Walking pace is associated with all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality. Whether this association extends to other health outcomes and whether it is independent of total amount of time walked are currently unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether usual walking pace is associated with a range of health outcomes.
UK Biobank participants (318,185 [54%] women) age 40 to 69 yr were included. Walking pace and total walking time were self-reported. The outcomes comprised: all-cause mortality as well as incidence and mortality from CVD, respiratory disease and cancer. The associations were investigated using Cox proportional hazard models.
Over a mean of 5.0 yr [ranging from 3.3 to 7.8], 5890 participants died, 18,568 developed CVD, 5430 respiratory disease and 19,234 cancer. In a fully adjusted model, compared to slow pace walkers, men and women, respectively, with a brisk pace having lower risk of mortality from all-causes (hazard ratio [HR], 0.79; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69–0.90 and HR, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.62–0.85), CVD (HR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.50–0.76 and HR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.73–0.88), respiratory disease (HR, 0.58; 95% CI, 0.43–0.78 and HR, 0.66; 95% CI, 0.57–0.77), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR, 0.26; 95% CI, 0.12–0.56 and HR, 0.28; 95% CI, 0.16–0.49). No associations were found for all-cause cancer, colorectal, and breast cancer. However, brisk walking was associated with a higher risk of prostate cancer.
Walking pace is associated with lower risk of a wide range of important health conditions, independently of overall time spent walking.
1BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UNITED KINGDOM;
2Institute of Health and Wellbeing, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UNITED KINGDOM; and
3Robertson Centre for Biostatistics & Clinical Trials, University of Glasgow, Glasgow, UNITED KINGDOM
Address for correspondence: Jason Gill, Ph.D., BHF Glasgow Cardiovascular Research Centre, Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life, Sciences, University of Glasgow, Glasgow G12 8TA, United Kingdom; E-mail: email@example.com.
C. C. M., S. G., and F. P. contributed equally to this work and are joint first authors.
J. P. P., N. S., J. M. R. G. contributed equally to this work and are joint senior authors.
Submitted for publication March 2018.
Accepted for publication September 2018.
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