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Insulin and Fiber Type in the Offspring of T2DM Subjects with Resistance Training and Detraining

SCHOFIELD, KATHERINE L.1; REHRER, NANCY J.1,2; PERRY, TRACY L.2; ROSS, ANGUS3; ANDERSEN, JESPER L.4; OSBORNE, HAMISH5

Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: December 2012 - Volume 44 - Issue 12 - p 2331–2339
doi: 10.1249/MSS.0b013e318268008f
Basic Sciences

Purpose Effects of resistance training and detraining on glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose load, muscle fiber type, and muscular performance in the offspring of those with type 2 diabetes (familial insulin resistant (FIR)) were investigated.

Methods Six FIR participants and 10 controls (C) completed 9 wk of resistance training and 9 wk of detraining. Measures of strength and power, an oral glucose tolerance test, and a muscle biopsy to determine myosin heavy chain (MHC) fiber composition were taken at baseline (T1), after training (T2), and after detraining (T3).

Results Three-repetition maximum increased (P ≤ 0.001) similarly in both groups in all strength measures, e.g., leg press (FIR T1, T2: 121 ± 34 kg, 186 ± 50 kg; C T1, T2: 137 ± 42 kg, 206 ± 64 kg, respectively (means ± SD)). Wingate peak power increased (FIR T1, T2: 505 ± 137 W, 523 ± 143 W; C T1, T2: 636 ± 211 W, 672 ± 223 W, respectively; P ≤ 0.005 (means ± SD)). Training reduced insulin area under the curve more (P = 0.050) in FIR (T1, T2: 1219 ± 734 pmol·L−1, 837 ± 284 pmol·L−1, respectively (means ± SD)) than that in C (T1, T2: 647 ± 268 pmol·L−1, 635 ± 258 pmol·L−1, respectively (means ± SD)). MHC distribution did not change with training. Strength (three-repetition maximum measures) decreased with detraining (P ≤ 0.001) although Wingate power did not. Detraining increased insulin area under the curve (P = 0.018) in FIR (T2, T3: 837 ± 285 pmol·L−1, 1040 ± 194 pmol·L−1, respectively (means ± SD)) but not in C (T2, T3: 635 ± 258 pmol·L−1, 625 ± 213 pmol·L−1, respectively (means ± SD)). MHC IIX fibers increased with detraining (P = 0.026).

Conclusion FIR appears to have exaggerated responses to resistance training and detraining, with a greater reduction in insulin release with glucose ingestion after training and increase when training ceases. Resistance training has a significant effect on insulin responses and may reduce future risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus among FIR.

1School of Physical Education, University of Otago, Dunedin, NEW ZEALAND; 2Department of Human Nutrition, University of Otago, Dunedin, NEW ZEALAND; 3High Performance Sport New Zealand, Dunedin, NEW ZEALAND; 4Institute of Sports Medicine Copenhagen, Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, DENMARK; and 5Department of Medicine, University of Otago, Dunedin, NEW ZEALAND

Address for correspondence: Nancy J. Rehrer, Ph.D., School of Physical Education, University of Otago, PO Box 56, Dunedin 9054, New Zealand; E-mail: nancy.rehrer@otago.ac.nz.

Submitted for publication October 2011.

Accepted for publication June 2012.

©2012The American College of Sports Medicine