This study examines the role of nutritional status
training in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus
by investigating the effect of endurance-type exercise
training in the fasted versus the fed state on clinical outcome measures, glycemic control
, and skeletal muscle characteristics in male type 2 diabetes patients.
Twenty-five male patients (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c
), 57 ± 3 mmol·mol−1
(7.4% ± 0.3%)) participated in a randomized 12-wk supervised endurance-type exercise
intervention, with exercise
being performed in an overnight-fasted state (n
= 13) or after consuming breakfast (n
= 12). Patients were evaluated for glycemic control
, blood lipid profiles, body composition and physical fitness, and skeletal muscle gene expression.
training was well tolerated without any incident of hypoglycemia. Exercise
training significantly decreased whole-body fat mass (−1.6 kg) and increased high-density lipoprotein concentrations (+2 mg·dL−1
), physical fitness (+1.7 mL·min−1
), and fat oxidation during exercise
in both groups (PTIME
< 0.05), with no between-group differences (PTIME × GROUP
> 0.05). HbA1c
concentrations significantly decreased after exercise
< 0.001), with a significant greater reduction after consuming breakfast (−0.30% ± 0.06%) compared with fasted state (−0.08% ± 0.06%; mean difference, 0.21%; PTIME × GROUP
= 0.016). No interaction effects were observed for skeletal muscle genes related to lipid metabolism or oxidative capacity.
training in the fasted or fed state do not differ in their efficacy to reduce fat mass, increase fat oxidation capacity, and increase cardiorespiratory fitness and high-density lipoprotein concentrations or their risk of hypoglycemia in male patients with type 2 diabetes. HbA1c
seems to be improved more with exercise
performed in the postprandial compared with the postabsorptive state.