downhill runner wild type (DH-WT), uphill runner wild type (UH-WT), sedentary wild type (SED-WT), downhill runner MCP-1-/- (DH-MCP-1-/-), uphill runner MCP-1-/- (UH-MCP-1-/-), and sedentary MCP-1-/- (MCP-1-/-). The mice were run on a treadmill at -/+14% grade and 22m/min, for a duration of 150 min. Mice were sacrificed at 24h post downhill run, and the brain and gastrocnemius muscle (gastroc) were dissected and analyzed for IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and F4/80 mRNA using real time RT-PCR. In a subset of mice (n=6-7/group), recovery of voluntary running activity was measured for 7 days post downhill and uphill run using cages equipped with running wheels that allow for continuous monitoring of activity.

RESULTS: Gene expression of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α was increased in the cerebellum, cortex and gastroc in DH-WT relative to SED-WT (p<0.05), whereas DH-MCP-1-/- was not different from SED-WT. A similar effect was observed for F4/80 but this reached statistical significance in tha gastroc only (p<0.05). No differences were found for inflammatory mediators in any other groups. Consistent with our previously reported findings, total distance, time on the wheel and peak speed were decreased for 72hrs following the downhill run compared to uphill (P<0.05). However, this response was blunted in the MCP-1-/- mice; DH-MCP-1-/- returned to baseline levels of activity (distance, time on wheel and peak speed) within 48hrs of the downhill running bout.

CONCLUSION: These data support a necessary role for MCP-1 on the inflammatory cytokine response and recovery of performance following exercise-induced muscle damage.

Supported by a grant from NASA and ACSM.

1130 Board #3 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effects Of Short-term Exercise Training With And Without Milk Consumption On Inflammation In Overweight Girls

Maple Liu, Linda Gillis, Stuart Phillips, FACSM, Brian W. Timmons. McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Childhood obesity can present with chronic inflammation, which may lead to the development of insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. The effects of short-term exercise training with or without nutritional support on inflammatory cytokine levels have not been studied in overweight adolescents.

PURPOSE: To determine the effects of short-term exercise training with and without chocolate milk consumption on inflammatory cytokine levels in overweight and obese adolescent girls.

METHODS: Thirty-one overweight and obese girls (ages 9-13 yr) participated in a 7-day protocol of mild energy deficit brought about by daily one hour exercise sessions (resistance training and high intensity cycling). One group (MILK; n=16) received three servings of chocolate milk (250 ml each)-two following each exercise session and a third consumed at another time during the day. Another group (CONT; n=15) received isoenergetic servings of a carbohydrate beverage at the same time points. Both groups received a diet based on their individual caloric needs determined by their resting energy expenditure with a ventilated hood system. Before and after the training, a fasting blood sample was taken to obtain serum, later analyzed for inflammatory markers; interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and C-reactive protein (CRP).

RESULTS: There was a time-dependent decrease in body weight for both groups from pre- to post-training (69.5±17.7 kg vs 68.9±17.9 kg, p<0.001). Both TNF-α and IL-6 were significantly higher at post-training vs. pre-training (2.26±1.02 pg/mL vs. 1.83±0.90 pg/mL, p<0.01; 1.24±0.98 pg/mL vs. 0.94±0.55 pg/mL, p=0.04 for TNF-α and IL-6, respectively). There were no differences in CRP.

CONCLUSIONS: Short-term exercise training with and without chocolate milk consumption caused a small increase in inflammatory cytokine levels in overweight adolescent girls. These cytokine changes may reflect an early adaptive response to increased activity levels.

Supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada and the Dairy Research Institute.

1131 Board #4 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Aerobic Exercise Training Reduces Skeletal Muscle Toll-like Receptor 4 And Inflammation In Older Adults.

Kyle L. Timmerman, Melissa M. Markofski, Jeremiah N. West, Jennifer Z. Timmerman, Jared M. Dickinson, Dillon K. Walker, David M. Gundermann, Paul T. Reidy, Blake B. Rasmussen, Elena Volpi. University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. (Sponsor: Elizabeth Protas, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Elevated skeletal muscle inflammation has been implicated in the development and progression of type II diabetes and sarcopenia. The innate immune receptor, toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and its endogenous ligands (e.g. HSP60) may regulate skeletal muscle inflammation.

PURPOSE: The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of 6 months of aerobic exercise training in previously inactive older adults on the skeletal muscle expression of TLR4, HSP60, and the inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α.

METHODS: Subjects were randomized to either a control group (N=8; age=69.4y; BMI=24.1 kg·m-2) or an exercise training group (N=8; age=72.8y; BMI=25.9 kg·m-2). CON subjects maintained their habitual activity level, while EX subjects underwent 6 months of supervised aerobic exercise training (3d/wk; 60min/session; 65-75% heart rate reserve). Muscle biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis PRE and POST exercise training or control period. Skeletal muscle TLR4, HSP60, and TNF-α protein expression were assessed using Western blotting. Data were normalized to an internal control and expressed as arbitrary units (AU).

RESULTS: There were no baseline differences between groups. Relative to baseline and CON, exercise training resulted in decreased skeletal muscle expression of TLR4 (EX-PRE: 0.55±0.08 AU, EX-POST: 0.41±0.08 AU; CON-PRE: 0.60±0.07 AU, CON-POST: 0.64±0.06 AU) and HSP60 (EX-PRE: 0.79±0.07 AU, EX-POST: 0.57±0.07 AU; CON-PRE: 0.72±0.06 AU, CON-POST: 0.68±0.04 AU) (P < 0.05). A comparison of POST minus PRE change in protein expression revealed that TNF-α was significantly reduced in EX (Delta = -0.121±0.03) compared to CON (Delta = 0.067±0.05) (P<0.05). Finally, there were trends for BMI (EX-PRE: 25.9±0.87 kg·m-2, EX-POST: 25.2±0.83 kg·m-2) (P=0.075) and body fat percentage (EX-PRE: 40.1±1.6%, EX-POST: 38.9±0.83%) (P=0.064) to be reduced in EX subjects following exercise training.

CONCLUSION: These preliminary data suggest that 6 months of moderate intensity aerobic exercise training can reduce skeletal muscle inflammation in previously inactive older adults, possibly through exercise training-induced alterations of TLR4 and HSP60 expression. Funding: R01 AG030070, P30 AG024832, UL1 RR029876.

1132 Board #5 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Inflammatory Cytokine Patterns In Athletes Suffering From Unexplained Underperformance Syndrome(UUPS)

Martina Velders, Julia Wolff, Uwe Schumann, Gunnar Treff, Mario Weichenberger, Machus Katja, Yufei Liu, Burkhardt Schleipen, Marion Schneider, Jürgen Steinacker, FACSM. University of Ulm, Ulm, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

Overtraining or unexplained underperformance syndrome (UUPS) is defined by prolonged fatigue, mood disturbances and underperformance following a period of heavy training load (Meussen et al., 2006). Diagnostic approaches to detect overtraining are currently limited to mood state and physical performance. Dysregulated innate and adaptive immune functions resulting in altered cytokine profiles in severely overtrained athletes are linked to clinical symptoms analogous to sepsis.

PUROPSE: To compare the cytokine response of athletes suffering from clinically relevant symptoms of UUPS and highly trained athletes without symptoms.

METHODS: 24 elite athletes (mainly rowers, runners and soccer players) training with high volume (> 10 h/week) presenting to our outpatient clinic with UUPS and 24 mainly elite rowers (high training load, HTL) were compared in the study. Other clinically relevant illnesses were excluded, e.g. concomitant infections, endocrine disorders or musculoskeletal traumatic injuries. Plasma from resting blood samples were analyzed for TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, soluble IL-2R (CD25), IL-10 and Ferritin using a chemiluminescent sandwich immunoassay with specific antibodies (Immulite 1000, BD Siemens).

RESULTS: IL-1β (4.30 ± 4.89 vs. 2.32 ± 1.72pg/ml; p=0.04) as well as TNFα (29.5 ± 10.2 vs. 23.1 ± 5.27 pg/ml; p<0.001) plasma levels were significantly increased in UUPS vs. HTL. No significance could be determined for IL-10, IL-6, IL-8, IL2-R and ferritin.

CONCLUSION: The inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α were significantly higher in the UUPS compared to the HTL group. IL-1β and TNFα are both produced by activated macrophages and serve as important regulators of the inflammatory response by stimulating the expression of other cytokines (IL-6) as well as inducing the maturation and proliferation of lymphocytes. The results suggest that dysregulated innate immune function resulting in increased production of inflammatory cytokines is involved in, and allows the distinction between UUPS and high training load. The mechanisms underlying the altered innate immune function in response to overtraining are subject to our current research.

1133 Board #6 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Relevance Of Systemic Inflammation For Exercise Intolerance During Development Of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Frank C. Mooren1, Norbert Weissmann2, Michael Seimetz2, Karsten Krüger1. 1Dept. of Sports Medicine, Giessen, Germany. 2University of Giessen Lung Center (UGLC), Excellence Cluster Cardiopulmonary System (ECCPS), Giessen, Germany, Giessen, Germany.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: COPD is a multicomponent disease characterized by pulmonary and systemic inflammation. Furthermore, patients suffer from increased and progressive exercise intolerance. There is still a lack of knowledge about the time course of the decline of exercise capacity and inflammatory response upon smoke exposure. Therefore the aim of the current study was a characterization of the longitudinal development of systemic inflammation and its correlation with exercise capacity using a COPD mouse model

METHODS: Mice are exposed to the mainstream smoke of cigarettes in a concentration of 140mg/m3 for 6 hours a day, 5 days a week for up to 6 months. At T0 (start of smoke exposure (SE)), T1 (2 month SE), T2 (4 month SE), T3 (6 month SE) and T4 (8 month SE) mice were tested on a treadmill spirometry for determination of exercise capacity and compared to age matched controls. At every time point, groups of mice were sacrified and isolated blood lymphocytes were analyzed for cellular inflammatory markers and adhesion molecules via flow cytometry. Serum was taken for analyzing inflammatory serum markers by multiplex ELISA assays.

RESULTS: SE was accompanied by a significant decline of endurance capacity during the first 4 month of SE, while at 4-6 month VO2max remains constant. SE was further accompanied by a significant up-regulation of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 on CD4 cells at T1. In contrast, a delayed increase of these molecules was observed in CD8 cells (T2). Furthermore, on whole CD3 cell population CD62L (L-selectin) was significantly up-regulated in SE group. In serum, several pro-inflammaory markers like chemoattractant, coagolative and vasoactive cytokines were up-regulated at T1, declined atT2 and T3, and increased at T4, again.

CONCLUSIONS: SE is followed by a significant decline of endurance capacity during 4 month SE, an early inflammatory response of CD4 cells and a delayed increase of adhesion molecules on CD8 cells. Furthermore, many inflammatory like chemoattractant, coagolative and vasoactive serum cytokines were up-regulated very early upon SE and may therefore be a cause of COPD development.

F-13 Thematic Poster - Footwear Science: To Tone or Not To Tone

JUNE 1, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 3022

1134 Chair: Enzo Cafarelli, FACSM. York University, North York, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

1135 Board #1 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Physiological Responses to Wearing Rocker Bottom Shoes

Dixie L. Thompson, FACSM, Amanda Brady, Ginny Frederick. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Shoes with an unstable or rocker bottom (RB) shape have become popular among some fitness enthusiasts. Manufacturers have placed RBs on shoes of various designs to meet the public’s request for comfortable, yet work-appropriate shoes. Many benefits of RB shoes, including weight loss, have been suggested, but support from sound investigations remains scarce.

PURPOSE: To compare the physiological responses while wearing RB shoes to responses measured when wearing a standard shoe. A secondary purpose was to gather information on the comfort of these shoes.

METHODS: 15 men (48.7±9.1y; 85.2±15.3kg) were tested on the treadmill during two conditions: wearing a RB shoe and a control (CON) shoe. Under each condition men stood quietly for 5 min, walked at 2 mph for 5 min, and walked at 3.5 mph for 5 min. Physiological measurements (e.g., VO2, HR) were determined during the last 2 min of each segment. Following each condition, a survey was used to gather information about the comfort of each shoe. Paired t-tests were used to analyze the data, which are presented as mean ± standard deviation.

RESULTS: Standing HR (79±13 vs. 78±13bpm) and VO2 (4.4±0.8 vs. 4.3±0.7ml/kg/min) were similar (p>0.05) for the CON and RB conditions, respectively. Similarly, there was no difference between conditions when walking at 2 mph (HR: 87±11 vs. 86±11bpm; VO2: 10.2±1.2 vs. 9.9±0.9ml/kg/min) or 3.5 mph (HR: 103±11 vs. 102±12bpm; VO2: 15.2±1.7 vs. 14.9±1.7ml/kg/min). The majority (12 of 15) of the men reported the RB shoe as ‘easy to walk in.’ It was notable that at the faster walking speed, the comfort of the RB compared to the CON shoe was more pronounced.

CONCLUSIONS: Given there were no measured physiological differences between RB and CON trials, claims to support greater energy expenditure with RB shoes are not supported. The fact that men found the RB shoes comfortable for walking may indicate that this shoe could be used as a casual work shoe that makes it easier for men to be active during the workday.

Supported by Genesco Inc., Dockers Footwear

1136 Board #2 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

An Improved Unstable Shoe Alters Ground Reaction Forces and Ankle Biomechanics

Max Paquette, Songning Zhang, FACSM, Clare Milner, FACSM, Jacob Gardner, Eric Foch, Elizabeth Brock. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

A first generation unstable anterior-posterior curved-bottom shoe was found to alter ground reaction forces and ankle biomechanics in gait. The second generation shoe has a lower profile curved-bottom sole.

PURPOSE: To investigate ground reaction forces (GRF) and ankle joint involvement between a second generation unstable shoe and control shoe.

METHODS: Fourteen healthy males (45.4 ± 8.4 yrs) participated in the study. A nine-camera motion capture system (240 Hz) and a force platform (1200 Hz) were used to obtain the three-dimensional (3D) stance phase kinematic and GRF data, respectively. Subjects performed five walking trials at 1.3 ± 0.065 m/s and 1.8 ± 0.09 m/s wearing a standard dress shoe (SH1) and an unstable shoe (SH2). Visual3D was used to compute the normalized GRF (BW) and right ankle 3D kinematic and kinetic data. A two-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to detect any differences between shoe and speed conditions on selected variables. This abstract focuses on shoe main effects.

RESULTS: The results showed that loading rate of the first peak vertical GRF was greater in SH2 (10.33 vs 9.50 BW/s; p = 0.024), second peak vertical GRF was smaller in SH2 (1.16 vs 1.19 BW; p = 0.001), and braking peak GRF was greater in SH2 (0.27 vs 0.25 BW; p = 0.001) than SH1. In the sagittal plane, initial plantarflexion range of motion (ROM) was smaller in SH2 (9.03 vs 14.92 °; p = 0.001), dorsiflexion ROM was smaller in SH2 (17.89 vs 24.17 °; p = 0.001) and early peak dorsiflexor moment was smaller in SH2 (0.27 vs 0.44 Nm/kg; p = 0.001) than SH1. In the frontal plane, eversion ROM was greater in SH2 (6.85 vs 5.03 °; p = 0.001) and initial peak inversion moment was greater in SH2 (0.16 vs 0.12 Nm/kg; p = 0.003) than SH1.

CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that sagittal plane involvement of the ankle is reduced in early stance. However, frontal plane variables such as early stance ankle eversion ROM and inversion moment in the unstable shoe, both appear to play an important role in attenuating the greater early stance loading. The increased GRF loading rate and braking peak may be caused by the greater heel slope of the unstable shoe. Our findings suggest that the unstable shoe may help reduce sagittal plane ankle moments while increasing frontal plane ankle muscle involvement during walking.

Funding for this study was provided by Genesco Inc.

1137 Board #3 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

EMG Comparison of Five Muscles While Walking in Fitness Shoes and Conventional Walking Shoes

Barney F. LeVeau, FACSM, Karen L. Beckham, Keisha M. Davis, Elisa M. Turner, Cindy A. LaPorte. Alabama State University, Montgomery, AL.

(No relationships reported)

Fitness shoes (FS) with a rocker bottom sole have become increasingly popular in the last few years. Manufacturers claim these shoes improve posture, strengthen the back, improve blood circulation, tighten abdominal muscles, firm buttocks muscles, tone and firm thigh muscles, firm calf muscles, and reduce knee joint stress. Minimal research is available to the public, which substantiates these claims.

PURPOSE: To evaluate muscle activity while walking in fitness shoes compared to walking in conventional walking shoes (CWS).

METHODS: Twenty-three female subjects (Age: 25 ± 3.18 yrs; Height: 1.64 ± 0.11 m; Mass: 65.13 ± 8.54 kg) were given a practice session with the fitness shoes. Subjects walked to the beat of a metronome, set at 112 beats per minute, for a distance of 0.40 kilometers on a level surface. Two days later, subjects returned for electrode placement on erector spinae (ES), gluteus maximus (GM), biceps femoris (BF), vastus medialis (VM), and medial head of the gastrocnemius (MG). MVIC readings were obtained for each muscle. Subjects randomly selected the pair of shoes, either fitness or conventional, to be worn first. Instructions were given to walk to the beat of a metronome for 2 minutes, followed by a rest break of 3 minutes. Subjects changed shoes and walked once more for 2 minutes. Data were obtained and analyzed utilizing Noraxon Wireless EMG system.

RESULTS: Data showed that there was a significant difference in BF muscle activity during walking with greater muscle activity found in CWS (FS 78.9 ± 32.14 vs. CWS 90.77 ± 46.27, p <0.05). However, in the other muscles studied (ES, GM, MG, and VM), no significant difference was found between FS or CWS. The results for the other muscles were as follows: ES (FS 173 ± 117.2 vs. CWS 155.8 ± 102.6, p >0.05); GM (FS 194.3 ± 133.4 vs. CWS 196.8 ± 152.3, p >0.05); MG (FS 76.87 ± 33.16 vs. CWS 84.77 ± 52.86, p >0.05); and VM (FS 134.1 ± 96.07 vs. CWS 134.6 ± 102.7, p >0.05).

CONCLUSION: Walking in FS and CWS require similar muscle activity for four of the five muscles studied. Data show that there is a significant difference in BF muscle activity during walking on a level surface with CWS. Therefore, the results of this study do not support the claims of the fitness shoe manufacturers.

1138 Board #4 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Kinematic and Kinetic Differences Among Barefoot, Athletic and Toning Shoe Conditions with Metronome Pacing

Kristin Keene, Anh-Dung Nguyen, William R. Barfield, FACSM, Shannon Hardester, Ashley Conrad, Mark DiFronzo. College of Charleston, Charleston, SC.

(No relationships reported)

Toning shoes (TS), are shoes with an uneven sole. Advertising claims declare regular daily wear will improve health. The claims lack support by scientific evidence and information on unstable sole gait characteristics is limited.

PURPOSE: The present investigation compared walking in a TS, an athletic shoe (AS), and walking barefoot (BF) in order to identify potential differences in lower extremity biomechanics during the stance phase of gait.

METHODS: Three-dimensional lower extremity kinematics and kinetics for 17 college-age, healthy female volunteers were quantified using an electromagnetic motion analysis system and a force plate. Data was examined during the stance phase of gait (ground contact to toe off) for each footwear type and BF while walking at a metronome pace of 82 bpm. The stance phase was divided into four distinct phases based on the peaks and minima in the vertical ground reaction force (vGRF). The change in kinematic and kinetic variables was calculated for each of the four respective segments. Differences among the three conditions were determined with a repeated measure ANOVA. Post hoc testing of significant main effects was used to identify which biomechanical variables were different.

RESULTS: More than 20 significant biomechanical differences (p<0.05) were observed between the 3 walking conditions. Sagittal plane kinematic differences (p<0.05) were observed at the hip (2.4-3.1°), knee (∼4°), and ankle (2.2-6.2°). Differences (p<0.05) in sagittal plane joint moments (Nm·kg-1·m-1) were observed at the hip (0.4-1.2), knee (∼0.2), and ankle (∼0.5). Sagittal plane angular velocity (deg·sec-1) differences (p<0.05) were observed at the thigh (14.6-18.1) and shank (12.5-48.4). Differences in ground reaction force (GRF-%BW) were observed in the vertical (17.6-2.5), anterior/posterior (2.2-13.6), and medial/lateral (0.6-0.7) directions.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that biomechanical differences exist between the 2 shod conditions and the BF condition during the stance phase of gait. The metronome effect on the stance phase of gait needs future investigation to determine how the observed biomechanical differences contribute to neuromuscular function during gait while wearing TS.

1139 Board #5 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Plantar Pressure During Walking Is Altered With The Use Of Rocker Bottom Shoes

Jacob K. Gardner, Songning Zhang, FACSM, Clare E. Milner, FACSM, Maxime Paquette, Eric Foch, Elizabeth Brock. University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN.

(No relationships reported)

Unstable rocker-bottom shoes have become popular in recent years. In this study, we performed a gait analysis on a second generation rocker-bottom shoe. A previous study analyzed the first generation shoe, but no plantar pressure data were recorded.

PURPOSE: To determine the differences in plantar pressure during gait and balance between an unstable (SH2) and standard dress shoes (SH1).

METHODS: 14 healthy males participated in this study. A plantar pressure (PP) system (300 Hz) mounted on a force plate was used to collect and assess PP data during balance and walking in two shoes: SH1 and SH2. Participants performed three balance trials of bilateral standing for 20 seconds followed by five level walking trials at 1.3 and 1.8 m/s (± 5%). Peak total pressure, contact area, heel pressure, and forefoot pressure were calculated from the PP system, and center of pressure (COP) data were recorded from the force plate during gait. Antero-posterior (AP) and medio-lateral (ML) COP range of motion (ROM), elliptical area, and COP total displacement were calculated for the balance test.

RESULTS: For balance, SH2 had an increased total COP displacement (12.3 vs. 10.0 cm, p = .0001), ML ROM (0.7 vs. 0.5 cm, p = .041), and AP ROM (1.4 vs. 1.0 cm, p = .048). During gait, the forefoot pressure in SH2 was about 2% less than SH1 (22.9 vs. 23.4 N/cm2, p = .016). In addition, the ML COP ROM was increased in the testing shoe by about 18% (6.3 vs. 5.3 cm, p = .044) and the AP COP ROM was decreased by about 16% (19.9 vs. 17.1 cm, p = .0001).

CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that the unstable shoes introduced greater postural sway during static standing. Due to the increased sway, greater activation of muscles may be required to stabilize the ankle and the rest of the body, which may influence muscle tone. During gait, the increased ML COP ROM indicated increased instability introduced by SH2 which may require greater ankle evertor and invertor moments to stabilize the foot/ankle complex. Additionally, SH2 provided a reduction of forefoot pressure during the push off in gait. While the clinical relevance is unknown, current research suggests that use of rocker-bottom shoes increases the COP movement under the foot and decreases the pressure under the toes during pushoff.

Funding for this study was provided by Genesco Inc.

1140 Board #6 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect of Toning Shoes on Exercise Energy Expenditure, Walking Behavior, and Energy Intake

Brian B. Parr, Kevin E. Huff, Hannah E. Masters, Zackary V. Kilday. University of South Carolina Aiken, Aiken, SC. (Sponsor: Paul G. Davis, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Rounded-sole “toning” shoes are marketed as a method to lose weight and tone muscles. Toning shoes could lead to weight loss if wearing them resulted in greater energy expenditure during exercise or promoted changes in physical activity or energy intake.

PURPOSE: To determine the effect of toning shoes on energy expenditure during exercise and changes in walking behavior and energy intake.

METHODS: Four men and six women, ages 38±11 y and BMI 33.0±8.0 kg·m-2, participated in this study. Subjects wore pedometers and completed food records during one week wearing normal shoes and one week wearing toning shoes. Energy expenditure during exercise was determined from oxygen uptake (VO2) measured while subjects walked on a treadmill at a self-selected speed for 15 minutes wearing normal athletic shoes (N) and 15 minutes wearing toning shoes (T). The tests were counterbalanced so that half of the subjects completed the N condition first and half completed the T condition first.

RESULTS: Subjects took significantly more steps (8422±3134 vs. 6237±2232 steps·day-1, p=0.03) and reported lower energy intake (1607±641 vs. 2418±408 kcals·day-1, p=0.06) during the week wearing toning shoes. The exercise tests were conducted at a treadmill speed of 70.8±15.8 m·min-1, equivalent to ∼66% age-predicted HRmax. During exercise, the VO2 (1.03±0.18 vs. 0.99±0.17 L·min-1, p=0.03) and energy expenditure (5.1±0.9 vs. 4.8±0.9 kcal·min-1, p=0.04) were significantly higher wearing toning shoes.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that energy expenditure during walking was higher wearing toning shoes. However, given the small magnitude of this difference, it may not lead to significant weight loss. Wearing toning shoes also promoted short-term changes in walking behavior and energy intake consistent with weight loss. If these changes were maintained, wearing toning shoes could contribute to weight loss and weight maintenance.

F-14 Thematic Poster - Muscle Signaling

JUNE 1, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2000

1141 Chair: Keith Baar. University of California, Davis, CA.

(No relationships reported)

1142 Board #1 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effects of Walking and Blood Flow Restriction on mTOR Signaling in Young Men

Hayao Ozaki1, Hisashi Naito1, Hiroyuki Kobayashi2, Takao Kanai2, Ryo Kakigi1, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine1, Toshinori Yoshihara1, Tomoharu Kitada1, Toshiaki Nakajima3, Takashi Abe4, Shizuo Katamoto1. 1Juntendo University, Inzai, Japan. 2Tukuba University Hospital, Mito, Japan. 3University of Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan. 4University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK.

(No relationships reported)

Low-intensity walk training with leg blood flow reduction (BFR) has been shown to elicit a significant increase in skeletal muscle size. However, it is unknown if BFR during walking stimulates muscle hypertrophy related cell signaling in human skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of BFR-walking on mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling in young men.

METHODS: 6 young men (age, 22±1 yrs; weight, 67.0±2.4 kg; height, 1.73±0.02 m; BMI, 22.4±0.6 kg/m2) participated in this study. The subjects performed 20 min treadmill walking at an exercise intensity of 55% of Vo2max. The BFR-leg was wore pressure cuff belts (5 cm wide) on the proximal part of the upper legs during walking for BFR (external compression: 240 mmHg). The other leg, the CON-leg, was without BFR. The subjects rested in a supine position for 30 min, and then a first muscle biopsy (PRE) was taken from the vastus lateralis of the CON-leg. At 1 hour after the first biopsy, the subjects performed 20 min walking. At 1h and 3h after walking, a second and third muscle biopsy were taken from both the BFR-leg and CON-leg. Venous blood samples were obtained from an antecubital vein before exercise (resting) and at 0, 15, 30, 45, 90 and 120 min after exercise.

RESULTS: Serum growth hormone and blood lactate concentration were significantly (p<0.05) higher immediately and at 15 min after exercise than no-exercise state. Blood glucose significantly (p<0.05) increased immediately and serum cortisol and insulin concentration did at 15 min after exercise than resting. There were no changes in serum testosterone and insulin-like growth factor I after walking. Erk1/2 and p38 phosphorylation levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher after exercise than PRE in both legs while eEF2 and 4E-BP1 phosphorylation levels were significantly (p<0.05) lower. There were no changes in Akt and mTOR phosphorylation levels between before and after walking. S6K1 phosphorylation level tended to increase (p=0.06) after exercise and that in BFR-leg was about twice as high as that in CON-leg but there was also no difference between BFR-leg and CON-leg.

CONCLUSIONS: Walking at 55%Vo2max with and without blood flow restriction stimulated mTOR and MAPK signaling in young men.

1143 Board #2 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Rapamycin Blocks the Activation of mTORC1 Signaling Following Blood Flow Restriction Exercise in Humans

David M. Gundermann, Dillon K. Walker, Paul T. Reidy, Jared M. Dickinson, Elena Volpi, Blake B. Rasmussen. University of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston, TX. (Sponsor: Elizabeth J Protas, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Restriction of blood flow to a contracting muscle during low-intensity resistance exercise (BFR exercise) stimulates mTORC1 signaling and protein synthesis in human muscle. However, the relationship between mTORC1 activation and protein synthesis is only correlational at this point.

PURPOSE: To determine if mTORC1 signaling is required for stimulating muscle protein synthesis in humans after BFR exercise.

METHODS: Young men were randomized to one of two groups. The control group completed the BFR exercise alone while the Rapamycin group was administered 16mg of the mTORC1 inhibitor, Rapamycin, one hour prior to BFR exercise. BFR exercise consisted of 4 sets of leg extension exercise at 20% of 1RM. Muscle biopsies were collected from the vastus lateralis before exercise and at 3 hr, 6 hr and 24 hr after BFR exercise. Immunoblotting was used to assess mTORC1 signaling from the muscle biopsy samples.

RESULTS: BFR exercise resulted in a 2.2 fold increase in the phosphorylation of mTORC1 (Ser2448) during the 24 hr post exercise period in the Control group (P<0.05). However, the increase in phosphorylation of mTORC1 (Ser2448), S6K1 (Thr389) and rpS6 (Ser240/244) were blocked at all time points post-exercise as compared to the Control group (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: It appears that the enhanced muscle protein anabolic response following BFR exercise requires the activation of mTORC1 signaling.

Supported by NIH/NIAMS RO1 AR049877, P30AG024832 and T32HD07539.

1144 Board #3 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Endurance Exercise Attenuates mTOR Signaling Following Resistance Exercise

William Apró, Marcus Borgenvik, Björn Ekblom, Eva Blomstrand. Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.

(No relationships reported)

Research indicates that strength training adaptation is blunted when performed concurrently with endurance exercise. It has been suggested that the interference may be due to an inhibitory effect of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) on anabolic signaling through the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway.

PURPOSE: To investigate if endurance exercise has a detrimental effect on mTOR signaling following resistance exercise.

METHODS: In a randomized order and on two separate occasions, male subjects performed either high intensity interval cycling followed by resistance exercise (ER) or resistance exercise only (R). In the ER session, the interval cycling consisted of five 4-min intervals at 85% of each subjects’ maximal oxygen consumption with 3 min cycling at 100 W between each interval. Following 15 min of recovery, subjects performed thirteen sets of resistance exercise at a load equal to their 8-10 repetition maximum. The resistance exercise in the R trial was the same as in the ER trial. Biopsies were taken from the vastus lateralis muscle before, immediately after and 3 hours after resistance exercise. Samples were analyzed for signaling proteins in the mTOR pathway using Western blot technique.

RESULTS: Phosphorylation of mTOR increased twofold immediately after resistance exercise and remained elevated at the 3 h time point with no difference between the two trials. Phosphorylation of p70S6k remained unchanged immediately after exercise in the ER session but was elevated fourfold in the R session. However, at the 3 h time point, p70S6k phosphorylation was elevated sixfold in both trials with no difference between the two. Immediately after exercise, phosphorylation of AMPK was increased by 20 and 50% in the R and RE trial, respectively. However, 3 hours after exercise, phosphorylation levels of this protein had returned to baseline values in both trials. Similarly, phosphorylation of ACC was elevated 60 and 120% in the R and RE trials, respectively, with these values returning to baseline in both trials at the 3 hour time point.

CONCLUSIONS: Anabolic signaling following resistance exercise may be blunted when resistance exercise is preceded by high intensity interval cycling. Supported by the Swedish National Centre for Research in Sport.

1145 Board #4 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effects of Whey Peptide Ingestion after Resistance Exercise on mTOR Signaling in Human Skeletal Muscle

Ryo Kakigi1, Hayao Ozaki1, Susumu Miura2, Hiroyuki Kobayashi3, Toshinori Yoshihara1, Noriko Ichinoseki-Sekine1, Takamasa Tsuzuki1, Hisashi Naito1. 1Juntendo University, Chiba, Japan. 2Megmilk Snow Brand Milk Co., Ltd, Tokyo, Japan. 3Tsukuba University Hospital, Ibaraki, Japan.

(No relationships reported)

Whey peptide is formed by the hydrolysis of whey protein. Recent studies have shown that protein ingestion after resistance exercise stimulates intracellular signal transduction involving the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) in skeletal muscles, resulting in dose-dependent increase of muscle protein syntheses. However, it is poorly understood whether ingesting whey at peptide levels stimulates mTOR signaling in human skeletal muscles.

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of whey peptide ingestion after resistance exercise with different doses on mTOR signaling in human skeletal muscle.

METHODS: Fifteen males (age = 22 ± 1 y-o, height = 174.9 ± 1 cm, mass = 67.7 ± 6.1 kg) performed 6 unilateral isokinetic knee extensions (30 deg/s) × 4 sets. Immediately after exercise, 8 subjects consumed only water ad libitum to investigate the effect of resistance exercise per se on mTOR singaling. The other 7 subjects took either 10 or 20 g of whey peptide solution in a randomized-order crossover method to investigate the combined effect of resistance exercise and whey peptide consumption as well as the dose effect on mTOR signaling. Muscle biopsies (∼15 mg) were obtained from the vastus lateralis 30 min before and 1 h after the resistance exercise. Phosphorylations of Akt (Ser473), mTOR (Ser2448), S6K1 (Thr389), 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46), AMPKα (Thr172) and eEF2 (Thr56) were assessed using the immunoblot analyses.

RESULTS: None of the tested interventions affected AMPKα and eEF2 phosphorylations. Concentric knee extension exercise alone did not increase the other examined phosphorylations (Akt, mTOR, S6K1 and 4E-BP1). Whereas, for both 10 and 20 g doses, ingesting whey peptide after exercise significantly increased the phosphorylations of Akt (1.8 and 2.5 fold), mTOR (2.2 and 3.1 fold) and 4E-BP1 (1.5 and 1.8 fold). These increases were however statistically similar between 10 and 20 g doses. The S6K1 phosphorylation was the only measure demonstrating a dose effect where 10 g did not affect this variable while 20 g resulted in 14.8 fold increase of it.

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that ingesting whey at peptide levels following resistance exercise stimulates mTOR signaling molecules in human skeletal muscle with 20 g solution being more effective than10 g in stimulating S6K1.

No grant for this study.

1146 Board #5 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The α7β1 Integrin is an Instrinsic Regulator of Mechanical Strain-Induced Hypertrophic Signaling in Skeletal Muscle

Ziad Mahmassani, Kai Zou, Ryan Herring, Marni D. Boppart. University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL. (Sponsor: Jeffrey A. Woods, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

The α7β1 integrin is a transmembrane protein localized at costameres in skeletal muscle that provides a critical link between the actin cytoskeleton and laminin in the basement membrane. We have previously demonstrated that transgenic overexpression of the α7 integrin in skeletal muscle increases hypertrophic signaling and fiber cross sectional area following single and multiple bouts of eccentric exercise.

PURPOSE: To elucidate whether the α7 integrin directly regulates activation of hypertrophic signaling as a result of mechanical strain.

METHODS: Primary muscle cells extracted from wild type (WT) and α7 integrin knockout mice (α7-/-) were cultured on 6-well bioflex culture plates coated with either laminin or collagen. Following differentiation by growth factor depletion, myotubes either remained unstrained (controls) or subjected to equibiaxial strain (n = 4-6/grp) using the Flexcell system (triangle waveform, 18% strain, with 1 second rest, for a total of 20 minutes). Immediately (0 PS) or 3 hr post-strain (3 PS), cells were lifted and protein was extracted in lysis buffer (membrane fraction). Western blotting was used to determine α7 integrin protein and phosphorylation of mTOR and p70S6K, two molecules that regulate protein translation.

RESULTS: Lack of α7 integrin was verified in α7-/- cells. In WT, mechanical strain increased α7 integrin protein at 3 PS on both substrates compared to control (P<0.05; 1.8-fold collagen, 3-fold laminin). Phosphorylation of p70S6K was increased 5-fold only on laminin at 3 PS (P<0.05). In contrast, no change in p70S6K phosphorylation were observed in α7-/- cells on either substrate. Interestingly, mTOR phosphorylation was not altered in WT or α7-/- cells in response to strain.

CONCLUSION: This study provides the first evidence that the α7 integrin is upregulated in response to mechanical strain and may be an intrinsic regulator of strain-induced p70S6K signaling and increased fiber hypertrophy.

1147 Board #6 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Effects Of High Fat Diet And Moderate Exercise On TGF-β Signaling In Mouse Skeletal Muscle

Yair Pincu, Melissa A. Linden, Jeffery A. Woods, FACSM, Marni D. Boppart, Tracy Baynard. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL.

(No relationships reported)

High fat diet (HF) results in insulin resistance (IR). One of the contributors to IR is increased collagen (Col) deposition in skeletal muscle. We recently found that transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) transcription is increased in adipose in response to HF and may be linked to Col synthesis and IR in skeletal muscle.

PURPOSE: To determine the extent to which exercise (Ex) training can decrease TGF-β synthesis in adipose in response to HF and subsequently ameliorate TGF-β signaling in skeletal muscle.

METHODS: C57BL/6 male mice (6 wk) were randomized into 4 groups (n=5/group): HF No-Ex, HF Ex, low fat No-Ex (LF No-Ex), and LF Ex. The HF and LF diets were 60 and 10% fat, respectively. Treadmill Ex was performed 12 m/min and 5% grade for 40 min/d, 5 days a week for 12 wk. Glucose metabolism was assessed by intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT). IR was evaluated using fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels. TGF-β transcription was evaluated in adipose by qRT-PCR. TGF-β signaling (phospho-SMAD-3) was assessed in gastrocnemius muscle by western blotting.

RESULTS: HF resulted in increased body weight, which was attenuated by Ex (26.0±0.3, 26.4±0.47, 39.5±2.1, 32.59±1.1 g, in LF No-Ex, LF Ex, HF No-Ex and HF Ex, respectively, p<0.05). HF resulted in IR with increased blood glucose levels at 120 minutes post IP glucose injection (515±63 and 424±53 mg/dl for HF No-Ex and HF Ex Vs. 211±25 and 235±39 mg/dl for LF No-Ex and LF Ex, respectively, p<0.05) and higher fasting insulin levels in the HF groups (20.7±6.7 and 18.0±6.5 µU/ml for HF No-Ex and HF Ex vs. 7.0±2.3 and 7.0±2.0 µU/ml for LF Ex and LF No-Ex, respectively, p<0.05) No Ex effect was found. TGF-β transcription increased 3.2 folds by HF and Ex reduced this effect to 2.5 folds (P<0.05). HF enhanced SMAD-3 phosphorylation in muscle (1.32-fold increase over LF No-Ex, p=0.053), but Ex did not alter signaling.

CONCLUSION: HF increased IR. Moderate aerobic Ex attenuated obesity, IR, and TGF-β transcription in adipose, but not SMAD-3 signaling in the muscle. These data suggest that the beneficial effects of moderate Ex on IR are potentially mediated by a different mechanism. However, future research will focus on examination of SMAD-3 in the nucleus and quantification of Col in the muscle to determine the extent to which Ex ameliorates TGF-β signaling and IR in response to HF.

F-15 Thematic Poster - Neuroscience - Fatigue

JUNE 1, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2009

1148 Chair: Melanie Poudevigne, FACSM. Clayton State University, Morrow, GA.

(No relationships reported)

1149 Board #1 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect Of One-hour Cognitive Fatiguing Task On P300 Event-related Potential

Vinciane Fontenelle1, Kristel Knaepen1, Helio Fernandez1, Nathalie Pattyn1, Guy Nagels2, Romain Meeusen, FACSM1. 1Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium. 2National Multiple Sclerosis Centre, Melsbroek, Belgium.

(No relationships reported)

Cognitive fatigue is related to a decrease of cognitive performance over time. The P300 event-related potential (ERP) is a reliable tool widely used to investigate cognitive function. Its amplitude is known to reflect allocation of attentional resources, whereas its latency is a measure of stimulus evaluation and categorization.

PURPOSE: To study the effect of cognitive fatigue on the P300 ERP in healthy subjects.

METHODS: 11 healthy subjects (29.1 +/- 3.4yrs) participated in this study. The cognitive fatiguing task (CFT) and the P300 ERP were elicited using a one hour 3-stimuli visual oddball paradigm in which subjects were asked to respond to the target stimulus (press a button). Subjective fatigue was evaluated using the MFIS and FSS questionnaires. The CFT was divided in 4 intervals of 15 min. in order to study changes in P300 parameters, VAS scores for fatigue, reaction time, errors and misses over time. A 10s pause was induced between each interval of 15 min. in order to allow the subject to indicate his level of fatigue on the VAS.

RESULTS: ANOVA for repeated measures showed sign. higher VAS scores over time (P<0.01). Paired t-tests indicated that VAS0 was sign. lower than VAS15, VAS30, VAS45 and VAS60 (P<0.01),VAS15 was sign. lower than VAS30, VAS45 and VAS60 (P<0.01), and VAS30 was sign. lower than VAS45 (P<0.05). ANOVA for repeated measures showed no effect of the CFT neither on P300 amplitude (P= 0,122) nor on P300 latency (P=0.088). A sign.effect of the CFT on RT was observed (P=0.012). Paired t-tests indicated that RT at interval 1 and 2 were sign. lower than RT at interval 3 (respectively P=0.026 and P= 0.020). Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test showed no signif. effect of the CFT on percentage of misses and errors. CONCLUSION:

One hour of cognitive fatiguing task increases subjective feeling of fatigue, impairs behavioral performance but does not affect attentional resources in healthy subjects. However, due to the small sample of participants; these results must be interpreted with caution.

1150 Board #2 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Peripheral MCP-1 Induces Fatigue and Modulates Central Fatigue-Associated Neural Factors in the Brainstem and Cerebellum

Seung H. Jung, E. Angela Murphy, Raja Fayad, Maria Pena, Benjamin T. Gordon, Martin Carmichael, J. Mark Davis, FACSM. University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC.

(No relationships reported)

An increased concentration of peripheral monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (pMCP-1) has been reported in people with diseases, such as cancers and Alzheimer’s disease, with which central fatigue often occurs and has a negative impact on these people, but no study has been done to evaluate a role of pMCP-1 in fatigue.

PURPOSE: To investigate pMCP-1 effects on occurrence of fatigue and central fatigue-associated neural factors in the brain.

METHODS: Voluntary wheel running activities of male C57/BL6 mice during 19:00 - 07:00 were collected to investigate the effects of daily, intraperitoneal injections (ip) of MCP-1 for 3 continuous days on the occurrence of fatigue. Another set of male C57/BL6 mice were used to investigate the effects of the pMCP-1 on the central fatigue-associated neural factors in the brainstem and cerebellum.

RESULTS: Compared with the mean baseline, the MCP-1 treatments induced a significant reduction in relative running distance (% change from the mean baseline) on days after 2nd injection (2nd mid), 3rd injection (1st post day) and 4th post day; a significant reduction in relative total running time (%) on 2nd mid and 1st, 4th, 6th and 7th post days; and a significant reduction in relative average running speed on the 4th post day.. When compared with the placebo group, mRNA expression of cytokine IL-1β was 28% and 24% increases in the brainstem and cerebellum (p < 0.05) in MCP-1 group 12 hours after the 3rd injection. Our data showed 25% and 24% increases in mRNA expression of 5-HT1B receptors in the brainstem and a 19% increase in mRNA expression of 5-HT1A receptor in the cerebellum. No effect was found on the dopamine D2 receptor.

CONCLUSION: These data suggest for the first time that pMCP-1 induces fatigue that is associated with changes in CNS fatigue-associated neural factors, including IL-1β, 5-HT1A, and 5-HT1B receptor subtypes in the brainstem and/or cerebellum. The results are important to elucidate the central mechanisms of fatigue, which occurs with a certain diseases or disorders, such as cancer and infection where elevated levels of pMCP-1 are common.

1151 Board #3 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Cognitive Demand Increases Muscle Fatigability of the Elbow Flexor Muscles in Young and Old Adults

Hugo M. Pereira, Vincent C. Spears, Bonnie Schlinder-Delap, Tejin Yoon, Sandra K. Hunter, FACSM. Marquette University, Milwaukee, WI.

(No relationships reported)

Cognitive demand can decrease motor performance in young adults during isometric contractions; however, the impact in older adults is not understood.

PURPOSE: To compare the time to task failure for a submaximal fatiguing contraction and steadiness in the presence and absence of cognitive demand in young and old adults.

METHODS: 15 young (20 ± 1 yrs) and 9 old (72 ± 7 yrs) adults performed the following tasks with the elbow flexor muscles during two separate and counterbalanced sessions: a) a fatiguing isometric contraction at 20% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) force until task failure; and b) 5%MVC contractions for 45 s each before and after fatigue to assess steadiness. During one of the sessions, cognitive demand was imposed using a mental-math task (subtracting by 13 s from a 4 digit number) during the 20% MVC sustained contraction and at rest (Mental Math session - MM). During the control session individuals repeated the same protocol with no mental-math task.

RESULTS: Time to task failure was briefer for the MM than the control session (9.8 ± 5.9 vs 11.6 ± 5.2 mins; session effect: P = 0.02) for both young (10.5 % diff) and old (12.1 % diff) (age x session, P=0.85). The MVC at the end of the fatiguing contraction was lower for the control session compared to MM (42.6 ± 10.2% vs 35.9 ± 13.7 % reduction; session effect: P = 0.01) with no age interaction. The absolute difference in time to task failure between sessions (control - MM) was negatively associated with the baseline MVC torque (r = -0.45). For the steadiness (SD/mean of the force = coefficient of variation, CV) during 5% MVC, there was an interaction of session × time × age (P = 0.04). CV increased after the mental math at rest and after the fatiguing contraction in the MM for the young adults only. Old adults, however, had a higher CV at the start of the sessions compared with young and did not change with fatigue.

CONCLUSIONS: Cognitive demand increased muscle fatigability of the elbow flexors similarly in young and old adults. These preliminary results suggest that, baseline maximal strength can play an important role in the reductions of performance during sustained isometric fatiguing contractions for young and older adults. Moreover, aging and cognitive demand can impair steadiness during very low-force sustained isometric contractions.

1152 Board #4 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect Of 40k Time Trial Performance During Thermoneutral And Heat-stressed Conditions On Metabolite-detecting Gene Expression And Fatigue

Timothy A. VanHaitsma, Alan R. Light, Kathleen C. Light, Ronald W. Hughen, Sarah Yenchik, Andrea T. White, FACSM. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Strenuous whole-body exercise may be limited by feedback from metabolite-detecting receptors on Group IV afferents that in turn influence fatigue perception and/or central motor drive via neurotransmitter expression. Heat, as an additional “metabolite” may exacerbate this network. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of prolonged intense exercise during thermoneutral and heat-stress environments on objective markers related to fatigue.

METHODS: Ten cyclists (33.2 ± 3.0 yr, 57.2 ± 1.1 mL/kg/min) performed two 40k time trials; thermoneutral (TNTT, 21 C, 20% RH) and heat stress (HSTT, 35 °C, 30% RH). Blood draws and fatigue ratings were obtained at baseline and 0.5 and 8 hrs after exercise. Leukocytes were separated for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of 4 metabolite-detecting genes (acid-sensing, ASIC3; purinergic 2X sensing, P2X4; and 2 transient vanilloid receptors, TRPV1 and TRPV4), dopamine receptor (DRD4) and serotonin receptor (HTR1D). Fingerstick lactates were obtained at 1 and 5 min post-ex. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine changes in mRNA quantities over time and between trials.

RESULTS: Mean power and post-ex lactate levels were lower and time to completion was longer for HSTT vs TNTT (p<.001). After both trials, decreases were observed for ASIC3 and TRPV1 at 0.5 and 8 hrs post-ex (p<.05), although decreases following TNTT were greater than HSTT (p<.05). Post-ex ASIC3 and TRPV1 were strongly related to 5 min post-ex lactate (r=-.50 and -.60, respectively, p<.01). P2X4 decreased at 0.5 hrs after both trials (p<.001), and TRPV4 decreased significantly 0.5 hr after TNTT and 8 hr after HSTT. DRD4 decreased 8 hr after both trials (p<.05). HTR1D was significantly higher 8 hr after TNTT (p<.05).

CONCLUSION: Post-exercise decreases in metabolite-detecting markers may represent down regulation of afferent signaling in order to reduce fatigue sensations. Performance decrements during HSTT produced a decreased metabolic fatigue signal and smaller changes in post-ex ASIC3 and TRPV1 expression. Post-exercise decreases in DRD4 and the increases in post-ex HTR1D expression suggest that these neurotransmitters may play a role in post-exercise fatigue.

1153 Board #5 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Effect of Short vs Longer Duration Strenuous Exercise on Afferent Fatigue Signaling

Andrea T. White, FACSM, Timothy A. VanHaitsma, Alan R. Light, Kathleen C. Light, Ronald W. Hughen, Sarah Yenchik. University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Metabolite-detecting receptors on Group IV afferents influence exercise performance and fatigue perception. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of short vs longer duration exercise on post-exercise expression of sensory and indolamine receptors and immune markers associated with fatigue.

METHODS: Twelve cyclists (33.3 ± 2.9 yr, 56.8 ± 1.1 mL/kg/min) performed a graded maximal exercise test (GXT) and a 40k time trial (TT) one week apart. Blood draws and fatigue ratings were obtained at baseline and 0.5, 8, and 24 hrs after exercise. Leukocytes were separated for RNA extraction and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis of 4 metabolite-detecting genes (acid-sensing, ASIC3; purinergic 2X sensing, P2X4; and 2 transient vanilloid receptors, TRPV1 and TRPV4); 2 indolamine receptors (dopamine, DRD4; and serotonin, HTR1D) and 3 immune markers (IL-10, IL-6 and Toll-like receptor 4, TLR4). Fingerstick lactates were obtained at 1 and 5 min post-ex. Repeated measures ANOVA were used to determine mRNA changes over time and between trials.

RESULTS: Exercise time was longer and mean power was lower for TT compared to GXT (p<.001). Blood lactate at 1 min post-ex was significantly higher after GXT vs TT (p<.001), but 5 min lactates were not different. Fatigue ratings increased significantly above baseline at 0.5, 8, and 24 hr after TT but not GXT (p<.05). More changes in post-ex expression of metabolite-detecting genes were observed after TT, with significant decreases in ASIC3, TRPV1, TRPV4, and P2X4 seen at 0.5 hr (p<.05). ASIC3 and TRPV1 remained significantly lower at 8 and 24 hr post-ex, respectively (p<.05). After GXT, TRPV1 decreased at 0.5 hr but to a lesser degree than after TT (p<.05). After both exercise trials, decreases in IL10 were seen at 0.5 hr followed by significant increases at 8 hr (p<.05). After TT, IL10 remained elevated at 24 hr. DRD4 expression decreased after both trials at 8 hrs, but HTR1D changed only after TT, with significant increases observed at 8 hr.

CONCLUSION: Both GXT and TT resulted in increased fatigue and changes in metabolite-detecting, immune, and indolamine gene expression. TT produced greater and longer lasting fatigue that was associated with greater changes in metabolite-detecting and indolamine receptor expression and immune responses.

F-16 Thematic Poster - Promoting Health Equity Through Physical Activity and Fitness

JUNE 1, 2012 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

ROOM: 2011

1154 Chair: Melicia C. Whitt-Glover, FACSM. Gramercy Research Group, Winston Salem, NC.

(No relationships reported)

1155 Board #1 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Culturally And Linguistically Adapted, Individually-tailored, Physical Activity Print Interventions For Latinas: Baseline Data From Seamos Saludables

Dori Pekmezi1, Shira Dunsiger2, Charles Neighbors3, Becky Marquez4, Kim Gans2, Peter Tilkemeier2, Bess Marcus4. 1University of Alabama at Birmingham, Birmingham, AL. 2Brown University, Providence, RI. 3Columbia University, New York, NY. 4University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA. (Sponsor: John Jakicic, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Latinos report high rates of inactivity and related conditions (diabetes, obesity). Effective physical activity interventions are urgently needed to address these health disparities. Computer expert system-driven, individually-tailored print interventions have shown promising results among mostly White non-Hispanic samples. Thus, in the current study, we culturally and linguistically adapted this empirically-supported intervention for Latinas and are now testing the modified program in a randomized controlled trial (N=274; 138 to intervention and 136 to control arms).

PURPOSE: To describe sample characteristics and physical activity levels at baseline

METHODS: Descriptive analyses

RESULTS: Overall the sample is comprised of mostly overweight (M BMI=29.39, SD=4.66) Latina women with low levels of income and acculturation. 82% spoke only Spanish or more Spanish than English at home. Approximately 93% are first generation immigrants to the U.S. (mostly from Colombia, Dominican Republic). Participants reported an annual household income < $30,000 (69.46%) and 45.26% have a high school education or less. The average age was 40.41 years old (SD=10.07). The median minutes per week of at least moderate intensity physical activity at baseline was 0 (measured by the 7 Day Physical Activity Recall following a 10-minute treadmill walk). Participants reported correspondingly low motivational readiness for physical activity (93.8% in Contemplation), self-efficacy (M=2.16, SD=0.79, possible range of scores= 1-5), cognitive (M=2.50, SD=0.83, possible range= 1-5) and behavioral (M=2.00, SD=0.63) processes of change, social support from family (M=16.99, SD=6.88, possible range=10-50) and friends (M=15.36, SD=6.29, possible range=10-50), and enjoyment of physical activity (M=84.96, SD=22.80, possible range=18-126).

CONCLUSIONS: Baseline data confirm that this sample is in great need of intervention due to high rates of overweight/obesity. Low activity levels and associated process variables suggest they will be a challenging group. Culturally relevant home-based interventions have great potential for benefiting public health as a low cost, high reach approach to promoting physical activity among Latinas, who may have difficulty attending clinic visits due to family or work responsibilities.

1156 Board #2 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Association between Objectively-measured Physical Activity and Locomotor Movement Skills Subcategories in Minority Preschoolers

Albert Mendoza, Ogechi Nwaokelemeh, Jasmin Roberts, Manneh Ghazarians, Sanyog Shitole, Sofiya Alhassan, FACSM. University of Massachusetts-Amherst, Amherst, MA.

(No relationships reported)

Low-income Latino and African-American children from urban disadvantaged areas have been observed to have developmental delays in their locomotor proficiency. It is unknown if delays in their locomotor movement skill (LMS) proficiency is related to their physical activity (PA) levels.

PURPOSE: To examine the association between subcategories of process-oriented LMS and objectively-measured habitual PA levels in minority preschool-aged children. In addition, the potential impact of gender and BMI in the relationship between LMS and PA were examined.

METHODS: Data from 37 preschool-aged children (mean±SD; age = 3.9±0.8yrs; BMI = 15.7±1.1kg/m2) participating in a group-randomized, controlled pilot study designed to examine the effects of a classroom teacher-taught, LMS-based PA program were used. Participants’ PA levels were assessed for seven consecutive days using Actigraph accelerometers. LMS proficiency was assessed using the Test of Gross Movement Development, 2nd edition. Spearman correlation was used to assess the association between LMS scores and PA levels. An analysis of variance was used to examine gender and BMI effects on LMS and PA.

RESULTS: Significant negative correlations were observed between LMS subcategory scores for hopping and leaping and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (Hop; r= -0.55, p< .001 and Leap; r=-0.45, p< .01). In addition, a positive correlation was observed between time spent in sedentary activity and hopping scores (r= 0.54, p< .05). Significant gender by BMI interaction (F1,36= 4.84, p< .05) was observed between total LMS scores and PA; with overweight females spending more time engaged in sedentary activity than overweight males.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the data provides preliminary information that the relationship between LMS and PA is potentially mediated by gender and BMI. Longitudinal studies are needed to further examine the role of BMI and gender on the association between FMS and PA levels in minority preschool-aged children.

1157 Board #3 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Eight-month Physical Activity And Healthy Eating Pilot Intervention For African American Girls And Their Mothers

Daheia J. Barr-Anderson, Alexis W. Adams. University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN. (Sponsor: Melicia Whitt-Glover, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Culturally-appropriate interventions unique to African Americans may be more effective than broader, more general interventions to address surface-level and deeper, structural factors related to obesity among African American females.

PURPOSE: To test the feasibility and acceptability of a physical activity and healthy eating program designed for African American girls and their mothers.

METHODS: Formative focus groups with African American girls and their mothers were conducted to assist in the development of intervention content for a pilot, community- and home-based intervention. Participants met weekly for 8 weeks and then monthly during a 6-month maintenance phase for physical activity instruction/education, cooking demonstrations, taste-testing of new foods, motivational goal-setting, and interactive nutrition education sessions. Process evaluation and outcome data were collected.

RESULTS: Fifteen daughter-mother dyads were recruited to participate in the pilot program; thirteen pairs enrolled (mean age: daughters=11.9 yrs, mothers=36.2 yrs; BMI percentile: daughters=88.2±22.99; BMI: mothers=38.3±5.97). Nine pairs finished the intensive program and were invited to participate in the maintenance phase. Both daughters and mothers reported positive focus group feedback about program activities and educational curriculum. As a result of the program, daughters and mothers reported developing a stronger bond and improving their communication between each other. Post-program daughter survey results revealed positive trends towards increasing physical activity; reducing TV screen time; increasing breakfast, water, and fruits/vegetables; and reducing non-carbonated sweetened drink and regular soda consumption. Positive results of the mother post-program survey mirrored the daughter survey trends: increases in attempts at encouraging daughters to be more active, limiting daughters’ TV time, and encouraging daughter to eat more fruits/vegetables.

CONCLUSIONS: This unique program was highly enjoyed by participants and utilized feasible strategies to address obesity-related issues among African American females. However, attrition was significant and must be addressed before implementing this intervention on a larger scale.

1158 Board #4 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

Quantity and Quality of Neighborhood Physical Activity Resources Contribute to Public Housing Resident Physical Activity

Rebecca E. Lee, Scherezade K. Mama, Heather J. Adamus. University of Houston, Houston, TX. (Sponsor: Janet Buckworth, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Access to quality physical activity resources (PARs) has been associated with physical activity, but this relationship is poorly understood in lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods.

PURPOSE: To investigate the association of access to quality PARs and neighborhood SES with physical activity among African Americans residing in public housing developments.

METHODS: Participants (N=216, 64.4% women) residing in subsidized public housing completed informed consent and interviewer administered questionnaires assessing demographics and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire short form. All PARs in neighborhoods surrounding the public housing developments (N=12) were audited on presence and quality of PAR features and amenities, and overall incivilities using the ©2010 Physical Activity Resource Assessment (PARA). Access to quality physical activity resources was determined by a composite index based on a sum score of feature and amenity count and ratings, minus incivility ratings, multiplied by size. Indices were aggregated for all physical activity resources in each public housing development to determine an overall access to quality PARs (QPAR) index. Linear regression was used to examine the association of QPAR and neighborhood income to resident physical activity, adjusting for age, gender and BMI.

RESULTS: Census neighborhood median household income ranged from $10,509 to $54,406 (M=$27,055, SD=$11,059). The number of PARs per public housing development ranged from 2-18 (M=11.9, SD=5.1). Physical activity did not differ significantly by gender. Pearson correlation coefficients showed PAR features, amenities and incivilities were significantly associated (ps<.05), leading to the creation of the QPAR index. QPAR housing development scores ranged from 13 to 473 (M=128.1, SD=119.5). After adjusting for age, gender and BMI, linear regression demonstrated a significant association between QPAR and walking (β=.199, t=2.647, p=.009), indicating as quality of PARs increased, walking for physical activity increased among residents, regardless of neighborhood income.

CONCLUSION: Policy and development efforts should improve quality and frequency of PARs to increase resident physical activity, regardless of neighborhood SES. Funded by RWJF ALR CFP3 52468.

1159 Board #5 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

School-Hour Physical Activity Of Students According To Majority Race/ethnicity And Income Level Of School

Soyang Kwon, Maryann Mason. Children’s Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL. (Sponsor: Kathleen Janz, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to compare moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA) and inactivity levels during school hours among 5th and 6th grade students according to majority race/ethnicity and income level of school.

METHODS: Fifteen schools with 5th and/or 6th grade and two classrooms per school were randomly selected among Illinois Suburb Cook county public schools for an evaluation study of school PA interventions. Baseline data were used for this report. Students in selected 5th and/or 6th grade classrooms were asked to wear an accelerometer during school hours for four consecutive days. The racial/ethnic composition of students in participating schools varied: 4 schools were majority non-Hispanic white (White) schools, 3 were majority white/Asian, 3 were majority non-Hispanic black (Black), and 5 were majority Hispanic. Based on the proportion of students eligible for free/reduced lunch, schools were dichotomized into low-income (>50%) and high-income (≤50%). The proportion of time spent in MVPA and inactivity during school hours (MVPA time and inactive time, respectively) were compared according to majority race/ethnicity and income level of school.

RESULTS: All Black and Hispanic schools and one White schools were categorized into low-income. The remaining 6 schools were high-income. After accelerometer data reduction, 541 of 622 participants (87%) had ≥3 days of valid accelerometer data. The mean accelerometer wear time was 6.4 hr/day. The overall mean of MVPA time was 5.4% (20.8 min) and inactive time was 74.7% (4.8 hr). MVPA time was the lowest in Hispanic schools, followed by Black, and White/Asian schools (p <0.05, reference: White schools). Inactive time was the highest in Hispanic schools, followed by Black, and White/Asian schools (p < 0.05). The mean MVPA time was 4.6% (17 min) in low-income schools and 6.5% (25 min) in high-income schools (p < 0.05). Low-income schools had higher inactive time than high-income schools (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Students in low-income and predominantly minority schools are less likely to be active during school hours. This study supports school-setting interventions aiming at increasing MVPA and reducing inactive time of students during school hours, particularly in low-income and predominantly minority schools.

1160 Board #6 JUNE 1 1:00 PM - 3:00 PM

The Impact of Race and Higher Socioeconomic Status on Cardiorespiratory Fitness

Erica Howard1, Benjamin Willis1, Georita Frierson2, William Haskell, FACSM3, Laura DeFina1. 1The Cooper Institution, Dallas, TX. 2Southern Methodist University, Dallas, TX. 3Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Previous studies suggest that African Americans (AA) have lower levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) than their Caucasian (C) counterparts. However, the association between CRF and race/ethnicity in the context of higher socioeconomic status (SES) has not been explored.

METHODS: We evaluated 589 AAs, 61% men, and 33,015 Cs, 69% men, enrolled in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study (CCLS) between 1970 and 2010. Education-years and access to a preventive health care examination were utilized as a proxy for higher SES. Physical activity was ascertained from self-report and a 5-level physical activity index (PAI) was calculated for each individual. CRF was measured by modified Balke treadmill test with treadmill time used to estimate metabolic equivalents (METs). The outcome variable was CRF which was stratified into unfit (Quintile 1 of CRF) and fit (Quintiles 2-5). Multi-variable regression was used to compare adjusted mean CRF between groups. P values were adjusted for unbalanced sample size and unequal variance between groups.

RESULTS: The mean education-years were similar for AA and C men at 16 years; however, AA women had more years of education than C (15.8 vs. 15.2, p=.0002). AA men and women had a significantly higher prevalence of being unfit compared to their C counterparts (Men: 29.97% unfit versus 13.67%, chi square=77.94, p value<0.0001; Women: 21.98% unfit versus 9.01%, chi square=45.27, p value<0.0001). The adjusted mean estimated maximal METs was 10.79 and 11.31 for AA and C men and 9.01 and 9.35 for AA and C women, respectfully. After adjusting for age, body mass index, PAI, education and tobacco use, odds ratio revealed that AA men had more than twice the risk of being unfit, compared to C men. Although a trend persisted for AA women to have a lower MET value, it was not significant.

CONCLUSION: Despite comparable higher socioeconomic status, somewhat lower CRF existed among AA men versus C men. These results suggest that CRF may not be mediated strictly by environmental factors related to SES. This may have important implications for the health-related benefits of physical activity and CRF.

F-52 Thematic Poster - Heart and Aging

JUNE 1, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3020

1161 Chair: Todd Trappe. Ball State University, Muncie, IN.

(No relationships reported)

1162 Board #1 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effect of Healthy Aging on Coronary Blood Flow and Myocardial Function During Isometric Exercise

Matthew D. Muller, Zhaohui Gao, Jessica Mast, Cheryl Blaha, Rachel C. Drew, Urs A. Leuenberger, Lawrence I. Sinoway. Penn State Heart & Vascular Institute, Hershey, PA. (Sponsor: Chester A. Ray, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that a 2-minute bout of isometric handgrip exercise (IHG) increases peak coronary blood flow velocity (CBVpeak) and elevates late diastolic myocardial velocity (Am) in young healthy humans.

PURPOSE: To determine how healthy older adults would respond to a 2-minute bout of IHG.

METHODS: Eleven young (25 ± 1 years, 6 men, 5 women) and ten older (63 ± 1 years, 4 men, 6 women) healthy subjects underwent a 2-minute bout of IHG in the left lateral position on two separate occasions. Transthoracic echocardiography was used to measure CBVpeak in the LAD artery (from pulsed Doppler mode) and Am of the septal wall (from Tissue Doppler mode). Finometer-derived mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate, and grip workload were monitored continuously. A repeated measures ANOVA was used and age was entered as a between-subjects factor.

RESULTS: Height, weight, BMI, and grip workload were not different between groups. Older subjects (right panel below) had baseline elevations in MAP and Am compared to younger subjects (left panel below). As shown in the Table below, IHG elevated all parameters in both young and old subjects, relative to baseline. The symbol * denotes a significant difference from the respective baseline and † denotes a significant difference from young subjects at the same time point, M ± SEM.


CONCLUSIONS: Healthy aging blunts the heart rate response to IHG compared to young individuals while having little effect on coronary blood flow or myocardial function.

This study supported by Wilderness Medical Society Research in Training Grant (MDM), P01 HL096570 (LIS), M01 RR010732, C06 RR016499, and UL1 RR033184 (LIS).

1163 Board #2 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Higher Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Older Trained Women is Due to Preserved Stroke Volume

Shilpa Dogra1, Matthew David Spencer2, Donald H. Paterson, FACSM2. 1Acadia University, Wolfville, NS, Canada. 2University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

Previous literature has shown that sedentary older women rely on peripheral adaptations to improve cardiorespiratory fitness with endurance training (i.e. central parameters (cardiac output) are not appreciably increased in response to endurance training). This inability to induce central adaptation is not observed in either older men or young men and women.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study therefore was to determine whether older women with high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness (associated with high volumes of endurance training) are able to preserve cardiac output when compared to older women who are physically inactive.

METHODS: Trained (n=9, age 62.9 years) and untrained (n=10, age 68.8 years) women between the ages of 60-85 years attended four laboratory sessions: two maximal exercise tests and two submaximal exercise sessions (90% of estimated lactate threshold). During each of these sessions breath-by-breath oxygen uptake was measured using mass spectrometry (Perkin-Elmer) and a volume turbine, cardiac output was assessed using acetylene open circuit inert gas wash-in and heart rate was continuously recorded in LabChart using a three lead ECG. Multivariate analysis of variance was used to determine between group differences.

RESULTS: At baseline trained women had a significantly higher VO2max (37.5 ml/kg.min) compared to untrained women (24.1 ml/kg.min). Between groups analysis revealed no differences for peripheral oxygen extraction (i.e., a-vO2diff = VO2/Q) at either submaximal or maximal work rates; however, trained women had a significantly higher stroke volume at submaximal (106.3 vs 89.9 ml/min) and maximal (132.0 vs 95.4 ml/min) exercise compared to untrained women.

CONCLUSION: Peripheral oxygen extraction is similar between older trained and untrained women. In contrast to the effects of short-term training, stroke volume is responsible for higher cardiorespiratory fitness among older women who are endurance trained.

Supported by NSERC.

1164 Board #3 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Lifelong Physical Activity Impacts Left Ventricular Diastolic Function In Aging Mice

Michael J. Turner, Tricia Hubbard-Turner. UNC Charlotte, Charlotte, NC.

(No relationships reported)

Arobic training in older adults is known to improve LV diastolic function. However, the age periods for improvements with LV diastolic function have not been determined with lifelong activity.

PURPOSE: To determine the critical age periods for differences in LV diastolic parameters across the lifespan in active and inactive male and female C57Bl/6J mice.

METHODS: 15 eight-week old mice (8 males and 7 females) were housed with a running wheel (RUN) and 15 eight-week old mice (7 males and 8 females) were housed without a running wheel (SED). All mice were individually housed with water and standard chow ad libitum. Daily physical activity was measured throughout the lifespan. At 3 months of age, and every 4 weeks thereafter until 30 months of age (end of lifespan), Doppler ultrasound was used to measure the passive (E-wave) and the active (A-wave) filling velocities for the calculation of E:A.

RESULTS: Heart rate (HR) did not differ between groups (p=0.28). The E wave was greater for the RUN compared to SED beginning at 10 months of age (p<0.0001). The A wave was not different between groups (p=0.54). Both E wave and A wave declined with age after peaking between 10 to 14 months of age (p<0.0001 for both).

Table. E
Table. E:
:A ratio at 3, 16 and 30 months of age in LV of RUN and SED mice.

A significantly greater E:A ratio, an indication of diastolic function, was observed with the RUN compared to SED (p <0.0001). This difference was also observed when corrected for HR (p<0.0001). The E:A ratio significantly declined with age from 3 to 30 months of age (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: Positive alterations in diastolic function begin by the second quarter of the lifespan and are maintained with lifelong physical activity in mice.

Supported by the UNC Charlotte Faculty Grant Program

1165 Board #4 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Intrinsic Mitochondrial Function is Relatively Preserved in Permeabilized Cardiomyocytes of Senescent Myocardium

Martin Picard1, Kathryn J. Wright2, Darmyn Ritchie2, Melissa M. Thomas2, Russell T. Hepple1. 1McGill University, Montreal, QC, Canada. 2University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada.

(No relationships reported)

The aging heart is characterized by a progressive stiffening of the ventricles that impairs diastolic function and increases susceptibility to heart failure and death. Amongst the factors implicated in these changes is a progressive replacement fibrosis secondary to cardiomyoctye death, which is thought to be due in part to impaired mitochondrial function. Indeed, existing data obtained using isolated mitochondrial preparations suggests that mitochondrial function in the aged heart is impaired. However, not only does isolation only yield a fraction of all mitochondria, recent evidence demonstrates that the process of isolating mitochondria from skeletal muscle destroys the tubular mitochondrial architecture, alters mitochondrial function, and exaggerates age-related mitochondrial function impairments.

PURPOSE: To determine whether cardiac mitochondrial function is impaired with aging in a preparation where mitochondrial structure is preserved and all mitochondria are represented.

METHODS: We performed a comprehensive examination of mitochondrial function in saponin-permeabilized cardiomyocyte bundles from young adult (YA) and senescent (SEN) rats (n=8 per group).

RESULTS: When accounting for increased fibrosis (+19%, p<0.01) and proportional decrease in mitochondrial content in the SEN myocardium (-23%, p<0.05), mitochondrial respiration and reactive oxygen species production was similar between age groups. Although time to mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening was decreased (-25%, p<0.05) in the SEN heart, suggesting sensitization to apoptotic stimuli, this was not associated with a difference in apoptotic index measured by ELISA, nor was there a significant correlation between time to mPTP opening and apoptotic index (r2=0.10).

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, our results suggest that the function of cardiac ventricular mitochondria are relatively well preserved in SEN rat heart, despite marked evidence of replacement fibrosis. As such, our results are not consistent with a central role for an intrinsic mitochondrial dysfunction in causing age-related alterations in structure and function of the aging heart.

1166 Board #5 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Exercise Ameliorate Disruption of the Dystrophin-Associated Glycoprotein Complex and Fibrosis in the Aging Rat Heart

Yang Lee1, Jeffrey M. Hord1, Hyo-Bum Kwak2, Jong-Hee Kim3, John M. Lawler, FACSM1. 1Texas A&M University, College Station, TX. 2Inha University, Inchon, Korea, Republic of. 3University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN.

(No relationships reported)

The dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) is localized and integrated into the cell membrane. The DGC provides a mechanical link between the cellular cytoskeleton and the extracellular matrix (ECM). In cardiac muscle, disruption of DGC might be involved in mediating cardiac remodeling that occurs with aging, cardiomyopathy, and heart failure through transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß). Decorin is a small leucine-rich proteoglycan closely related to the DGC component that binds to collagen. Decorin reduces fibrosis via inhibition of TGF-ß and myofibroblast formation.

PURPOSE: To test the hypothesis that exercise training (ET) would alleviate age-related disruption of localization in DGC proteins (dystrophin, α-syntrophin, and β-sarcoglycan), and ET will upregulate decorin.

METHODS: Young (3 mo.) and old (31 mo.) FBNF1 rats were assigned into sedentary (YS, OS) and exercise (YE, OE) groups (n=10/group), with ET rats training on a treadmill 45 min/d, 5 d/wk for 12 wk. Hearts were extracted, weighted, and dissected into the left ventricle (LV), septum, and right ventricle. LV and septa samples were homogenized, and protein expression was detected using western immunoblotting. Histology (H&E staining) and immunofluorescence were conducted to examine morphological changes and localization of DGC proteins, decorin, α-SMA, and TGF-ß. Aging and exercise comparisons were made using two-way ANOVA for repeated measure with Fisher’s LSD post hoc test (p<.05).

RESULTS: Dystrophin, α-syntrophin, and β-sarcoglycan in LV were delocalized from the membrane with aging, particularly in fibrotic areas, which was normalized by ET. LVs from old rats displayed higher TGF-β-positive staining and protein abundance (+94.5%,p<.05), while TGF-β localization and protein levels were suppressed in OE vs. OS, (-27.5%, p<.05). α-SMA localization was significantly elevated with age (+77.3%, p<.05), but reduced in old hearts with ET (-27.5%, p<.05). Furthermore, collagen type 1 signal intensity was higher in OS (+43.7%, p<.05), and was significantly ameliorated with ET (-27.6%, p<.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings indicate that exercise training provides significant protection against fibrosis, myofibroblast activation, and elevation of TGF-ß associated with upregulation of decorin and protection of DGC structure.

1167 Board #6 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Cardiovascular Determinants of Maximal Stroke Volume in Healthy Older Men of Various Fitness Levels

Graeme Carrick-Ranson1, Jeff L. Hastings2, Naoki Fujimoto1, Shigeki Shibata1, Dean Palmer1, Kara Boyd1, Paul S. Bhella1, Benjamin D. Levine, FACSM1. 1Institute for Exercise and Environmental Medicine, Dallas, TX. 2VA North Texas Health Care System, Dallas, TX. (Sponsor: Benjamin D. Levine, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

PURPOSE: Left ventricular (LV) compliance, total blood volume (TBV) and total systemic vascular resistance (SVR) are important determinants of stroke volume during exercise. However, these parameters have not been concomitantly collected in a cohort of healthy adults of various fitness levels to determine their individual or collective effect on maximal stroke volume (SVmax).

METHODS: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) (Douglas bags), SVmax (C2H2 rebreathing), TBV (carbon monoxide rebreathing) and measures of LV volume (echocardiography) and filling pressure (right heart catheterization) were collected at supine rest and during increased preload (saline infusion +30 ml/kg) in 55 healthy older (>60 years) men. Subjects ranged from sedentary men who had consistently (>20 years) performed less than 2 exercise training sessions/wk to Masters Athletes who performed 6 or more sessions/wk plus regular competitions.

RESULTS: SVmax relative to fat free mass (FFM) was positively related with VO2max (r=0.67, p<0.001) and TBV scaled to FFM (r=0.43, p=0.001), and negatively with SVR at maximal exercise (r=-0.61, p<0.001) and maximal heart rate (r=-0.27 p=0.05). There was a modest positive correlation between SVmax and the change in distensibility (ΔV/ΔP) from supine rest to +30ml/kg (r=0.32, p=0.02), and at +30 ml/kg (r=0.41, p=0.002). A multiple linear regression model including maximal heart rate, SVR, TBV and LV distensibility explains ≈64% of the variance in SVmax.

CONCLUSION: The current findings strengthen the contention that several cardiovascular factors contribute to differences in SVmax in healthy older men of various fitness levels.


F-53 Thematic Poster - ITBS: The ‘Other’ Runner’s Knee Injury

JUNE 1, 2012 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

ROOM: 3022

1168 Chair: Susan M. Sigward. University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA.

(No relationships reported)

1169 Board #1 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Changes In Gait Biomechanics After A 6-week Rehabilitation Program For Runners With Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Reed Ferber, Silvana Echeverri, Ryan J. Leigh. Univ. of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada. (Sponsor: Louis Osternig, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Iliotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is the second most common running injury. However, little research has been done regarding the pathomechanics associated with injury resolution. Previous studies measuring gait biomechanics have involved patients who are pain-free at the time of testing (prior to or after injury resolution) and the only known study involving a rehabilitation program did not measure gait biomechanics.

PURPOSE: To evaluate an ITBS rehabilitation protocol and determine potential alterations in gait kinematics, muscle strength, and ITBS pain.

METHODS: This quasi-experimental pilot study involved 9 subjects (5F, 4M; 32.3±6.2yrs; 173.2±8.4cm; 68.5±11.5kg), experiencing ITBS at the time of baseline testing, who underwent a 6-week rehabilitation protocol. 3D running kinematics were measured using an 8-camera motion-capture system at 200 Hz while subjects ran on a treadmill at 2.70m/s. ITB flexibility was measured with a digital inclinometer. Hip abductor (HABD) and extensor (HEXT) maximal isometric force output (MVIC) were measured with a force dynamometer. Self-reported visual analog pain scores (VAS) were measured using a 10cm scale. The rehabilitation protocol included HABD and HEXT muscle resistance exercises and ITB stretching and rolling.

RESULTS: HABD (Pre: 4.54±0.93N/kg; Post: 5.13±0.75N/kg; p=0.01) and HEXT (Pre: 3.12±0.81 N/kg; Post: 3.94±0.91N/kg; p=0.02) MVIC increased and pain decreased significantly (Pre: 5.38±1.78cm; Post: 0.83±0.84cm; p=0.01) compared to baseline. Hip adduction (Pre: 8.03±2.89deg; Post: 7.76±3.09deg; p=0.36), knee internal rotation (Pre: 10.16±3.99deg; Post: 9.30±4.53deg; p=0.06) and ankle eversion (Pre: -8.10±2.39deg; Post: -8.16±2.61deg; p=0.43) excursions and peak knee flexion angle (Pre: -41.58±4.15deg; Post: -39.19±3.05deg; p=0.07) were not significantly different compared to baseline, nor were differences in ITB flexibility (Pre: -26.74±4.24deg; Post: -27.70±3.71deg; p=0.27).

CONCLUSION: The 6-week rehabilitation program resulted in a significant increase in hip MVIC and significant decreases in pain. However, no changes in kinematic gait measures or ITB flexibility were measured compared to baseline suggesting these factors may not play a role in the underpinning aetiology of ITBS.

1170 Board #2 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Differences In Lower Extremity Kinematics Between Male Runners With And Without Iliotibial Band Syndrome

Carolyn Westlake, Ross Hempel, William Black, Brian Noehren. University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. (Sponsor: Robert Shapiro, FACSM)

(No relationships reported)

Illiotibial band syndrome (ITBS) is a common cause of lateral knee pain in runners. Less knee flexion, as well as larger frontal and transverse plane angles at the hip, knee, and ankle during early stance are believed to increase strain on the iliotibial band (ITB) and compress it against the lateral femoral condyle causing pain. To date, no study has assessed these variables among male runners with and without ITBS.

PURPOSE: To determine differences in lower extremity kinematics in males with and without ITBS.

METHODS: As part of an ongoing study, an instrumented gait analysis while running at 3.3 m\s was performed on 9 male runners with ITBS and 8 healthy male runners. Kinematic variables were determined at the initial impact peak of the vertical ground reaction force and included: rearfoot eversion (RFEV), tibial internal rotation (TIR), knee flexion (KFL), knee abduction (KAB), knee internal rotation (KIR), hip adduction (HAD), and hip internal rotation (HIR). Means, standard deviation, and effect size (ES) were used to compare groups.

RESULTS: Results are presented in Table 1. Large effects were observed for RFEV and KFL. Small to moderate effects were seen for the KAB, KIR, HAD, and HIR.

CONCLUSION: The smaller angle of knee flexion in the ITBS group may result in greater time spent in the impingement zone between 20-30° where the ITB compresses into the lateral femoral condyle during early stance. Additionally, less RFEV and increased TIR may transfer rotational strain from the foot to the knee and the ITB. Greater KABD may have resulted from decreased RFEV and not HAD as there was a small difference in this variable. These preliminary data suggest that male runners with ITBS have gait differences localized to the knee and foot.

1171 Board #3 JUNE 1 3:15 PM - 5:15 PM

Effects of Iliotibial Band Tightness on Hip and Knee Joint Kinematics

Juan C. Garbalosa, Melania Lindberg, Justine Mamone, Kristin Reiter. Quinnipiac University, Hamden, CT.