Recent evidence suggests that resistance training (RT) may reduce metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk. We investigated whether overweight/class I obese individuals by BMI classification with high strength fitness exhibit cardiovascular/metabolic phenotypes similar to those overweight/obese and untrained or those normal-weight with high strength fitness.
A total of 90 young males were categorized into three groups: overweight untrained (OU, n = 30, BMI > 27 kg·m−2), overweight trained (OT, n = 30, BMI > 27 kg·m−2, RT ≥ 4 d·wk−1), and normal-weight trained (NT, n = 30, BMI < 25 kg·m−2, RT ≥ 4 d·wk−1). Participants were assessed for strength, body composition, central/peripheral blood pressures, arterial stiffness, and markers of cardiovascular and metabolic health.
Body weight was similar in OT and OU and greater than NT (P < 0.00001), and fat mass was different in all groups (P < 0.001). Compared to OU, NT and OT groups exhibited higher relative strength (NT = 46.7%, OT = 44.4%, P < 0.00001), subendocardial viability ratio (NT = 21.0%, P < 0.001; OT = 17.0%, P < 0.01), and lower brachial/central blood pressures (NT P < 0.001; OT P ≤ 0.05); augmentation index and pulse-wave velocity were lower only in OT (P < 0.05). Total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (NT P < 0.01, OT P < 0.05), triglycerides (NT = −50.4%, OT = −41.8%, P < 0.001), oxidized LDL (NT = −39.8%, OT = −31.8%, P < 0.001), and CRP (NT = −63.7%, OT = −67.4%, P < 0.01) levels were lower and high-density lipoprotein (NT = 26.9%, OT = 21.4%, P < 0.001) levels were higher in NT and OT compared to OU. NT and OT also exhibited lower amylin (NT = −55.8%, OT = −40.8%) and leptin (NT = −84.6%, OT = −59.4%) and higher adiponectin (NT = 87.5%, P < 0.001; OT = 78.1%, P < 0.01) and sex hormone–binding globulin (NT = 124.4%, OT = 92.3%, P < 0.001). Despite greater total and trunk fat in OT compared with NT, other than glucose and insulin, which were lower in NT than in both OT and OU (OT P < 0.01, OU P < 0.001), OT did not exhibit any impaired biomarker/phenotype compared to NT.
These findings provide evidence that overweight/class I obese individuals with high strength fitness exhibit metabolic/cardiovascular risk profiles similar to normal-weight, fit individuals rather than overweight/class I obese unfit individuals. Strength training may be important to metabolic and cardiovascular health.
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1Exercise Physiology and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, Translational Sciences Section, School of Nursing, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; 2Division of Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Hypertension, David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA; 3Georgia Prevention Institute, Georgia Health Sciences University, Augusta, GA; and 4David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA
Address for correspondence: Christian K. Roberts, PhD, Exercise Physiology and Metabolic Disease Research Laboratory, Translational Sciences Section, UCLA School of Nursing, 900 Weyburn Place North, Los Angeles, CA 90024; E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Submitted for publication June 2014.
Accepted for publication September 2014.
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