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Positive Work Contribution Shifts from Distal to Proximal Joints during a Prolonged Run

SANNO, MAXIMILIAN1,2; WILLWACHER, STEFFEN1,3; EPRO, GASPAR1,4; BRÜGGEMANN, GERT-PETER1,2,3

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: December 2018 - Volume 50 - Issue 12 - p 2507–2517
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001707
APPLIED SCIENCES

Purpose To investigate the joint-specific contributions to the total lower-extremity joint work during a prolonged fatiguing run.

Methods Recreational long-distance runners (n = 13) and competitive long-distance runners (n = 12) performed a 10-km treadmill run with near-maximal effort. A three-dimensional motion capture system synchronized with a force-instrumented treadmill was used to calculate joint kinetics and kinematics of the lower extremity in the sagittal plane during the stance phase at 13 distance points over the 10-km run.

Results A significant (P < 0.05) decrease of positive ankle joint work as well as an increase of positive knee and hip joint work was found. These findings were associated with a redistribution of the individual contributions to total lower-extremity work away from the ankle toward the knee and hip joint which was more distinctive in the recreational runner group than in the competitive runner group. This redistribution was accomplished by significant (P < 0.05) reductions of the external ground-reaction force lever arm and joint torque at the ankle and by the significant (P < 0.05) increase of the external ground-reaction force lever arm and joint torque at the knee and hip.

Conclusions The redistribution of joint work from the ankle to more proximal joints might be a biomechanical mechanism that could partly explain the decreased running economy in a prolonged fatiguing run. This might be because muscle–tendon units crossing proximal joints are less equipped for energy storage and return compared with ankle plantar flexors and require greater muscle volume activation for a given force. To improve running performance, long-distance runners may benefit from an exercise-induced enhancement of ankle plantar flexor muscle–tendon unit capacities.

1Institute of Biomechanics and Orthopedics, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, GERMANY;

2German Research Center of Elite Sport, German Sport University Cologne, Cologne, GERMANY;

3Institute of Functional Diagnostics, Cologne, GERMANY; and

4Sport and Exercise Science Research Center, School of Applied Sciences, London South Bank University, UNITED KINGDOM

Address for correspondence: Maximilian Sanno, DSHS, Institute of Biomechanics and Orthopedics, German Sport University Cologne, Am Sportpark Müngersdorf 6, 50933 Cologne, Germany; E-mail: m.sanno@dshs-koeln.de.

Submitted for publication December 2017.

Accepted for publication June 2018.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s Web site (www.acsm-msse.org).

© 2018 American College of Sports Medicine