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Effect of Exercise on the Skeletal Muscle Proteome in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes

Hussey, Sophie E.1; Sharoff, Carrie G.2,3; Garnham, Andrew4; YI, Zhengping2,3; Bowen, Benjamin P.2; Mandarino, Lawrence J.2,3,5; Hargreaves, Mark1

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: June 2013 - Volume 45 - Issue 6 - p 1069–1076
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e3182814917
Basic Sciences

Purpose Exercise training alters protein abundance in the muscle of healthy individuals, but the effect of exercise on these proteins in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine how exercise training alters the skeletal muscle proteome in patients with T2D.

Methods Biopsies of the vastus lateralis were obtained before and after 4 wk of exercise training in six patients with T2D (54 ± 4 yr; body mass index (BMI), 29 ± 2) and six age- and BMI-matched control subjects (48 ± 2; BMI, 28 ± 3) studied at the baseline. The proteins were identified and quantified using normalized spectral abundance factors by multidimensional high-resolution mass spectrometry.

Results Of the 1329 proteins assigned at the baseline, 438 were present in at least half of all the muscle samples; of these, 15 proteins differed significantly between the patients with T2D and control subjects (P < 0.05). In the diabetic patients, the exercise training altered the abundance of 17 proteins (P < 0.05). Key training adaptations included an increase in proteins of the malate–aspartate shuttle and citric acid cycle, reduced the abundance of glycolytic proteins, and altered the abundance of cytoskeleton proteins.

Conclusion The data from this study support the ability of exercise training to alter the abundance of proteins that regulate metabolism and cytoskeletal structure in patients with T2D. These findings open new avenues for future research.

1Department of Physiology, The University of Melbourne, AUSTRALIA; 2Center for Metabolic and Vascular Biology, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; 3School of Life Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ; 4School of Exercise and Nutrition Sciences, Deakin University, AUSTRALIA; and 5Mayo Clinic, Scottsdale, AZ

Address for correspondence: Lawrence Mandarino, Ph.D., Mayo Clinic Collaborative Research, Building 13400 E. Shea Boulevard, Scottsdale, AZ 85259; E-mail:

Submitted for publication October 2012.

Accepted for publication December 2012.

©2013The American College of Sports Medicine