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Muscular Strength And Body Composition Adaptations To Short-term, Linear And Undulating Periodized Resistance Training: 954 Board #176 9:00 AM – 10:30 AM

de Hoyos, Diego1; Caldwell, Andrew2; Caldwell, Reisha2; Shute, Max1; Barnhill, Jesse1; Richardson, Julia1; Morrow, Lee1; Walker, John1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: May 2005 - Volume 37 - Issue 5 - p S184
C-32: Free Communication/Poster – Strength Training/Testing: THURSDAY, JUNE 2, 2005 9:00 AM - 12:00 PM, ROOM: Ryman C2

1ETSU, Johnson City, TN

2Velocity Sports Performance, Birmingham, AL


Resistance training (RT) programs which are designed to enhance sport performance often follow a linear periodization (LP) model where RT intensity is gradually increased and RT volume is gradually decreased during a training phase. In the undulating periodization (UP) model, volume and intensity are varied on a daily or weekly basis. LP vs. UP comparisons have evaluated only trained males and results have been equivocal.

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To compare muscular strength (1RM) and body composition adaptations to LP vs. UP RT in a diverse population.

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Males, n=13; females, n=6; athletes, n=6; and non-athletes, n=13 (32 ± 9 yrs) were stratified to 6wks of LP or UP (3-sets, 2d/wk; power exercises: 4-sets, 1d/wk). Both groups performed four training sessions at 70, 80, and 85% 1RM (8, 6, and 4 reps, respectively). RT intensity for LP was increased every fifth training session and UP alternated intensity each session. RT volume and intensity were balanced between the two groups. Pre- and post-RT chest press (CP) and squat (SQ) 1RM, and body composition (3-site skinfold) were determined. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA tested for the main effect (LP vs. UP) on 1RM and body composition. The impact of sex and athletic status were also evaluated.

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CP and SQ 1RM increased similarly for LP vs UP (9–16% vs. 9–23%, p<.05). Increases were similar (p>.05) for males vs. females. Athletes did not increase CP 1RM but had greater gains in combined 1RM (CP+SQ) vs. non-athletes (118% vs. 109%, p<.05). Only males increased fat free mass (FFM, 3%, p<.05). Body fat declined similarly in LP vs. UP (−11% vs. −13%, p<.05), but only males and non-athletes decreased fat mass (−10% and −14%, p<.05).

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Short-term LP vs. UP RT programs that are designed to enhance muscle strength, stimulate significant and similar increases in muscle strength. Greater absolute training loads for athletes vs. non-athletes may explain greater 1RM gains in athletes. Both RT programs stimulated hypertrophy and fat loss in males but not females. This may have been due to greater endogenous anabolic hormone response to RT in males vs females.

©2005The American College of Sports Medicine