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Exercise Improves Physical Activity and Comorbidities in Obese Adults with Asthma

FREITAS, PATRÍCIA DUARTE1; SILVA, ALINE GRANDI1; FERREIRA, PALMIRA GABRIELE1; DA SILVA, ANALUCI2; SALGE, JOÃO MARCOS3; CARVALHO-PINTO, REGINA MARIA3; CUKIER, ALBERTO3; BRITO, CLAUDIA M.4; MANCINI, MARCIO C.4; CARVALHO, CELSO R. F.1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: July 2018 - Volume 50 - Issue 7 - p 1367–1376
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0000000000001574
CLINICAL SCIENCES

Introduction Obese adults with asthma have an increased number of comorbidities and reduced daily life physical activity (DLPA), which may worsen asthma symptoms. Exercise is recommended to improve asthma outcomes; however, the benefits of exercise for psychosocial comorbidities and physical activity levels in obese adults with asthma have been poorly investigated.

Objective This study aimed to assess the effects of exercise on DLPA, asthma symptoms, and psychosocial comorbidities in obese adults with asthma.

Methods Fifty-five grade II obese adults with asthma were randomly assigned to either a weight loss program + exercise program (WL + E group, n = 28) or a weight loss program + sham (WL + S group, n = 27). The WL + E group incorporated aerobic and resistance muscle training into the weight loss program (nutrition and psychological therapies), whereas the WL + S group performed breathing and stretching exercises. DLPA, asthma symptoms, sleep quality, and anxiety and depression symptoms were quantified before and after treatment.

Results After 3 months, the WL + E group presented a significant increase in daily step counts (3068 ± 2325 vs 729 ± 1118 steps per day) and the number of asthma symptom–free days (14.5 ± 9.6 vs 8.6 ± 11.4 d·month−1) compared with the WL + S group. The proportion of participants with improvements in depression symptoms (76.4% vs 16.6%) and a lower risk of developing obstructive sleep apnea (56.5% vs 16.3%) was greater in the WL + E group than that in the WL + S group (P < 0.05). Significant improvements in sleep efficiency (6.6% ± 5.1% vs 1.3% ± 4.7%) and latency (−3.7 ± 5.9 vs 0.2 ± 5.6 min) were also observed in the WL + E group.

Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that exercise training plus a weight loss program improves DLPA, sleep efficiency, and depression and asthma symptoms in obese adults with asthma.

1Department of Physical Therapy, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL;

2Department of Psychology, Clinics Hospital, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL;

3Pulmonary Division, Heart Institute (InCor), Clinics Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL; and

4Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome, Endocrinology and Metabolic Service of Clinics Hospital, School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, BRAZIL

Address for correspondence: Celso R. F. Carvalho, P.T., Ph.D., Department of Medicine School of Medicine, University of Sao Paulo, Room 1210, Av. Dr Arnaldo 455, São Paulo, SP 01246-903, Brazil; E-mail: cscarval@usp.br.

Submitted for publication June 2017.

Accepted for publication February 2018.

© 2018 American College of Sports Medicine