No new linkage studies were published in 2005.
This review provides a compendium of all genes and markers that have been associated with performance and health-related fitness phenotypes in scientific papers published by the end of 2005. Little progress has been made in the last 12 months with respect to the genetic basis of human variation in performance and health-related fitness. Indeed, although a growing number of genes are being identified, only a handful of them have been investigated with a view to assess whether DNA sequence variation in such genes play a role in the biological basis of human individuality.
The 2005 map includes 165 autosomal entries, five X chromosome assignments, and 17 mitochondrial DNA markers. There are 25 more nuclear markers and one more mitochondrial genome marker than in 2004. Given the complexity of the performance- and health-related fitness phenotypes, it should be obvious that we have a long way to go before we have a satisfactory understanding of the role of genetic inheritance on exercise-related traits and in the adaptation to a physically active lifestyle. Given the growing prevalence in obesity, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and other chronic diseases associated with physical inactivity, an increased understanding of how the genetic susceptibilities that lead to these diseases may interact with exercise and physical activity interventions is urgently needed.
There is a growing number of genes with at least a minimum of evidence supporting their involvement in fitness- and performance-related phenotypes. This is illustrated by the trends in the number of loci from 2000 to 2005 for the families of phenotypes as defined in this review. Table 16 presents this synthesis for the 10 classes of phenotypes considered here. In each case, the number of genes or markers has increased slowly but steadily since the topic was first reviewed in 2000.
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