To determine if the use of moving handlebars have an effect on the physiological and perceptual responses during forward (FR) or backward (BK) motion on the elliptical trainer.
Experimental conditions were: arm use with FR pedaling (AF), no arm use with FR pedaling (NF), arm use with BK pedaling (AB), and no arm use with BK pedaling (NB). Conditions were performed at 4, 8, and 12 resistances at 100 strides per minute. Variables measured were HR, percent max HR, relative VO2, percent of relative VO2 max, absolute caloric expenditure (CE), and relative CE. RPE values were assessed for the arms (A), chest (C), legs (L) and overall body (O). 12 subjects completed all conditions in random order for five minutes. The HR and relative VO2 were collected during the last minute of each trial. RPE values were recorded during the 3rd minute of each trial. An ANOVA was conducted to determine differences.
Results indicated that increased resistance produced greater physiological and RPE values. However, the results also revealed that the use of moving handlebars produced similar physiological and perceptual responses when compared to stationary handlebars during forward or backward pedalling. In addition, changing pedalling direction did not significantly alter the physiological and perceptual responses.
The elliptical trainer allowed for a variety of workout combinations, however, these various combinations did not modify the physiological or perceptual responses in any meaningful way.